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Boier zwischen Realität und Fiktion

RÖMISCH-GERMANISCHE KOMMISSION, FRANKFURT A. M.


RÖMISCH-GERMANISCHE KOMMISSION,
EURASIEN-ABTEILUNG, FRANKFURT A. M.
BERLIN
EURASIEN-ABTEILUNG, BERLIN
des Deutschen
des Deutschen Archäologischen
Archäologischen Instituts
Instituts

Kolloquien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte


Band 19
Kolloquien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte
Band 21

Dr. Rudolf
Dr. Rudolf Habelt
Habelt GmbH
GmbH ∙· Bonn
Bonn 2013
2015
RÖMISCH-GERMANISCHE KOMMISSION, FRANKFURT A. M.
RÖMISCH-GERMANISCHE KOMMISSION
EURASIEN-ABTEILUNG, BERLIN DES
DEUTSCHEN ARCHÄOLOGISCHEN INSTITUTS
des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts

Boier zwischen
Kolloquien Realität
zur Vor- und Fiktion
und Frühgeschichte
Band 19
Akten des internationalen Kolloquiums in Český Krumlov
vom 14.–16.11.2013

herausgegeben von

Maciej Karwowski, Vladimír Salač und Susanne Sievers

Dr. Rudolf
Dr. Rudolf Habelt
Habelt GmbH
GmbH ∙· Bonn
Bonn 2013
2015
VII und 435 Seiten, 154 Abbildungen und 6 Tabellen

Bibliographische Information der Deutschen Bibliothek

Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation


in der Deutschen Nationalbibliographie; detaillierte bibliographische
Daten sind im Internet über <https://portal.dnb.de> abrufbar

© 2015 by Römisch-Germanische Kommission des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts


Frankfurt a. M.

Redaktion: S. Sievers
Grafik und Einband: S. Berg
Satz und Herstellung: Bonifatius GmbH Druck / Buch / Verlag
Gedruckt auf alterungsbeständigem Papier
ISBN 978-3-7749-4001-7
Inhalt

Vorwort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII

I  Allgemeinere Überblicke
Roland Steinacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Ethnische Identität und die Meistererzählung von der Wanderung.
Probleme der Frühgeschichte in Geschichtswissenschaft und Archäologie

Jan Bouzek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The story of the Boii

Karl Strobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Die Boii – ein Volk oder nur ein Name?
Zur Problematik von antiker Geographie und Ethnographie

Jiří Militký . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Die Boier und die Numismatik – Gegenwärtiger Stand der Forschung
und die Möglichkeiten der Interpretation des Fundbestandes

Manfred Hainzmann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


Zur epigraphischen Hinterlassenschaft der Boier

II  Regionale Studien


Vladimír Salač . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Urboiohaemum, Boiohaemum und Böhmen

Jan Kysela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149


The third life of the Boii

Natalie Venclová . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159


Bohemia and markers of La Tène communities in the Middle Danube region

Alžběta Danielisová . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169


The “Boii” and Moravia – the same but different

Peter Trebsche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183


Das Wandern ist der Boier Lust? Quellenkritische Überlegungen zur Ethnizität
latènezeitlicher Gruppen im mittleren Donauraum

Maciej Karwowski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211


Die befestigten Höhensiedlungen in der „boischen“ Donauzone

Radoslav Čambal, Igor Bazovský, Marek Budaj und Branislav Kovár . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Boische Besiedlung im Oppidum von Bratislava und in seinem Hinterland

Miklos Szabó . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243


Boïens de Bohême – Boïens de Pannonie
VI

Eva Kolníková . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253


Münzprägung und Geldwirtschaft an der Ostgrenze der boischen Besiedlung –
Forschungsergebnisse und Fragestellungen

Andrzej Maciałowicz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273


Handwerk, Handel und Heirat? Neues über Kontakte der Boier mit den Germanen
anhand von Fibelfunden

Marko Dizdar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295


The Boii and their connections with the Scordisci – Contacts between central Europe
and south-eastern Pannonia during the La Tène Culture

Ana Marić . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309


Fibulae with the figure-of-eight decoration in the area of the Boii:
testimony to their southeastern connections

Wolfgang David . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323


Boier zwischen Norditalien und dem Donauraum

Bernward Ziegaus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355


Boische Münzen in Süddeutschland – Fremde Prägungen mit überregionaler Gültigkeit?

Susanne Sievers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375


Boier in Bayern?

Matthias Hardt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385


Boier und Baiern?

Holger Wendling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391


Die Helvetier als Nachbarn der Boier – Kommunikation und Vernetzung gallischer
und ostkeltischer Räume

Gilles Pierrevelcin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411


Les Boïens de Gaule : entre réalité historique et mythe archéologique ?
Vorwort

Die Idee, eine Konferenz über den Stamm der Boier geschlossen zwischen Susanne Sievers (RGK Frank-
zu veranstalten, entstand im Jahre 2012 im polni- furt), Vladimír Salač (Arch. Institut der AW TschR)
schen Rzeszów. Damals organisierte dort die „Ar- und Maciej Karwowski (Universität Rzeszów), ge-
beitsgemeinschsft Eisenzeit des West- und Süddeut- meinsam ein solches Anliegen zu realisieren. Spon-
schen Verbandes für Altertumsforschung e.V.“ eine tan entstand damals auch der Titel der Konferenz
Konferenz, die sich mit den Erscheinungsformen sowie des Sammelbandes – „Boier zwischen Realität
von Gewalt in der Eisenzeit und ihrer Widerspie- und Fiktion“.
gelung in archäologischen Quellen befasste. Ein oft Die Organisation der Konferenz übernahm V. Sa-
angesprochenes Thema der Vorträge waren die Züge lač, der die Unterstützung des Archäologischen Ins-
der keltischen Stämme und ihre Zusammenstöße mit tituts der AW TschR in Prag sowie der Grantagentur
Griechen, Römern, Germanen bzw. anderen Völkern. der Tschechischen Republik (Projekt Nr. P405-11-
Es war nicht erstaunlich, dass der Stamm der Boier 0603) und nicht zuletzt von M. Karwowski und der
in diesem Zusammenhang häufiger genannt wurde. Universität Rzeszów gewann. Als Ergebnis dieser
Überraschend war allerdings, dass die Vorstellungen Zusammenarbeit entstand die Konferenz, die vom
über die Ausdehnung und die Lokalisierung des boi- 14. bis 16. 11. 2013 in Český Krumlov stattfand. Der
schen Gebietes sowie die Belege, auf die sie sich vorliegende Sammelband gibt die meisten der dort
stützten, höchst unterschiedlich waren. Diese vielfäl- gehaltenen Vorträge wieder. Die Finanzierung des
tigen Ansichten über die Boier führten zu intensiven Bandes übernahm die Römisch-Germanische Kom-
Diskussionen, bei denen die Meinungen der For- mission des DAI, die Redaktion lag in den Händen
scher häufig auseinandergingen und die Diskutieren- von S. Sievers, Frankfurt, unterstützt von der Gra-
den teilweise einander nicht mehr verstanden. Diese phikerin Silke Berg, Frankfurt. Besonderer Dank gilt
Tatsache wurde von den Diskussionsteilnehmern als John Collis und Anne-Marie Adam, die die engli-
sehr unbefriedigend empfunden, denn der Stamm schen bzw. französischen Artikel durchgesehen und
der Boier spielt in historischen, archäologischen so- den Gesamtband begutachtet haben.
wie numismatischen Interpretationen der Latènezeit Drei Jahre nach der ersten Idee liegt also eine
in Europa eine wichtige Rolle. Es zeigte sich, dass Zusammenfassung von Fakten und Ansichten zur
sich die Forschung über die Boier in einzelnen Län- Historie und Archäologie der Boier vor. Wie in
dern und auch Fächern weiter voneinander entfernt Rzeszów gab es auch in Český Krumlov sehr kontro-
hat, als die einzelnen Repräsentanten sich dessen verse Diskussionen, die durch die Anwesenheit von
bewusst waren. Und nicht nur das: In Ländern mit Vertretern verschiedener Fachrichtungen allerdings
unterschiedlichen Forschungstraditionen und mit noch zugespitzter waren. Unser Anliegen konnte
unterschiedlich intensivem Verhältnis zur Geschich- es daher nicht sein, ein allgemein gültiges Bild zu
te der Boier entstanden auch unterschiedliche Vor- zeichnen bzw. Bewertungen vorzunehmen; vielmehr
stellungen über sie. Aus manchen dieser Vorstellun- spiegelt der Band die derzeitige Meinungsvielfalt
gen wurden auf nationaler und internationaler Ebene wider, die von eher traditionellen Vorstellungen bis
gleichzeitig historische Axiome. Ein klassisches hin zu kritischen Bestandsaufnahmen, neuen Ideen
Beispiel hierfür ist beispielsweise die Aussage „Die oder Konzeptionen reicht. Auch in formal-sprachli-
Boier lebten in Böhmen“. cher Hinsicht zeichnen sich einige Unterschiede ab.
Die Vorträge und nachfolgenden Diskussionen in Die Beiträge können vom Leser aber auch nach den
Rzeszów haben allerdings gezeigt, dass sich einige Gesichtspunkten von Generationen, archäologischen
Axiome widersprechen, wobei ihre Herkunft häufig Schulen, Fächern usw. unterschieden bzw. beurteilt
geheimnisvoll oder vergessen ist. Wir sind deshalb werden. Der Band versteht sich somit letztlich als
zur Ansicht gelangt, dass das Thema der Boier eine Bestandsaufnahme und Basis für künftige kritische
aktuelle Zusammenfassung der Erkenntnisse und Auseinandersetzungen mit diesem Thema. Er glie-
Ansichten sowie ihre gründliche Überprüfung ver- dert sich in allgemeinere Überblicke und regionale
dient, sogar verlangt. Dieses Ziel war am einfachs- Studien. Die Entscheidung, ob es uns gelungen ist,
ten durch die Veranstaltung einer Konferenz über die das 2012 in Rzeszów gesetzte Ziel zu erreichen,
Boier-Problematik zu erreichen, gefolgt von der He- muss nun der Leser treffen.
rausgabe der Akten des Kolloquiums. Hinsichtlich
des gerade angeführten Axioms bot sich Böhmen Frankfurt, im September 2015
als Veranstaltungsort für die Konferenz an. Noch in
Rzeszów wurde eine freundschaftliche Vereinbarung Maciej Karwowski, Vladimír Salač, Susanne Sievers
Marko Dizdar

The Boii and their conections with the Scordisci –


contacts between central Europe and south-eastern Pannonia
during the La Tène Culture

The Late Iron Age of South-Eastern Pannonia is do- Europe. These routes were also important during the
minated by the community of the Scordisci with their Late Iron Age when in South-Eastern Pannonia ap-
characteristic material legacy, which belongs to the peared items from neighbouring and distant regions,
Central European La Tène Culture. South-Eastern which bear witness to the existence of the intensive
Pannonia was on the crossroads of the communicati- contacts of the Scordisci with other communities,
on routes that connected Central and South-Eastern especially those in Central Europe (fig. 1).

Fig. 1. The position of the Scordisci in South-Eastern Pannonia.


296 Marko Dizdar

Early La Tène tains exclusively female jewellery5, but also from


grave 332 in Pilismarot-Basaharc or from a rich gra-
The contacts between Central Europe and South-Eas- ve from Mikulčice in Moravia, which is also dated
tern Pannonia can be recognized from the beginning to LT B16.
of the La Tène Culture, when South-Eastern Pan- A local South-Eastern Pannonian origin can be
nonia was still inhabited by different Late Hallstatt suggested for the majority of finds in the grave as-
groups. As early as the first half of the 4th century semblage/s from Bogdanovci, south of Vukovar in
B.C., during the so-called Čurug phase1, the first ob- the Danube area, which were dated to LT B2 or Bel-
jects belonging to the Early La Tène Culture started grade 1 phase (fig. 2)7. The female costume again
to appear. The emergence of those contacts can be shows the dominance of local forms like silver bra-
described as the process of ‘Latèneization’ when the celets with terminals in the shape of antithetic heads
local south-eastern Pannonian elements were still of snakes8, a silver twisted bracelet9 or a silver ome-
dominant in ritual and dress accessories2. Interes- ga-pin10. A local origin also be assigned to bronze
tingly, the appearance of Early La Tène finds is at fibulae of the Dux type (Karaburma 63 type) with
present mostly documented in Late Hallstatt female chains that end with profiled cylindrical pendants11.
graves which are more important for the research of This site also yielded amber, glass and coral beads
the process of Early ‘Latèneization’ of local Panno- from necklaces, which have many analogies in the
nian communities, while in contemporary male gra- assemblages of Early La Tène female graves in Wes-
ves local forms of weaponry and costume appear. tern Hungary (e.g. grave 29 from Sopron-Krautacker,
Perhaps the best example from the beginning graves 9 and 16 from Ménfőcsanak), South-western
of this process is the rich female grave/s revealed Slovakia (grave 21 in Dubnik), to Moravia (grave 4
in Velika in Central Slavonia, which contained the in Brno-Horni Heršpice)12. Amber and coral beads
burial/s of a woman/women dressed in Early La probably arrived in south-eastern Pannonia from
Tène style in combination with certain local forms. these areas, since such a combination, besides am-
The burial/s contained a number of Early La Tène phora-shaped glass beads, is known only from a gra-
bronze fibulae and bracelets with plastic decorati- ve at Srijemska Mitrovica II13. On the other hand,
on, which obviously originated in Central Europe. evidence about contacts in the opposite direction is
Local female costume was represented with a bron- provided by an omega-shaped pin from the weapon
ze plate fibula of the Sanski Most type, silver twis- grave 26 at Mannersdorf, whose closest analogies
ted bracelets and bronze bracelets with overlapping are in Bogdanovci, Dalj and Donja Dolina, where,
ends. A large number of fibulae and bracelets are however, pins are attributed to female graves14.
characteristic for the Early La Tène female costume
with analogies at cemeteries in North-western Hun-
gary, South-western Slovakia and Moravia and they
  1  Božič 1981, 315–316.
were completely incorporated into the local indi-
  2  Potrebica / Dizdar 2012.
genous costume and jewellery sets. These finds bear   3  Majnarić-Pandžić 1995; Popović 1996, 106–107 fig.
witness to direct Early La Tène influences during 2–3; Dizdar / Potrebica 2002, 113 pl. 3–4; Rustoiu 2012,
the LT B1 phase or even the arrival of newcomers 359, pl. 1; Rustoiu / Ursuţiu 2013, 324 fig. 5.
into the Late Hallstatt South-Eastern Pannonian en-   4  Popović 1997; Schönfelder 2007, 308–309 Abb.
vironment3. The burial/s from Velika also contained 1–2; Rustoiu 2011a, 95–95 fig. 4.
necklaces composed of amber and glass beads.   5  Božič 1981, 315; 1984; Vasić 1995, 84; Ljuština
Glass amphora beads, which are of Mediterranean 2010, 61 Pl. 4,11; Rustoiu 2012, 359 pl. 2,5.
  6  Bognár-Kutzíán 1974 pl. VI,1; Ludikovský 1964
origin, very often appear in female graves from the
fig. 1,5.
Final Hallstatt phase in South-Eastern Pannonia, but
  7  Brunšmid 1909; Božič 1981, 317. It is possible that
such beads are also known from rich female Early these were finds from several destroyed burial contexts, in
La Tène graves in Central Europe and bear witness which a part of the finds certainly belongs to LT B2 (e.g.
to the contact in the opposite direction4. Based on Dux-type fibulae), while a part of local forms might even
all the finds, the grave/s is/are probably dated to be older, from the Čurug phase, i.e. LT B1.
the second quarter of the 4th century B.C., which   8  Vasić 1995, 83; 86; 2001, 26–27 fig. 3.
marks the beginning of Early La Tène influence in   9  Jovanović 1994; 2007; Majnarić-Pandžić 1995, 36;
South-Eastern Pannonia. Ljuština 2010, 62 fig. 5; Rustoiu 2012, 360.
  10  Vasić 2003, 122–123.
The existence of contacts between Central Euro-
  11  Božič 1981, 317 pl. 1,15.
pe and South-Eastern Pannonia during the LT B1
  12  Jerem 1981, 114 Abb. 7,3–4; Uzsoki 1987, pl. VII,1–
phase is also corroborated by the finds of bronze 2 Pl. XVIII,2; Bujna 1989 pl. XXIV,6–8; Meduna 1970
fibulae with bows in the shape of figures-of-eight. fig. 4.
These fibulae, which belong to the female costume,   13  Brunšmid 1902, 80 fig. 39,14–18.
are known from a hoard from Čurug, which con-   14  Ramsl 2009; 2011, 292 fig. 10.
The boii and their conections with the Scordisci 297

Fig. 2. Finds from Bogdanovci (after Brunšmid 1909).

All these Early La Tène finds from Late Hall- important communication routes leading through
statt south-eastern Pannonian sites bear witness to the valleys of the Sava, Drava and Danube rivers.
the existence of contacts with Central Europe du- It is difficult to say whether the appearance of Ear-
ring the first and the beginning of the second half ly La Tène finds was caused by the movement of
of the 4th century B.C. Also, these finds bear testi- individuals and small groups, or were objects of
mony to contacts between indigenous communities trade and exchange, but what most probably hap-
and newcomers, which were more intensive along pened was a combination of both models. The items
298 Marko Dizdar

of female attire and jewellery specifically are per- Middle La Tène


haps an indication of the existence of exogamy
between contemporary but different communities The best evidence for contacts during the Early
during this transitional period. Female costume and and Middle La Tène (LT B2-C1) in South-Eastern
jewellery from South-Eastern Pannonian sites still Pannonia can be recognized in the analyses of finds
show a dominance of Late Hallstatt forms, but with from cemeteries of the Scordisci like Karaburma,
the incorporation and integration of Early La Tène Pećine, Kupinovo, Osijek etc.16, while contempora-
items, which became a part of the dress ornaments neous settlements at present are almost unknown.
specific for local communities. Also, rich female Warrior equipment shows the same typological cha-
grave assemblages that appeared from Moravia to racteristics as finds from numerous contemporary
South-Eastern Pannonia bear witness to a similar cemeteries in Central Europe, when the main force
process of social differentiation in communities. At became the warrior elite as the most mobile group
the end, communities settled along communication of every community17. Female costume also points
routes in South-Eastern Pannonia were very quickly to contacts, which is best recognizable through ana-
incorporated into a new process – ‘Celticization’ – lyses of different shapes of fibulae, belts and ring
that is, the appearance of a new population in much jewellery.
greater numbers than in the preceding phase15. The direction of influences from Central Euro-
As a result of this process, grave assemblages pe is indicated by the finds of bracelets made from
from the beginning of the last third of the 4th cen- sapropelite. The fragment from Osijek18 probably
tury B.C. demonstrate the appearance of a new originated from a female grave, while another frag-
burial ritual, in which flat cremation graves domi- ment of a sapropelite bracelet was discovered in the
nate, characterized by a prevalence of new forms investigations of the settlement in Ilok (fig. 3,1).
of weaponry, dress accessories and jewellery. Also, These are so far the southernmost finds of sapro-
graves start producing new pottery forms, which pelite bracelets19. The same direction of contacts is
were made on the potter’s wheel and decorated in confirmed by the finds of glass bracelets of group 15
previously unknown techniques. The Late Iron Age from Gomolava (fig. 3,5), then from the Zeleno pol-
begins with these important changes, when new- je cemetery in Osijek (fig. 3,4), as well as a recently
comers in contact with the indigenous population discovered fragment from Ilok (fig. 3,2–3)20. These
developed a completely new identity characterised bracelets have obviously come from a Middle Danu-
by a mixed or hybrid material culture – the Scor- bian workshop along the communication route that
disci. Even though this community was described followed the course of the Danube21. Interestingly,
by ancient historians as a Celtic community, they the finds from Gomolava and Ilok were found in a
demonstrate significantly different identities, docu- settlement context, while the fragment from Osijek
mented mostly through the material culture. This probably came from a female grave.
new identity was accompanied by the development Some other finds of female costume and jewellery
of the dominant La Tène material culture, but at from the Scordiscan sites also have many similari-
the same time, some local traditions can also be ties with contemporary Central European Middle
observed, marking out this local group within the La Tène cemeteries. The lavishly decorated bronze
Central European La Tène Culture. So, the identi- bracelets from a destroyed grave in Vukovar can be
ty of the Scordisci could be defined as a symbiosis dated to the beginning of the Middle La Tène, with
of the newly arrived ‘Celts’ and various indigenous direct analogies in Central Europe22. Based on the
South-Eastern Pannonian communities, who were typological characteristics, a bronze chain belt with
very quickly incorporated into the new community zoomorphic clasp and decorated with red enamel
structures, with the acceptance of new ritual norms
and the typical La Tène Culture.
Analyses of finds from South-Eastern Pannonian   15  Potrebica / Dizdar 2012.
sites have confirmed beyond doubt that the Scor-   16 Todorović 1972; Jovanović 1984; Majnarić-Pandžić
disci were included in the intensive Late Iron Age 1970; Spajić 1954; 1956; 1962.
communication network during all phases of their   17 Rustoiu 2012, 363–365 fig. 5–7.
development. Their material legacy confirms their   18  Spajić 1962, 40.
affiliation with the Central European legacy of the   19  Venclová 2001, 115–119; Bujna 2005, 19–26; Te-
leagă 2008, 96–99 Abb. 7.
La Tène Culture, with recognizable influences and
  20  Gomolava: Jovanović / Jovanović 1988, 99; 177 pl.
contacts with neighbouring and more distant re-
XLVI,2, 7; Osijek: Šimić 1997, 39 cat. no. 94.
gions (fig. 1).   21  Karwowski 2005, 163–165; 168; 2006, 140 fig. 6–7;
Březinová 2002; Venclová / Hulinský 2012, 230 Abb.
3,1.
  22  Majnarić-Pandžić 2007.
The boii and their conections with the Scordisci 299

2 5

Fig. 3.  1 Sapropelite bracelet from Ilok; 2–3 glass bracelet of group 15 from Ilok; 4 glass bracelet of group 15 from Osijek;
5 glass bracelets of group 15 from Gomolava (Osijek: after Šimić 1997; Gomolava after Jovanović / Jovanović 1988).
300 Marko Dizdar

Fig. 4. 1 Segment of the bronze belts from Kostolac; 2–4 segments of the bronze belts from Nĕmčice (Kostolac: after
Spasić 1992; Nĕmčice: after Čižmář et al. 2008).

from the Osijek-Zeleno Polje cemetery23 can be South-Eastern Pannonia in the territory of the Scor-
connected with finds from Central Europe, espe- disci31. A number of distinct variants suggest that
cially with Middle La Tène Bavarian cemeteries24. they were produced in several local workshops, al-
Other contemporaneous graves from South-Eastern though the idea itself may have originated in a pro-
Pannonia contained local bronze belts of lyre-sha- duction centre situated in Central Europe.
ped and rectangular segments dated throughout the Besides weapons and items of attire and jewel-
entire Middle La Tène period, although most of the lery, as evidence of probable contacts between
belts date from LT C125. South-Eastern Pannonia and Central Europe during
the Early and Middle La Tène (LT B2–C1) there are
finds of kantharoi on a higher or lower cylindrical
Middle to Late La Tène foot, which are sometimes decorated with various
compositions of stamped concentric circles and
The contacts continued during the later phase of the garlands. These kantharoi were found in greatest
Middle La Tène (LT C2), when in Central Europe numbers in the cemeteries of the Scordisci, while
the cemeteries stopped, while in the territories of kantharoi found at Central European sites have so-
the Scordisci graves from this phase are still docu- mewhat different forms, but the basic idea had ob-
mented. Evidence of direct contacts of the Scordisci viously came from the south32.
with the Central European area is probably found in Uninterrupted contacts, even more intensive,
the segment of a Nĕmčice type belt from the site of continued into the Late La Tène (LT D), when some
Čair in Stari Kostolac. The segment is thickened in important changes occurred in the social structure
the middle, while at the ends of rectangular plaques and organization of communities across Central Eu-
there are three small holes (fig. 4,1)26. The closest rope and South Pannonia. During the Late La Tène
analogy is found in the segment of similar shape phase the Scordisci continued to develop their ma-
from the site of Kunszentmárton in the basin of the terial culture, which shows, as in previously phases,
river Tisza27. The Nĕmčice type belts were compo-
sed of profiled segments connected with chainlets28.
For dating the segment from Čair, besides a number
  23 Spajić 1962, 42–43 pl. XX,22–23; Šimić 1997, 35
of Central European finds, an especially important
fig. 16.
is the find of a belt of the Nĕmčice type from Rohr   24  Dizdar, forthcoming.
in Styria, probably from a cremation grave of LT   25  Jovanović 1982–1983; 1983; Popović 2002; Rustoiu
C2 date29. Nĕmčice type belts are for the time being 2004-2005; 2008; 2011; Bujna 2011, 116–118.
most common at sites in Lower Austria and Burgen-   26 Spasić 1992, 8 pl. I,10.
land, as well as in Western Slovakia, although the   27  Sellye 1939 Taf. 19,4; Werner 1979, 35 Abb. 4,5.
finds of unfinished segments at the Nĕmčice settle-   28  Reitinger 1966, 232–233; Werner 1979, 40–41;
ment point to a local production in Moravia, too (fig. Pieta 1982, 47; 2000, 142; Čižmář et al. 2008, 661; Buj-
na 2011, 123–124 fig. 52.
4,2–4). Partly contemporaneous with these belts are
  29  Modrijan 1958, 9 Abb. 3,1–4; Kramer 1994, 30 Taf.
bronze fibulae with rectangular plaques and enamel
34,7–8.
decoration in variously shaped depressions, which   30  Čižmář 2005, 133 fig. 2; Pieta 2010, 31–32 fig. 9.
were previously very often considered as evidence   31  Teleagă 2008, 95–96 fig. 6; Guštin 2011, 125–126
of contacts in the opposite direction30. According to fig. 8; Ferencz 2012, 79–82 fig. 2.
a recent review, these fibulae originated in Central   32  Egri / Rustoiu, 2008; Rustoiu / Egri 2010; 2011;
Europe but were later produced in workshops in Dizdar 2013, 330–339.
The boii and their conections with the Scordisci 301

certain differences from Central European heritage, One of the characteristic shapes of Late La Tène
which mostly depend on their position on the border fibulae in the Scordiscan area are bronze fibulae of
zone of the La Tène Culture. In this phase fortified Middle La Tène scheme with loops at the end of the
settlements of the Scordisci developed into cent- bent foot and a spring with four or more coils con-
res of trade and exchange, as part of communica- nected with an external chord (“fibules à ‘crête’”)34.
tion networks that encompassed some very distant These fibulae from Scordiscan sites were probably
regions, and they achieved the status of political, produced locally and worn by local inhabitants (fig.
economic and religious centres for their respective 5,2)35. Analogies are documented at Late La Tène
regions. As in the previous phase, in the major part sites in Western Hungary36 (fig. 5,3) but also at Stra-
of Central Europe there is a lack of graves, which, donice, where the occurence of this type of fibula
on the other hand, are found in the territory of the is considered a foreign element and a proof of con-
Scordisci. Cemeteries of the Scordisci yielded rich- tacts with the Carpathian Basin. Interestingly, quite
ly equipped weapon graves, while female graves similar bronze fibulae are documented further to the
contain characteristic elements of costume and je- west on sites also dated to LT D137. The idea of ex-
wellery. The emergence of a warrior elite is parti- isting contacts in same direction was confirm with
cularly important, which corroborates the important a find of bronze Pestrup fibula (“Spiralfuβfibeln“)
social and economic transformations that started oc- which was revealed in the Late La Tène settlement
curring from the mid-2nd cent. B.C. The grave goods in Vinkovci (fig. 5,1)38.
included weaponry and horse gear, presenting them Among fibulae from sites in Eastern Slavonia,
as horsemen, and thus emphasizing their prominent probably the most prominent are bronze fibulae of
social status, further confirmed by their possession the Vinkovci type, which have a low triangular or le-
of prestigious goods, such as imported bronze ves- af-shaped bow and unperforated rectangular or tra-
sels33. However, the contacts with Central Europe pezoidal foot. Fibulae have a spring with four coils
and Late La Tène sites are again most visible in ele- connected with an internal or external chord. Since
ments of female costume and jewellery. Vinkovci-type fibulae are particularly numerous at
sites in Vinkovci and its neighbourhood, it is sup-
posed that they were produced in local workshop/s
on the western zone of the Scordiscan settlement
area, probably based on the model of the Nauheim
type fibula from the west39. The north-westernmost
findspot of a Vinkovci type fibula is the Oberleiser-
berg40. Confirmation of the existence of contacts in
the opposite direction is provided by a group of cast
bronze fibulae discovered at Scordiscan sites. Ba-
sed on the shape of the bow and perforated foot,
fibulae of the Szalacska and Oberleiserberg types

  33 Egri / Rustoiu 2008.


  34  Peschel 1972, 22; Bujna 2003, 60–61 fig. 22, 28.
  35  Popović 2003, 147–149.
  36 Szalacska: Hunyady 1942, 32–33 Taf. XXI,17;
Filip 1956, 102 fig. 30,8; Velemszentvid: Miske 1908 Taf.
XLII,38.
  37  Píč 1903 Taf. III,13; Břeň 1964, 208 Taf. 2,57; Ry-
bova / Drda 1994, 125–126 Abb. 40,7; Dromersheim
grave XVI: Stümpel 1983, 190 Abb. 5/XVI; Ehrenbürg:
Abels, 2012, 35 Abb. 44,46.
  38  Sprockhoff 1959; Peschel 1972, 22–23 Abb.
7,41–42, 46–47; Bujna 2003, 60–61 Obr. 28C. Eszter-
gom-Bánomhegy: Kelemen 2006, 231 fig. 3,16. Fibu-
lae with fewer coils at the end of the foot were registe-
red in LT C1 graves, e.g. Nitriansky Hrádok grave 2/58:
Benadík 1977, 24 Abb. 4,7; Pieta 1993, 51; Giengen gra-
Fig.  5. 1 Bronze fibula from Vinkovci; 2 bronze fibula ve 7: Polenz 1982, 68; 104 Abb. 7,2.
from Dautovac; 3 bronze fibula from Szalacska (Dauto-   39  Dizdar 2003; Majnarić-Pandžić 2009.
vac: after Popović 2003; Szalacska: after Filip 1956).   40  Karwowski 2009 Abb. 8.
302 Marko Dizdar

can be recognized41. Although it is not excluded terret-ring of the Hopstätten type from Vinkovci,
that some cast fibulae were produced in Scordiscan the south-easternmost specimen found so far48. In-
workshops, the idea surely arrived from the north- tensive trade and exchange contacts have also been
west. Maybe the best evidence for these connec- corroborated by the finds of different types of coins,
tions with Central Europe is the belt clasp with red like a gold stater of the Vindelician type from an
enamel from the double grave 3 in the Late La Tène unknown find spot in Vinkovci49 or a gold stater of
cemetery at Sotin-Zmajevac (fig. 6,1)42. This is for the Boii from Osijek, and a hoard from Bački Obro-
the time being a unique find in the distribution area vac, which also contained Boian staters50. Findspots
of the Scordisci, in which the position of Sotin on of staters of the Boii in Western Hungary point to
the Danube, which yielded several other finds that at least two possible connection routes – one lea-
originate in, or arrived through, Central Europe ding along the so-called Amber Route, and another
(e.g. a horn chain43), point to a stronger exposure that passed near Lake Balaton with the oppidum at
of the western territory controlled by the Scordisci Szalacska as an important transmission centre51.
to influences from Central Europe (fig. 6,2–3). In As during the Early and Middle La Tène, cont-
addition to these objects of attire, important for the acts with contemporary Central European sites may
recognition of contacts are also finds of fragments be documented by certain specific types of pottery
of Late La Tène glass objects, such as cobalt-blue decoration, for instance, the appearance of wheel-
bracelets of D-shaped cross-section44 or blue glass thrown painted vessels in the Scordiscan material
ring-beads with radial decoration45. culture during the Late La Tène. The most common
During the Late La Tène phase the connections forms are oval pots and bowls, reddish in colour and
between Central Europe and South-Eastern Pan- decorated with alternating bands of various widths,
nonia, in addition to dress accessories and jewel- mostly red and white in colour. Interestingly, the
lery, are also indicated by certain items of horse concentration of sites with painted vessels can be re-
gear, like bronze buttons46 and trefoil-shaped strap cognized at the western zone of the Scordiscan sett-
separators47 of various types, found at Scordiscan lement area, that is, in Eastern Slavonia and Western
sites, but also in Central European oppida. One of Syrmia, which were the closest for the spreading of
the most important proofs of contacts is a bronze such ideas from Central European sites52.

  41  Karwowski / Militký 2011, 133–135 Abb. 3,4;


Drnić 2012.
  42  Majnarić-Pandžić 1972–1973, 67 Taf. IV,9; Božič
1981, 319 pl. 9,11; Pescheck 1989, 222–229 Abb. 4–5;
Taf. 19; Bockius / Łuczkiewicz 2004, 13–15 Abb. 2b–3;
Peschel 2005, 17–19 Abb. 8.
  43  Majnarić-Pandžić 1972–1973, 64 Taf. 1,8: as a belt
chain. Andrzejowski 1991; Łuczkiewicz 2010, 165–177
Abb. 1.
  44  Dizdar 2006, 76–77.
  45  Gebhard 1989, 177 Taf. 51,772–779; Zepezauer
1993, 51–52 Taf. 3,7–11; Karwowski 2004, 44.
  46  Božič 1993, 139–140 Abb. 2; 5; 2001, 184 Abb. 5;
Čizmař 2002, 216 Abb. 21.
  47  Božič 1993, 140–141 Abb. 3; 6; 2001, 184–185 Abb.
8; Schönfelder 2002, 268–269 Abb. 169; Čizmař 2002,
216 Abb. 20
  48  Schönfelder 2002, 239–240 Abb. 149; Karwowski
Fig. 6. 1 Bronze belt clasp from Sotin; 2 bronze belt clasp 2009 Abb. 6
from Velemszentvid; 3 bronze belt clasp from Trenči-   49  Majnarić-Pandžić 1997.
anske Bohuslavice (Sotin: after Majnarić-Pandžić 1996;   50 Castelin 1976; Popović 1987, 146.
Velemszentvid: after Szabó 1988; Trenčianske Bohusla-   51  Waldhauser 1996, 80 Abb. 2.
vice: after Pieta 2010).   52  Dizdar 2013a, 127–132 fig. 2.
The boii and their conections with the Scordisci 303

Conclusions Besiedlung im Mittleren Donaugebiet (Bratislava


1977) 15–31.
Contacts between Central Europe and South-Eas- Bockius / Łuczkiewicz 2004
tern Pannonia can be followed in both directions  R. Bockius / P. Łuczkiewicz, Kelten und Germa-
already from the beginning of the La Tène Culture, nen im 2.–1. Jahrhundert vor Christus, Archäo-
that is, from the beginning of the 4th century B.C., logische Bausteine zu einer historischen Frage.
when South-Eastern Pannonia was still inhabited Monogr. RGZM 58 (Mainz a. R. 2004).
by different Late Hallstatt groups. Contacts follow Bognár-Kutzíán 1974
two important communication routes, one leading  I. Bognár-Kutzíán, Some new Early La Tène
across Western Hungary and another along the river finds in the Northern Danube basin. Alba Regia
Danube. This has been corroborated by the finds of 14, 1974, 35–44.
objects belonging to female costume and jewellery Božič 1981
such as bronze fibulae and bracelets, but also glass  D. Božič, Relativna kronologija mlajše železne
amphorae, coral or amber beads. Later, during the dobi v jugoslovenskem Podonavju. Arh. Vestnik
final phase of the Early and the beginning of the XXXII, 1981, 315–336.
Middle La Tène with the appearance of new iden- Božič 1984
tities – the Boii and the Scordisci – those contacts  D. Božič, Srebro i bronca iz Čuruga (Bačka). In:
became more intense. Interestingly, contacts are KEΛTOI (Ljubljana1984) 31–32.
again mostly recognizable in female dress accesso- Božič 1993
ries. The peak of connections was during the Late  D. Božič, Slovenija in srednja Evropa v pozno-
La Tène period, when finds of horse gear and coins latenskem obdobju. Arh. Vestnik 44, 1993, 137–
also started to appear. 152.
As regards the tasks for future investigations of Božič 2001
the communication routes between Central Europe  D. Božič, Ljudje ob Krki in Kolpi v latenski dobi.
and South-Eastern Pannonia, or between the Boii Arh. Vestnik 52, 2001, 181–198.
and the Scordisci, these should focus on a more Břeň 1964
thorough study of settlements and burial contexts  J. Břeň, Vyznam spon pro datováni keltskych op-
in which ‘foreign’ objects appear in a local environ- pid v Čechích. Sbornik Nar. Muz. v Praze. Rada
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in addition to the transfer of ideas and technologies, G. Březinová 2002
the movements of individuals or groups of populati-  G. Březinová, Sklo v dobe laténskej, náramok
on. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to include typu 15. In: História skla 2001, Zborník príspe-
the results of inter- and multidisciplinary examina- kov z 1. kolokvia o historickom skle z územia
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