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Psychological

Perspective of Self
•Theories about the self give way for the
identification of which characteristics of the
self are relevant and the understanding of
how these characteristics are related to
each other.
•They foster discourse on the different
conceptualizations of identity based on
different sociocultural context.
WILLIAM JAMES’
CONCEPT OF SELF

The ME-SELF and the I-SELF


The self is divided into two categories
I-Self Me-Self
•The self that knows •The empirical self which
who he or she is – refers to the person’s
called “the thinking personal experiences.
self” •divided into subcategories:
•Reflects the soul of a • Material self
person or the mind – • Social self
called “the pure ego” • Spiritual self
Material self
•Attributed to an
individual’s physical
attributes and
material
possessions that
contribute to one’s
self-image.
Social self
•Refers to who
a person is and
how he or she
acts in social
situations.
Spiritual self
•the most intimate
and important part
of the self that
includes the person’s
purpose, core
values, conscience,
and moral behavior.
CARL ROGER’S
SELF THEORY:

REAL and IDEAL SELF


SELF-CONCEPT
-Image of oneself
•Defines the self as a flexible and
changing perception of personal
identity. The self is the center of
experience.
•The self develops from interactions with
significant people and awareness of
one’s own characteristics and level of
functioning.
Idealized self Real self

Normal

Idealized self Real self

Neurotic
two components of self-concept
REAL SELF IDEAL SELF
•Consists of all •The person’s
ideas, including conception of what
the awareness of one should be or one
aspires to be which
what one is and
includes one’s goals
what one can do. and ambitions in life.
MULTIPLE VERSUS UNIFIED SELF,

TRUE VERSUS FALSE SELF


MULTIPLE VERSUS UNIFIED SELF
•Varies across different interpersonal and
intrapersonal roles and relationships.
•Coping with different selves constitutes a
formidable task among adolescents. These
challenges contribute heavily to the young
person’s struggle for a unified self.
TRUE VERSUS FALSE SELF
•The function of the
false self is to hide
and protect the true
self.
THE SELF
AS PROACTIVE AND AGENTIC
Human Agency
•an active process of exploring,
manipulating, and influencing the
environment in order to attain desired
outcomes.
Main Features of Human Agency

•Intentionality, forethought, self-


reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness
Features of Human Agency
Intentionality
•Acts done
intentionally.
•Intentions center on
plans of action with
the anticipation of
possible outcomes.
Features of Human Agency
Forethought
•Enables person to
anticipate the
likely
consequences of
prospective
actions.
Features of Human Agency
Self-reactiveness
•Involves making
choices and choosing
appropriate courses of
action as well as
motivating and
regulating them.
Features of Human Agency
Self-reflectiveness
•Gives the person the
ability to reflect upon
and the adequacy of
his or her thoughts
and actions.
•The individual’s belief that
he or she is capable to
perform a task which
influences whether he or
she will think pessimistically
or optimistically and in ways
Self-Efficacy that are self-enhancing or
self-hindering.
THE SELF
AS THE CENTRAL ARCHETYPE
ARCHETYPES
•Universal models
after which roles are
patterned.
•Represents the
hidden potentialities
of the psyche, or
total personality.
ARCHETYPES •Reside in the personal
unconscious
(forgotten
experiences) that is
common to all human
beings, known as the
collective
unconscious.
Four Major Archetypes
•Persona,
•shadow,
•animus/anima,
•and self.
Four Major Archetypes
Persona
-Social roles
that individuals
present to
others.
Four Major Archetypes
Shadow
-the repressed
thoughts that
are socially
unacceptable.
Four Major Archetypes
Anima Animus
-the feminine - the masculine
side of the male side of the
psyche. female psyche.
Four Major Archetypes
Self
-the central
archetype that
unites all parts
of the psyche.
SIGMUND FREUD’S CONSTRUCTION
OF SELF AND PERSONALITY
ID, EGO, SUPEREGO
•Id – component of the personality
characterized by its need to satisfy
basic urges and desires.
- the pleasure-seeking side,
impulsive, child-like and demands
instant gratification.
ID, EGO, SUPEREGO
•Ego – refers to the “I” and
operates on the reality principle
and controls the id.
- the ego can conform with existing
societal consideration.
ID, EGO, SUPEREGO
•Superego – refers to the
“conscience” and “moral judge” of
one’s conduct.
-It strives for perfection rather
than pleasure.
ID, EGO, SUPEREGO
Freud’s Psychosexual
Stages of Development
•Oral
•Anal
•Phallic
•Latency
•Genital
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development

•Oral Stage - lasts


from birth up to the
1st year of life.
-babies derives
pleasure from oral
activities like sucking
and biting.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development
• Anal Stage- occurs
around the 2nd year of life.
-the child derives pleasure
from the elimination of
body wastes. Through toilet
training, the child learns
the basic rules of society.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development
• Phallic Stage – occurs
3-6 years
- children derive
pleasure from
examining, touching,
fondling, or displaying
their genitals.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development
• Latency Stage – lasts
from 7-12 years of age.
- sexual energy is
repressed because
children become
occupied with school.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development
• Genital Stage – starts
from adolescence to
adulthood.
- pleasure is again
derived from the genital
area and individuals seek to
satisfy their sexual drives
from sexual relationships.
The Role of ERIK ERIKSON’S THEORY
in
Understanding The Self
•Identity formation is usually viewed as a process
that requires adolescents to distance themselves
from the strong expectations and definitions
imposed by parents and other family members.
•To achieve an individual identity, one must
create a vision of the self that is authentic
which is anchored on the meaning of his or her
goals for the future sense of having hold of one’s
destiny in an effort to reach goals that are
personally meaningful.
Erik Erikson’s Eight
Psychosocial Stages of Development
• The ego is the positive force that contributes to identity
formation and lays foundation for certain strengths and
virtues in life such as hope, will, purpose, competence,
fidelity, love, care and wisdom.
• Each stage consists of developmental tasks that one needs to
accomplish to develop successfully.
• During each stage, an individual also experiences life crises
which could have negative consequences if not properly
resolved.
Trust versus mistrust
•1st psychosocial stage of development (1st
year of life).
•The child develop trust if he or she is
properly cared for.
•If the child is not well-cared for, mistrust is
likely to develop.
Autonomous versus Shame and doubt
•2nd stage of development (first three years
of life).
•Autonomy – independence of thought and
confidence to think and act for oneself.
•If parents allow their children to explore,
they will become more confident and secure
in their own abilities.
Initiative versus guilt
•3rd stage of development (3-5 years of age).
•During this period, developing a sense of
responsibility among children lead to the
development of initiative.
•A child who is made to feel irresponsible
might develop feelings of guilt.
Industry versus inferiority
•4th stage of development (elementary
school years).
•Children face the task of developing
knowledge and skills taught in schools.
•When children are encouraged in their
efforts, they will develop sense of industry.
Identity formation versus identity
confusion
•5th psychosocial stage (adolescence).
•Adolescents face the task of finding out who
they are and what they want in life.
•They are confronted with many roles and
responsibilities.
Intimacy versus isolation
•6th psychosocial stage (early adulthood).
•People explore personal relationships.
•This stage is vital that people develop
intimate relationships with others.
Generativity versus stagnation
•7th stage of development (middle
adulthood).
•Generativity – a person’s desire to
contribute to the world by teaching, leading
and guiding the next generation and doing
activities that will benefit the community.
Integrity versus despair
•Last stage of development (old age)
•Focused on self reflection in one’s life.
•Individuals reflect on the important events
of their lives.
•If satisfied and proud of the
accomplishments, they will feel a sense of
integrity.