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1.

Problem Statement
You are recently hired by “PI-Engineering” which has its reputation in designing small to medium-
rise buildings. Your company recently won a contract to design a 12-story building in sector I,
Islamabad. In this position, you are leading a team of young engineers and unluckily, in your
company, you are the only one who has expertise in structural dynamics. The new building, after
construction, will be dedicated for emergency and rescue operations and, therefore, it is utmost
important to consider all the potential natural and man-made disasters. Your tasks in this project
is to compute possible dynamic forces as listed under client requirement.

2. Given Data
All the information provided by the client is hereby shared with you and any missing information
can be assumed reasonably with appropriate citation. The proposed building is 12-story 3-bay by
5-bay reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame. The height of the bottom story is 14 ft.
while the remaining stories are 12 ft. each resulting in a 146 ft. tall building. The length and width
of the structure is 120 ft. and 72 ft., respectively, with column spacing at 24 ft. c/c in both
directions. The geometrical layout of the proposed building is shown here.
Table 1 Dead and live loads.
Loads
Live load Floor: 50 psf, Roof:20 psf
Concrete Unit weight 150 lb/ft^3
Mechanical loading 5 psf
Partition walls 15 psf
Cladding Ok to ignore

Given
 12- Story building. (3-bay by 5-bay)
 Sector I, Islamabad
 Reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame
 Height- 14ft (bottom story)
 Height -12ft (rest of eleven stories)
 Column spacing 24ft center to center in both direction
 Live load
o For floor = 50 Psf
o For Roof = 20 psf
 Concrete weight 150 pcf
 Mechanical loading 5 psf
 Partition walls 15 psf
 Cladding is ok to ignore

Assumed values

Soil type Sc (very dense soil and


soft rocks)
Slab thickness 6”

3. Beams:

We assumed that two dimensions of beams have been used in every story of our building. We
have characterized them as primary beam and secondary beam. Primary beam is in lateral
direction of building whereas Secondary beam is in longitudinal direction of building. There
details are provided as follow:

Primary Beam = B1 Secondary beam = B2

B1 length 72’ Number of B2 length 120’ Number of beams


B1 Height 12” beams in every B2 Height 18” in every story is
B1 width 12” story is 6. B2 width 14” 4.

4. Columns:
In our building the number of columns used on Ground level is 24 and the height of story
is 14’. Whereas height of rest of stories is 12’ and number of columns remains constant that is
24. The details are as followed.
Length x width 18” x 18”
Height of Ground level 14’
Height of other(11) stories 12’
Number of columns at every floor is 24

5. Partition wall-15psf
For the partition wall we have two sides that are:

a) longer side
We have 4 partition walls on the longer side of the building.
Calculations are as follows:
Length (L1) = 111’
Height (H1) = 128’
Number of longer walls= 4
TOTAL LOAD= 4 × 111’ × 128’ × 15
= 852480 lbs
= 852.48 kips
b) shorter side
We got six partition wall on the shorter side of the building.
Calculations are as follows:
Length (L2) = 66’
Height (H2) = 134’
Number of shorter walls = 6
Total load = 6 × 66’ × 134’ × 15
= 795960 lbs.
= 796 kips
Self-weight = 1648.38 kips
6. Dead load
Element Dead Load (𝑊𝑢 )(kips)
Slabs (12) 12960
Beam 1 933.12
Beam 2 1814.4
Bottom Columns 136.08
Top Columns 1283.04
Partition walls 1648.38
Mechanical load 118.8
∑ = 18893.82

7. Design Base Shear by Pakistan Building Code

From Pakistan Building Code, Chapter.no.5 (Division III), we use formula to calculate base
shear.
Total design base shear in a given direction will be determined by the following formula

𝐶𝑣 𝐼
V=W 𝑅𝑇

Cv = depend upon soil type = 0.32


I = seismic importance factor = 1.25
R = response Modification factor = 8.5
T = seismic time period of structure = 1.26 sec
Z = seismic one factor (2B) = 0.2
Ca= seismic Co-efficient = 0.24
T=Seismic Time Period of structure
𝐶𝑡 = 0.03
𝐻 𝑘 = (1460.75 )= 42.00 ft

W = 18893.82 kips
Seismic time period of structure is calculated by the following formula

3
T= 𝐶𝑡 × ℎ4 = 1.26 sec
𝐶𝑣 𝐼
V=W = 705.65 kips.
𝑅𝑇

The total design base shear should not exceeds than the value calculated by the given formula
𝐶𝑎 𝐼
𝑉𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 (not exceeding) = 2.5 𝑤 = 1667.1 kips (OK)
𝑅

The total design base shear should not less than the value calculated by the given formula

𝑉𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 (not less than)= 0.11 𝐶𝑎 𝑤 = 498.80kips (OK)

Design for each story Lateral force

As per ASCE code 7-16 ,the lateral force at each level /story is calculated by the given formula
𝐹𝑥 = 𝐶𝑥 𝑉
V→ Base Shear
𝑪𝒗𝒙 → vertical distribution factor

As per ASCE 7-16, vertical distribution factor is calculated by the following formula
𝒌
𝑾𝒙 𝒉𝒙𝒊
𝒏
𝑪𝒗 𝒙 = ∑
𝒊=𝟏 𝑾𝒊 𝒉𝒌𝒊

k= 1 (for buildings having a time period of 0.5 seconds)


k-2(for buildings having time period of 2.5 seconds)
hi and hx= height from base to level i or x
wi and wx=portion of total gravity load of building w assigned to level i or x

𝒌
Story 𝒉𝒙 ∕ 𝒉𝒊 𝒉𝒙𝒊 𝑾𝒙 𝑾𝒙 𝒉𝒌𝒙 𝑪 𝒗𝒙 𝒇𝒙

1 14 196 1795.16 351851.36 0.002069 1.622047


2 26 676 1746.08 1180350.08 0.006941 5.441453
3 38 1444 1746.08 2521339.52 0.014826 11.62346
4 50 2500 1746.08 4365200 0.025668 20.12372
5 62 3844 1746.08 6711931.52 0.039467 30.94223
6 74 5476 1746.08 9561534.08 0.056223 44.07899
7 86 7396 1746.08 12914007.68 0.075936 59.53401
8 98 9604 1746.08 16769352.32 0.098606 77.30727
9 110 12100 1746.08 21127568 0.124233 97.39879
10 122 14884 1746.08 25988654.72 0.152817 119.8086
11 134 17956 1746.08 31352612.48 0.184358 144.5366
12 146 21316 1746.08 37219441.28 0.218856 171.5829
Total 170063843 1 784
8. WIND LOAD

As per Building Code Pakistan ,Chapter 5, Division III

Every building or structure and every portion thereof shall be designed and constructed to resist
the wind effects determined in accordance with the requirements of this division where
applicable or any other internationally recognized building code. Wind shall be assumed to come
from any horizontal direction. No reduction in wind pressure shall be taken for the shielding
effect of adjacent structures.
Structures sensitive to dynamic effects, such as buildings with a height-to-width ratio greater
than five, structures sensitive to wind-excited oscillations, such as vortex shedding or icing, and
buildings over 125 meters (410 feet) in height, shall be, and any structure may be, designed in
accordance with approved international standards.
The provisions of this section do not apply to building and foundation systems in those areas
subject to scour and water pressure by wind and wave action. Buildings and foundations subject
to such loads shall be designed in accordance with approved international standards.

We will calculate wind load as

P= 𝐶𝑒 𝐶𝑞 𝑞𝑠 𝐼𝜔
P=Design wind pressure Kn.m^2 (psf)
Ce=combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient
Cq=Pressure Coefficient for structure
Iw=Importance Factor
qv=wind stagnation pressure at standard height of 10m

𝐶𝑒 = 1.31
𝐶𝑞 = 0.8
𝑞𝑠 =1.48 kN/𝑚2
𝐼𝜔 = 1.15

P = 1.31 x 0.8 x 1.48 x 1.15


= 1.78 kN/𝑚2
= 37.18 lb/𝑓𝑡 2

9. Base Shear By ASCE 7-2016

As pr ASCE code 7-16,Sesmic base shear is calculated by the given formula

V = 𝐶𝑠 𝑤
Cs=seismic response coefficient
W=total dead load of structure
W = 18893.82 kips
g = 386.4 in/𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

Steps for 𝐶𝑠

For short period response acceleration is calculated by the given formula

𝑆𝑚𝑆 = 𝐹𝑎 𝑆𝑠
𝑆𝑠 = 0.77
𝐹𝑎 = 1.1
𝑆𝑚𝑆 =0.847
𝑆𝛥𝑠 =(2 ∕ 3 ) 𝑆𝑚𝑆
𝑆𝛥𝑠 =0.565
𝑇𝑎 = 𝐶𝑡 ℎ𝑛𝑘
𝑇𝑎 = 1.42
I = 1.25
𝑠𝛥𝑠
𝐶𝑠 =
𝑅∕𝐼
Cs = 0.088

For long period response acceleration is calculated by the given formula


𝑆𝑀1 = 𝐹𝑣 𝑆1
𝑆1= 0.21
𝐹𝑣 = 1.6
𝑆𝑀1 = 0.336
𝑆𝛥1=(2 ∕ 3 ) 𝑆𝑚1
𝑆𝛥1= 0.229
R=8
𝑠
𝐶𝑠 = (𝑅⁄𝛥1𝐼)𝑇

𝐶𝑠 = 0.025
𝐶𝑠 = 0.025

𝐶𝑠.𝑚𝑖𝑛 =0.044x𝑆𝛥𝑠 Xi
𝐶𝑠.𝑚𝑖𝑛 ==0.0311 > 0.025 (not okay)
So
𝐶𝑠 = 𝐶𝑠.𝑚𝑖𝑛 =0.0311

V = 𝐶𝑠 𝑤
V = 0.0311 x 18893.82
= 587.6kips