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What are the Kinds of Lie?

1. White Lie or Benign Lie - the kind of lies used to protect or maintain the
harmony of friendship or any relationship.
2. Pathological Lie - this is a lie made by persons who cannot distinguish right
from wrong.
3. Red Lie - this involves political interests and motives because this is a
part of communist propaganda strategy. This is prevalent in communist
countries or communist infested nation. Lies of means of propaganda-
brain-washing and blackmail via espionage and treason.
4. Black Lie - a lie accompanies pretensions and hypocrisies, intriguing to
cause dishonor or discredit ones good image.
5. Malicious or Judicial Lie - this is very pure and unjustifiable kind of lie
that is intended purely to mislead or obstruct justice.

What are the Types of Liars?

1. Panic Liars - one who lies in order to avoid the consequences of a


confession, He/She is afraid of embarrassment to love ones and it is a
serious blow to his / her ego, He/She believes that confession will just male
the matter worst.
2. Occupational Liars - Is someone laid for spare years, this person is a
practical liar and lies when it has a higher “ pay off” than telling the truth.
3. Tournament Liars - Loves to lie and is excited by the challenge of not being
detected, this person views an interview as another contest and wants to win,
this person realizes that he or she will probably be convicted bur will not give
anyone the satisfaction of hearing him or her confesses, he wants that people
will believe that the law is punishing an innocent person.
4. Psychopathic Liars - the most difficult type, this person has no conscience.
He shows no regret for dishonestly and no manifestation of guilt,
5. Ethnological Liars - is one who is taught not to be a squealer, *squealer – to
cry or to shrill voice, used by underworld gang in order for their member not to
reveal any secret of their organization.
6. Pathological Liars - A person who cannot distinguish right from wrong (his
mind is sick.), Is an insane person.
7. Black Liars - A person who always pretends, (What he thinks of himself,
what kind of person he is, and what he is.)

What is Ordeal?

A severe test of character or endurance; a trying course of experience, A medieval


form of judicial trial in which the accused was subjected to physical tests, as carrying or
walking over burning objects or immersing the hand in scalding water, the result being
considered a divine judgment of guilt or innocence.

It is also a term of varying meaning closely related in the Medieval Latin “ Dei
Indicum” meaning “ Miraculous decision.” Ordeal is also an ancient method of trial in
which the accused was exposed to physical danger which was supposed to be harmless
if he was innocent.

What are the Early Methods of Detecting Lies?

1. Red hot iron ordeal - Practiced on the hill tribe of Rajhmal in the North Bengal;
Accused placed his tongue to a red hot iron nine times (9) unless burned sooner;
If burned, he is put to death. Not only that (licking the iron), he is also made to carry
the metal into his hands. It is doubtful whether the ordeal is meant to determined
the physiological changes occurring in description for if this so, many false
observations must have been made.
2. Ordeal by balance - Practiced in the Institute of Vishnu, India; Scale of balanced
is used; In one end of the scale, the accused is placed in the other end, a counter
balance; The person will step out of the scale listened to a judge deliver an
extortion is the balance and her back in. If he were found to be lighter than before
then he should be acquitted.
3. Boiling water ordeal - Used in Africa; the method was that the subject will plunged
their right arms into the boiling pot to the elbow and step into the other side of the
fire. All are told to undergo the test without a murmur. And when all are finished,
they are told to return at the same tine the next afternoon. The one who by that
time had lost some or showed blisters would prove the thief (Point out who is the
one who steal among his tribe mates).
4. Ordeal by rice chewing - Practiced by Indians; It is formed with a kind of rice
called sathee, prepared with various incantations; The person on trial eats, with
his face to the and then spits upon an eyeful leaf; If the saliva is mixed with blood
or the corner of his mouth swell or he trembles, he is declared then a liar.
5. Ordeal of the red water - Used in a wide region of Eastern Africa; The ordeal of
the “ sassy bark” or red water is used; The accused is made to fast for twelve
hours; The swallow a small amount of rice; Then he will be imbibed in dark colored
water. This water is actually an emetic and if the suspects ejects all the rice, he is
considered innocent of the chare, Otherwise, the accused is guilty.
6. Combination of Drinks and Food Ordeal -The accused first fasted for 12 hours
and the given small amount of rice to ear followed by large amount of black colored
water. If the concoction was vomited, the accused was pronounced innocent;
Otherwise, guilty. And practiced by “ West African Regions” .
7. Trial by Combat - A fight between the accuser and the accused, whoever lost the
battle will be the adjudged guilty. Originated from India and one of the examples
of this: a rich man or accuser could hire somebody or bigger one to fight the
accused. After the fight the loser is adjudged guilty of crime.
8. Trial by Torture - The accused was put into a severe physical test.
9. Drinking Ordeal - The accused was given a decoction to drink by a priest – if
innocent; no harm befalls him, but if guilty, will die. Practiced in Nigeria and India.
10. Trial of the Eucharist - This trial is reserved for the clergy, and administered with
pomp and ceremony. If the accused was guilty, the Angel Gabriel will descend
from heaven and prevent the accused from swallowing the food given to him.
Practiced in the European countries.
11. Ordeal by heat and fire - The accused was compelled to walk bare footed through
a fire; if he remains unhurt then he is innocent. Practiced in East Germany, Early
Scandinavian Countries and early England.
12. Ordeal of Boiling Oil or Water - The accused was forced to dip his hands into the
boiling water or oil and ask to pick up stone in it. If he remains unhurt then he is
innocent. Practiced in Asian Countries.
13. Ordeal of Red hot Needle - Red hot needle was drawn through the lips of the
accused, if innocent; no blood will be seen flowing out. Practiced in Wanaka, East
Africa.
14. Ordeal of the Tiger - Accuser and accused were placed together in the same and
a tiger set loose upon them. If both were spared, further elimination followed.
Practical in Siam.
15. Ordeal by Combat - Accuser and accused report to a duel where the winner was
adjudged innocent. Those not proficient in weapons and those who could not afford
to do so could hire champions in the field to do the fighting for them. This type of
ordeal is vividly dramatized in the movie “ Ivanhoe” based on the novel of the
same title (became the only legal ordeal). Practiced in England, time of “ King
Henry III” .
16. Test of the Cross ordeal - The accuser and accused each were made to stand
with arms crossed on their breasts. The one who endured the longest was deemed
to have told the truth, the other, is the liar. Practiced in Europe.
17. Donkey’ s Tail Ordeal - Psychological theory, the donkey placed in one room
alone and observed it, and if the donkey cried is a judged of guilty of crimes,
because deep in side and conscience he is guilty.

What are the Common Countries that Practiced Ordeal?

1. Burma - The accuser and accused were given each identical candle and both
were lightened at the same time.
2. Borneo - The accuser and accused were presented by shell fish placed on a
plate. An irritating fluid was then poured on the shell fish and the litigant whose
shell fish moved first was adjudged the winner.
3. Greece - A suspended axe was spun at the center of a group of suspects. When
the axe stopped, whoever was in line with the blade as supposed to be guilty as
pointed out by the divine providence.
4. Nigeria - The priest greased a clock’ s feather and pierced the tongue of the
accused. If the feather passed through the tongue easily, the accused was
deemed innocent. If not, the accused is guilty. Another Method (same country)
Pour corrosive liquid into the eyes of the accused who was supposed to remain
unharmed if innocent. Pour boiling oil over the hand of the accused with he usual
requisites for guilt or innocence (if remain unharmed, he is innocent).
5. Europe and Early United States (17th Century) - Trial by water was commonly
used on those accused of witchcraft. The accused was bound (hand and foot)
and then cast into the body of water. If the accused sank, he was hauled to the
surface half-drowned and deemed innocent. If the floated, he was deemed guilty
and burned to death.