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Rusty G. Abanto
What are contained in Chapter
• Introduction
• Statement of the
• Assumptions and
• Significance or
Importance of the Study
• Scope & Limitations
• Definition of Terms
• Presentation of the Problem
• The existence of an unsatisfactory condition, a felt problem that
needs a solution
• Rationale of the study
• Historical background of the problem
• A desire to have a deeper and clearer understanding of a
situation, circumstance or phenomenon
• A desire to find a better way of doing something or of improving
a product
• A desire to discover something
• Geographical conditions of the study locale
• A link between the introduction and the statement of the
• With the implementation of the
Republic Act 8292, a glaring problem in
the operation of state colleges and
universities surfaced….
• The operation of Graduate School in
the country has been observed to be
not following the principle of vertical
articulation. Such conditions…
Statement of the
• There should be a general statement of the whole
problem followed by the specific questions of sub-
problems into which the general problem is broken
Generally, this undertaking is designed to determine
the level of awareness of the CAS faculty on RA
9184, SY 2013-2014.
Specifically, this will provide answers to the following
Assumptions and
• As a general rule, historical and
descriptive research do not need
explicit hypotheses and assumptions.
• Only experimental studies need
expressly written assumptions and
Characteristics of a good
• It is researchable
• Should state in definite terms the
relationships among variables
• It should be testable
• It should follow findings of previous
Types of Hypothesis
• Null hypothesis – means no existence
of an effect, always on the negative
Ex. There is no significant difference
between the pre-test and post-test for
• Alternative hypothesis – relationship
exists or the operational form, always in
the affirmative
Describing the
Importance of the Study
• This is a set of statements about the
possible contributions of the study
• You must be able to indicate the
generalizability of the research findings,
point to the way in which the research would
contribute to theory or knowledge of a
general or specific phenomenon
• You must be able to describe the value
Delimiting the Study
• Very often, research students fail to identify
the boundaries of their research
• It is important that you describe the limitations
of your study
• In other words, this section discusses the
weaknesses of the study in terms of
methodology and generalizability of the
results to be obtained from the study
• This study focused only
on the a limited number
of respondents due
• The method employed
the crude method of
dtermining the sample
because of the absence
Defining Terminologies
• Before launching an
investigation and when
writing up a research
proposal or report, you
must define rigorously
the meaning of the
terms used in the
statement of the
problem and in the
• The objective is
to write a clear,
precise definition
that will call up
the same core of
meaning to all
researchers in the
• Conceptual definition
– also known as
constitutive, is that
which is given in
dictionaries, the
academic or universal
meaning attributed to
a word or group of
Operational Definition
• Also known as functional
definition, definition of terms is
based on how you use the
terms in the research
Questions to ask yourself
when writing Chapter 1
Background of the Study
✓Are you able to argue that the topic has a
certain level of significance that warrants
the study?
✓Are you able to describe the basic
assumptions/premises that will lead you
pursue the study?
✓Are you able to convey how you are going
to pursue the study?
Statement of the Problem

✓Is the problem interesting?

✓Is the problem new?
✓Will the study add to knowledge?
✓Is the problem feasible?
✓Has anyone else had a prior claim to it?
Objectives of the Study

✓Does it fit with the problem statement?

✓Is it specific and attainable?
✓Does it set the stage for showing how one
intends to solve or contribute to the
solution of a problem?

✓Do the hypotheses show the relationships

between and among variables?
✓Do the hypotheses carry clear implications
for testing the stated relationships?
Scope and Limitations of the Study

✓Are you able to describe the boundaries of

the research under study?
✓Are you able to describe the limitations
and weaknesses of the study in terms of
methodology and generalizability of the
results to be obtained from the study?
Significance of the Study

✓Are you able to describe the possible

contributions of the study to the various
✓Is it explicitly or impliedly discussed?

✓Are the notes follow certain style of

✓Are notes arranged as mentioned in the
Homework 2
• Visit the library and look for at least 3 titles of
• Study the structure of the title based on the
discussion in the class
• Based on what you have understood, define
now the title for your chosen topic taking into
considerations the elements of a good title
Homework 3
• Read available thesis manuscripts in
the library and take note how the
researchers came up with the Chapter
• Based on your readings and with a
tentative title already at hand, start
writing your Chapter 1
• First draft of Chapter 1 will have to be
submitted on the 28th of January 2017.
Let’s have a great semester by making
your Chapters 1-3 ready at the end of the