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What Changes Occur in the

Earth’s Hydrosphere?
CHAPTER 14
• Earth is known as the blue planet or the water planet

• Water makes life on Earth possible

• 97% of water on Earth is found in the oceans and 3% in


freshwater
THE HYDROSPHERE:
A BIOGEOCHEMICAL
SYSTEM
MODULE 27
What is Water?
• Water is a colorless and odorless substance found all over Earth.

• Is made up of billions of molecules. Each molecule is made up of one


oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.

• All living things need water in some form to survive on Earth. People
can go weeks without food, but can live only a few days without water.

• Water is an important resource with many uses including food


production, cleaning, transportation, power generation, recreation
and more.
• Water exists naturally in three phases-
solid, liquid and gas.
POLARITY OF WATER
MOLECULES
27.1.1
• Cohesion- Is the mutual attraction between like
molecules that causes them to stick together.

• Adhesion- Is the mutual attraction between unlike


molecules that causes them to cling to one another.

• Capillary Action- Occurs when the adhesion to the


walls are stronger than the cohesive forces between the
liquid molecules
SOLVENT PROPERTY
OF WATER
27.1.2
• Water is a polar molecule that has a high
level of polarity and attraction to ions and
other polar molecules
DENSITY OF WATER
27.1.3
• Density is mass per unit volume.

• The density of pure water reaches a maximum at 4°C.

• Above and below 4°C, its density decreases.


• Most substances increase in density when they freeze, as
a decrease in volume occurs during the freezing process.

• Water expands when it freezes and becomes less dense


when frozen.
Because when
water freeze,
the molecules
come close
together and
remain
compact.
Then ice form
that hexagonal
shape. In ice
crystals, more
Hydrogen bonds
are formed in a
widely spaced
pattern.
• Ice is less dense than liquid water at the same
temperature. And when the ice floats at the surface, this
serves as an insulating layer which prevents the liquid
water below from completely freezing.

• To determine the density of the ocean water in an area,


temperature and salinity are measured. (Salinity from the
word itself saline which means containing salt.)

• Salt water is dense. With increased salinity, the density of


water increases. Salts are denser than pure water.
SOME THERMAL
PROPERTIES
27.1.4
• Water has a boiling point. To convert water to vapor,
additional heat is required to break its Hydrogen bonds.
To melt ice, large quantities of heat energy is also
required to break its Hydrogen bonds and achieve a
change of phase.
• Compared with other common liquids, water has high
heat capacity.
• High heat capacity if water makes it an important
moderator of climate all over the world.
It also helps
organisms
maintain a
constant internal
temperature
when outside
temperature
changes.
The specific heat
capacity of
water is the
amount of heat
needed to
change the
temperature of
1g of water 1°C.
• Water can gain or lose a great amount of heat with
a little change in temperature.

• A calorie is the amount of heat that raises the


temperature of 1 g of pure water 1°C. It is equal to
4.184 J.
THE OCEAN BASINS
HAVE DIVERSE
FEATURES
27.2
• The ocean basins have diverse features

• The ocean basins are depressions on the earth's


surface that are filled with water.

• The water may be divided into five oceans — the


pacific, Atlantic, Indian, arctic, and Antarctic
oceans.

• Some would consider the arctic ocean to be part


of the Atlantic ocean.
CONTINENTAL
MARGINS
27.2.1
• The continental margins are the submerged edges
of the continents. They are the boundaries
between the continental crust and oceanic crust.
• Continental margins have three parts:
(1) The continental shelf - it is the submerged zone extending from the shore or
continent with an average width of about 70 km. It may extend 1500 km seaward but is
almost nonexistent in some continents.
- It gradually descends to a depth of about 180 meters. It has sites of important mineral
deposits. And of course, it has many important fishing ground.
(2) The continental slope - It descend steeply from the seaward edge of the shelf
toward deep water.
- it is steeper at the edges of the pacific ocean than in the Atlantic ocean.
(3) Continental rise - it has a gentler slope than the continental slope, descending to the
deep ocean floor.
- the width may reach hundreds of kilometers. It consists of a thick accumulation of
sediments.
- Deep boundary currents may produce wavelike features, furrows, and ripples.
- the continental rise separates the continental slope from the ocean floor.
OCEAN BASIN FLOOR
27.2.2
• Is composed of oceanic crust.

• Are those areas found under the sea.


• Ocean basins can be either active, with a lot of new
structures being created and shaped, or they can be
inactive, where their surface is slow to change and does
little more than collect sediment.

• The four main ocean basins are those of the Pacific,


Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic Oceans. The Pacific Ocean,
which occupies about one-third of Earth's surface, has
the largest basin. Its basin also has the greatest average
depth at approximately 14,000 feet (4,300 meters).
An abyssal plain
is an underwater
plain on the deep
ocean floor,
usually found at
depths between
3,000 meters
(9,800 ft.) and
6,000 meters
(20,000 ft.).
An abyssal hill is
a small hill that
rises from the
floor of an
abyssal plain.
A seamount is a mountain
rising from the ocean floor
that does not reach to the
water's surface (sea level).
Seamounts are typically
formed from extinct
volcanoes. Most are found
in the Pacific Ocean.
Guyot , also known as a
tablemount, is an isolated
underwater volcanic
mountain (seamount) with
a flat top more than 200 m
(660 ft.) below the surface
of the sea.
• Deep-sea trench, also called oceanic trench, any long,
narrow, steep-sided depression in the ocean bottom in
which occur the maximum oceanic depths, approximately
7,300 to more than 11,000 meters (24,000 to 36,000
feet). They typically form in locations where one tectonic
plate subducts under another.
A mid-ocean ridge or
mid-oceanic ridge is an
underwater mountain
range, formed by plate
tectonics.
This uplifting of the
ocean floor occurs when
convection currents rise
in the mantle beneath
the oceanic crust and
create magma where
two tectonic plates meet
at a divergent boundary.
THE OCEANS
SUPPORT LIFE
27.3
• The oceans provide many different habitats for marine
life. Many kinds of environments supports ecosystems of
marine organisms. The marine environments and
ecosystems are briefly described.
50 to 70 % of our oxygen comes from the ocean.
PELAGIC
ENVIRONMENT
(THE OPEN SEA)
27.3.1
• The pelagic environment refers to that part
of the water away from the bottom of the
sea.
Organisms in this environment, also termed pelagic, live in the water
column or the water body itself.

Neritic or coastal waters - it includes all water less than 200 m deep, the
shallow waters above the continental shelves
Oceanic waters or open sea - it includes mostly water beyond 200 m deep.
These waters lie beyond the continental shelf.

a. Epipelagic or photic zone - it is the only zone of the open sea with sufficient
light to support photosynthesis. It extends from the surface to 200 m deep.

b. Mesopelagic or disphotic zone - in this zone, there is not enough light to


support photosynthesis. It extends from 200 to 1000 m below the surface.

c. Bathypelagic or aphotic zone - it is a region of total darkness.


The temperature of water in this zone hardly exceeds 4°C.

d. Abyssopelagic zone - it refers to the region below 4000 m.


BENTHIC
ENVIRONMENT
(THE OCEAN FLOOR)
27.3.2
Organisms in this environment are called benthos and live on the ocean floor.

Littoral or intertidal zone - the shallowest part of the continental shelf

a. Upper intertidal zone - part of it may go underwater for brief period of


time at the peak of high tide. It is known as the 'splash zone'.

b. Middle intertidal zone - it is the part that is submerged then exposed to


air on a regular basis each day.

c. Lower intertidal zone - this zone is exposed to air only during low tide.

 Sublittoral or subtidal zone - it lies beyond the low tide mark down to 200
m deep.
The deep-sea system - it refers to the region below the intertidal zone.
MARINE LIFE
27.3.3
Living things are especially adapted to survive in different life
zones whether in the shallow coastal waters from the shores,
the open seas or the dark depths.

Organisms may be classified as plankton or free-floating


forms, neckton or free swimmers, and benthos or bottom-
dwellers.

The plankton are the most abundant living things in the


ocean.

Plankton provide food for zooplankton (zoon means animal)


WATERS OF EARTH IN
MOTION
MODULE 28
OCEAN CURRENTS
28.1.0
• The movement of ocean water,
together with the interacting
atmosphere, is driven by solar
energy. Upon contact, these systems
pass on or transfer energy.
The continuous flow of water
along a definite path in the ocean is
called ocean current. The
circulation of water may be
explained by some principal factors
that influence it.
A. The Earth receives more solar energy in
tropical areas and less at the poles, thus
producing differential warming

B. The transfer of wind energy to surface


water may bring about horizontal
circulation. Wind-driven or surface
currents are due to drag exerted by
winds as they blow steadily across the
ocean. In the Northern Indian Ocean, the
surface currents change direction where
the monsoons also shift direction.
C. As the Earth rotates, the surface currents
flow in closed loops or circular patterns called
gyres. Earth’s rotation cause the coriolis effect,
which is a deflection of the currents in the
Northern Hemisphere, to the right of their path
of motion; in the Southern Hemisphere, to the
left of their path.

Thus, gyres move clockwise in the North


Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans and
counterclockwise in the South Pacific and South
Atlantic Ocean,

D. Continents, together with the Coriolis effect,


turn the surface waters from their path of
motion.
• The oceans and the
atmosphere transfer heat and
create weather and climates.
Places near the ocean often
have more moderate climates
than places inland. A region
may experience milder winter
than another region which is
located along the same
latitude but on the opposite
coast of the continent.
How do oceans moderate climate on
land?

• The temperature of the circulating water affects


the temperature of the air above. The high heat
capacity of water can warm cool air that then
passes over and determines the temperature of
the land. Currents and waves also mix the surface
waters. In addition, water evaporates from the
ocean surface. Heat and water are transferred
where there is a deficit.
• Winds may also cause coastal surface
waters to move offshore. Along the coasts
of California, Peru and Northwest Africa,
cold water rises from deeper layers to
replace the warmer surface water that has
been driven offshore. Such upwellings
from 50 to 300 m deep, lower
temperatures and can cause fog near the
shore. Greater concentrations of dissolved
nutrients are also brought to the surface.
More plankton can grow to support large
populations of fish and thereby provide
rich harvests.
• Density currents, also known as
deep ocean circulation or
thermohaline (heat and salt)
circulation, is driven by
differences in density. Recall that
seawaters becomes denser with
increasing salinity and decreasing
temperature (down to 4°C). Cold
water like cold air, sinks because
it is denser than warmer water,
which when rises to the surface.
• In polar regions, the colder and saltier
water sinks toward ocean bottom flows
away from the poles and is replaced by
warmer surface water from lower
latitudes. For examples, when Antarctic
waters are chilled by low winter
temperature, the salts remain in the water
as sea ice is formed. The cold, saline
bottom water, crosses the equator and
may move further north.
WAVES
28.2.0
• A stroll along the beach invites one to listen to the sounds of
lapping water and to watch the waves constantly roll in and out.
The up and down motion of ocean water is sometimes low like
gentle ripples. At other times, it rises to several meters high like the
storm waves pounding the shores or crashing against barriers with
great force. The actions of ocean waves and currents are known
shape and change shorelines—moving sediments, cutting cliffs,
eroding cayes, creating sandbars and building shores.
Waves are mainly caused by winds. The waves derive their energy
and motion from the wind. Other types of waves, like tsunamis
may be generated by seismic disturbances beneath the ocean floor
– earthquake, undersea landslide and other geologic events
TIDES
28.3
• Tides are discussed here as an example of the motion of the Earth’s waters. The
daily rise and fall of the ocean water – the high tides and the low tides—are
predictable, periodic and rhythmic. In general, all places on Earth alternately
experience two high tides and two low tides everyday.
• The varying distance between the moon and earth and also between the sun and
earth is one factor. For example, not all spring tides are of the same height. Thw
highest spring tides occur when the moon and the sun are closest to earth.
• The shape of the coastline interfering land masses and the shape of the ocean
floor are other factors. The tidal range is the vertical difference between high
tide and low tide. For example, the funnel shaped ocean floor at the Bay of
Fundy in Canada has a tidal range of more than 15m high, while the tidal range
in mid ocean is usually 1 to 2 m only.
HOW ARE WAVES
DESCRIBED
28.3.1
Crest:

Crest is a point in the cycle where maximum or peak amplitude exists. In another way,
it is a point on the positive side of a wave where maximum amplitude exits.

Trough:

Trough is a point in the cycle where minimum amplitude exists. In another way, it is a
point on the negative side of a wave where minimum amplitude exists.

Wave height:

The wave height is the vertical distance between trough and crest.

Wave length:

The wave length is the horizontal distance between two successive crests or between
two successive troughs
HOW ARE WIND-
DRIVEN WAVES
FORMED
28.3.2
• Wind-driven waves, or surface waves, are created
by the friction between wind and surface water.
The size and speed of ocean waves depend on the following
factors:
the wind speed;
the length of time the wind blows; and
the fetch or the distance the wind travels across the
ocean surface
• Strong winds with great speed that blow farther over the
ocean may create higher and lower waves.
• Tall, closely spaced waves with high levels of energy are
formed. A breeze may develop small waves that could
disappear when the breeze stops blowing.
• Depending on the factors cited, the character of the waves
may change. After the winds stop, the waves may continue to
travel long distances. They lose energy and become longer
and lower. They move slowly and pile up when they enter
shallow waters, then break along the shore.
•After the winds stop, the waves may continue to travel long distances

•More potentially hazardous waves can be caused by severe weather, like a


hurricane. Other hazardous waves can be caused by underwater disturbances that
displace large amounts of water quickly such as earthquakes, landslides, or
volcanic eruptions.

•The strong winds and pressure from this type of severe storm causes storm surge,
a series of long waves that are created far from shore in deeper water and intensify
as they move closer to land.

•Storm surge and tsunamis are not the types of waves you imagine crashing down
on the shore. These waves roll upon the shore like a massive sea level rise and can
reach far distances inland.
HOW DO WAVES
MOVE
28.3.3
WAVE- is a
disturbance
that carries
energy from
palace to
place.
TERMS THAT FURTHER DESCRIBE
WAVES

• A.) Period- the time interval between passage of


successive crest at a fixed point.
• B.) Frequency- is the number of wavelength that
pass a fixed point per unit of time.
• C.) Velocity- speed and direction of the wave in
meters per second (m/s) <V=W/P>
• D.) Crest- the high point of the wave
• E.) Trough-(trawf) low point of wave
• F.) Wave height- the vertical distance between the
top of the crest and the bottom of trough.
• G.) Wavelength- the distance between one wave
crest and the next.
Wave- caused by
energy passing
through the
water that
causes the water
to move in a
circular motion.
HOW DOES WAVE MOVE?
• Energy is transmitted from particle to particle.
• Ocean waves are simply the outward manifestation of
kinetic energy propagating to sea water.
EXAMPLE: SLINKY WAVE
• 1.) When a slinky is stretched from end to end and held at
rest it is called as equilibrium or rest position.
• 2.) to introduce or make a wave one particle is displaced
or moved from resting position.
• 3.) Pulse is a single disturbance moving through a
medium from one location to another.
Wave is a
continues and
periodical
vibration or
movement (back
and forth) of a
repeated
disturbance that
moves in a
specific medium
over some
prolonged period
of time
In Conclusion

• Waves are most commonly caused by wind.


• Wind driven waves or surface waves are made by the
friction between wind and the surface water.
• To form a wave energy passes from one particle to
another.
• Waves are energy movement not water movement.
HOW DO MOVING
WAVES AFFECT THE
COASTS?
28.3.4
• KEY WORDS
A.) Strength of the wind.
B.) Swash- the strength of the waves as it
travels up the coast.
C.) Backwash- the strength of the waves as it
retreats from the ocean.
D.) Fetch- distance that wave energy travels.
Waves may build or erode the shore/coast
• As waves reach the coast line the lower
section slows due to friction. The upper
section topples over and breaks forward.
• After the waves breaks some energy remains
so that smaller waves can progress towards
shore to interact with the shoreline once
again.
• Coastal System- is an ever-changing
physical environment.

2 MAIN FORMS
1.) Destructive (erosive) waves-
a.) their backwash is much stronger than their swash.
b.) they are frequent in number ranging between 10 and 15 per
minutes.
c.) they are tall waves.
2.) Constructive (depositional) waves-
a.) their swash is much stronger than
their backwash.
b.) they are less frequent reaching shore
between 6 and 9 times each minute.
c.) they are long waves and so roll onto
the beach rather than crashing into it.
WHAT HAPPENS NEXT?
• Coastal erosion- the wearing away of coastal land or beaches.
• a.) Headland- a narrow strip of land that projects out into
a body of water.
• b.) Wave refraction- the “bending” of waves as they travel
towards the shallow waters of the shore.
c.) Wave-cut cliff- a steep rock face created by the eroding
action of waves.
d.) Wave- cut platform- sometimes called a coastal
benches, this form can only be seen during low tide.
• e.) Caves- undercutting of an over changing ledge at or
near sea level.
• f.) Arch/Arches- a rocky ridge which remains above a cave.
• g.) Stack- an island like erosional remnant.
Coastal deposition- happens
when sea drops or deposits
materials.
a.) Beach- is all the sediments and materials
which are parallel to the coast.
b.) Sandbars- ridges of sand offshore which are
parallel to the coast.
c.) Barrier Island- deposition by long shore
currents, there are also seasonal changes.
d.) Spits- elongated ridges of sand deposits
that are attached at one end to land and end
in open water.

e.) Sand Ridges- features connecting an island


to another island or the mainland.
In Conclusion
• Moving waves can be destructive or
constructive to the coast.
• Moving waves is the reason why coastal
system is an ever-changing physical
environment.
• Wave forms causes the formation of land or
deformation depend on its classification.
RIVERS OF THE LAND
MODULE 29
STREAM AND RIVERS
29.1.0
Stream - used to
denote the flow of
water in channels.
This may vary in
size from small
stream such as
brooks, creeks,
rills to large
stream such as
the Amazon river.
River - a large
natural stream of
flowing water or a
main stream into
which several
tributaries flow.
River water is
estimated to
make up only
0.004% of the
total volume of
freshwater.
STREAM PROFILE
AND EVOLVING
LANDSCAPES
29.2.0
Head or Headwaters - the source area of a stream or river.

Water may be sourced from:


• High regions
• Ice melting in glaciers
• Snow melting in high mountains
• Lake with outflowing stream and springs
Stream Velocity (speed) - how fast the stream is flowing

Three main factors that affect stream velocity:


• Gradient - refers to the slope of a stream channel. A
higher gradient stream has higher velocity.
• Channel Shape - affect the frictional drag with water.
There is faster flow in a semicircular channel than in a
wide and shallow channel.
• Discharge - refers to the amount of water flowing past a
certain point in a unit of time.
Gradient -
refers to the
slope of a stream
channel. A
higher gradient
stream has
higher velocity.
Channel Shape
- affect the
frictional drag
with water. There
is faster flow in a
semicircular
channel than in a
wide and shallow
channel.
Discharge -
refers to the
amount of water
flowing past a
certain point in a
unit of time.
Headwaters have steep gradients. Under the influence of gravity, water moves faster
along steeper slopes. Fast-moving currents can move even boulders down mountains
or hillsides. The sliding, rolling and bouncing break the fragments themselves, and
scrape the bottom of the stream bed.
When mountain streams reach the plain, and the gradient is abruptly reduced, the
river deposits its load at the base of the mountain, with finer materials carried farther
out. A fan-shaped deposit, or alluvial fan is formed.
• As the slope levels out, the river begins to flow more slowly. The river
meanders and may eventually cut off its loop-like bends, or meanders, to form
curving oxbow lakes.
MEANDERING RIVER AND OXBOW LAKE
Meanders widen the
river valley and build
broad floodplains.
Floodplains are
sites of erosion and
deposition of
sediments as the
river's energy is
directed from side to
side. This flat area or
valley floor is
inundated when the
river overflows its
banks.
As the river
empties into the
ocean, the
sediments of
sand, silt and clay
form an area of
flat fertile land - a
triangular-shaped
area called delta.
FRESHWATER:
A CRITICAL
ECOSYSTEM
29.3.0
• The Earth is our one big natural system water, Like air
and land, is necessary to sustain life. Organisms need
water to survive. Populations have increasing demand for
water consumption. But human activities have
endangered the capability of many natural systems to
renew on their own. Rivers dry up before they get to the
sea. Sewage, toxic and nutrient run offs from domestic,
agricultural and industrial sources have reached the
rivers and oceans.
Here is some example of how humans
have endangered freshwater:

• Thermal pollution involves heat


• Industries use water from rivers and Lakes for cooling
purposes
• Industrial operations produce waste heat and Warm waters
are discharge back to waterways

This can affect aquatic life, disrupting life cycles and reducing
the amount of oxygen available to organisms. With rising
temperatures. The solubility of oxygen in water decreases.
• One of the most well-known rivers is the Pasig Rivers. It divides the city of Manila into two.
It is heavily polluted mainly because factories discharge liquid and solid wastes into it.
Households aggravate the problem by also disposing of domestic waste into the river. In the
early 1980s, Pasig River was declared biologically dead.

• In 1989, a study undertaken by the Philippine government and the Danish International
Development Assistance found that, while the river had murky waters, high coliform (bacteria
found in the lower intestines) content, islands of garbage and clogged esteros, it could still be
restored in 15 years with the right program and funding. Efforts to rehabilitate Pasig River were
started By 1999 the water quality had improved, but not enough to use the river for fishing,
recreation and as water supply for industries. But projects are ongoing, and the vision is to make
Pasig River alive and useful again.

• Some specific goals are; to eliminate the waters offensive odor, reduce the biological oxygen
demand (an indicator of the extent of water pollution by organic matter), remove solid waste
and sunken vessels, reduce the amount of waste being dumped into the rivers, and increase as
well as control the flow of water into the river .

OUR WATERS, OUR
LIFE
29.4.0
• We mentioned in the introduction to this chapter that water is
necessary for life on Earth this fact cannot be emphasized enough.
Whether freshwater or seawater, our water resources must be
conserved, preserved and used wisely. Water pollution is not the
only issue; the effect of changing the flow of water, as in the
building of dams, must also be considered. Changes in the
atmosphere, discussed in the next chapter, may also affect the
oceans

• It has been predicted that, by the year 2025, half the planets
population will have insufficient water supply. Sadly, those who
have abundant water supply for the time being usually do not
consider the future.