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SANTA LIBRADA JUNIOR

HIGH SCHOOL

SUBJECT:
ENGLISH

TOPIC:
LITERATURE FAMOUS AUTHORS

NAME:
ROBERTO OTHON

TEACHER:
MR. RODRÍGUEZ

DATE:
SEPTIEMBRE 19 SEPT. 2019
Índice

Introducción……………………………………………………….……………………………….1
The biography of ten famous north american authors (writers)…………..2
Bring ten of the most outstanding plays for each autho……………………….3
Introduction

The literature of the United States began with myths, legends, lyrical tales and poems that
indigenous cultures transmitted from word of mouth (always in the form of songs). The oral
tradition of Native Americans are very varied. This work offers the first-time reader a light
and representative guide on fiction literature produced in the United States of America in
the 19th and 20th centuries. We will talk about books and famous authors. Of course, being
such a vast production, it will be impossible to talk about all the authors and featured books.
I just want this brief introduction to serve as an incentive to investigate further and begin
reading this type of book.

Often, fictional characters represent Americans as confused people, in search of their


identity. In them weighs a desire to atone for the mistakes of the past and this causes an
internal struggle between national pride (the "American way of life" and its world
leadership) against personal identity.

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I. THE BIOGRAPHY OF TEN FAMOUS NORTH AMERICAN AUTHORS (WRITERS)

Biography of Edgar Allan Poe


(1809-1849)
Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. He is best known for his
poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and suspense. He is generally
considered the inventor of detective fiction.
Poe’s work as an editor, a poet, and a critic had a profound impact on American and
international literature. In addition to his detective stories he is one of the originators of
horror and science fiction. He is often credited as the architect of the modern short story.
He also focused on the effect of style and structure in a literary work: as such, he has been
seen. French Symbolists such as Mallarmé and
Rimbaud claimed him as their literary model.
Baudelaire translated is works into French.
Today, Poe is regarded as one of the first
American writers to become a major figure in
world literature. He was unusual in that he
strived to earn his living through writing
alone, which resulted in a life of financial
hardship and near poverty.

Biography of Nathaniel Hawthorne


(1804 -1864)
Nathaniel Hawthorne was a novelist and short story writer. Hawthorne’s works have been
labelled ‘dark romanticism,’ dominated as they are by cautionary tales that suggest that
guilt, sin, and evil are the most inherent natural qualities of humankind. His novels and
stories, set in a past New England, are versions of historical fiction used as a vehicle to
express themes of ancestral sin, guilt and retribution.Although his natural inclination was
to express himself through the short story form,
he is best known for his novels, and particularly his
most famous, The Scarlet Letter, a romance in an
historical setting – puritan Boston, Massachusetts,
in the 17th century. It is the story of the
unfortunate Hester Prynne, who gives birth to a
child as a result of an affair with a preacher, and
struggles to create a new life of repentance. The
novel explores the themes of sin, guilt and
legalism. D.H. Lawrence wrote that there could be
no more perfect work of the American imaginatio

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Biography Emily Dickinson
(1830-1886)
Unknown as a poet during her lifetime, Emily Dickinson is now regarded by many as one of
the most powerful voices of American culture. Her poetry has inspired many other writers,
including the Brontes. In 1994 the critic, Harold Bloom, listed her among the twenty-six
central writers of Western civilisation.
After she died her sister found the almost two thousand poems the poet had written. As
her poems entered the public consciousness her reception concentrated on her eccentric,
reclusive nature, but since then she has become acknowledged as an original and powerful
poet. It is fortunate that her sister gained access to the
poems as without them American culture would have
been very much poorer. Emily Dickinson challenged the
existing definitions of poetry and what the work of a poet
is. She experimented with language with the aim of
freeing it from conventional restraints. She created a new
type of persona for the first person narrator: the speakers
in Dickinson’s poetry are observers who see the
inescapable limitations of their societies as well as their
imagined and imaginable escape from that.

Biography Henry James


(1843 –1916)
Henry James is regarded as one of the key figures of 19th-century literary realism. He is
noted for writing from a character’s point of view’ which allowed him to explore
consciousness and perception. His imaginative use of point of view, interior monologue and
unreliable narrators brought a new depth to narrative fiction, all of which were influential
on the writing of the novelists who followed him. He was nominated for the Nobel prize for
literature three times.
James’s writing career was one of the longest and most productive—and most influential—
in American literary history. He enlarged the novel while
employing a highly individual method and style. He wrote 20
novels, 112 tales, 12 plays, several volumes of travel and
criticism, and a great deal of literary journalism over 50 years.
His persistent theme was that of an innocent, exuberant, and
democratic America confronting the worldly wisdom and
corruption of Europe’s older, aristocratic culture. His sense of
the human scene was surefooted: he was one of the great
prose writers and stylists of his century. He was a
representative of a new realist school of literary art which
broke with the English romantic tradition of which the works
of Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray were
prime examples

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Biography T. S. Eliot
(1888-1965)
Thomas Stearns Eliot was an American-born, British, poet, essayist, playwright, critic,
now regarded as one of the twentieth century’s major poets. He received more rewards
than almost any other writer of the past two centuries, including the Nobel prize, the Dante
Gold Medal, the Goethe prize, the US Medal of Freedom and the British Order of Merit.
Eliot is best known for his great modern 20th century poem, The Waste Land. Other
poems that distinguish his work are Ash Wednesday, The Lovesong of J Alfred Prufrock, The
Four Quartets, and the ever-popular (particularly among children) Old Possum’s Book of
Practical Cats. His plays – verse dramas – Murder
in the Cathedral and The Cocktail Party – are
amogn the landmarks of 20th century drama.
The Waste Land (1922) is widely regarded as
a central text of modernism and has
frequently been described as the most
important poem of the 20th century

Biography Tennessee Williams


(1911 – 1983)

Thomas Lanier Williams III, known as Tennessee Williams is one of America’s most
popular playwrights, and now regarded as one of the most significant writers of the
twentieth century. He wrote more than thirty plays, some of which have become classis
of Western drama. He also wrote novels and short stories but is known almost
exclusively for his plays. His genius was in the honesty with which he represented
society and the art of presenting that in the
form of absorbing drama. The plays offer a
stark picture of the prejudices of the
American south, acknowledging economic
realities and exploring social conditions that
were taboo when he began writing, such as
homosexuality and domestic violence.

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Biography Joseph Heller
(1923 –1999)

Joseph Heller was an American writer of satirical novels, short stories and plays. Although
he wrote several acclaimed novels, his reputation rests firmly on his masterpiece, the great
American anti-war satire, Catch 22. Because of the quality of the novel and the impact it
has made on American culture it has catapulted Heller into the ranks of the great American
writers.

In that novel the main protagonist, Yossarian, poses a question which is one of the great
questions of modern times: has this huge industrial military that we’ve constructed become
more deadly and powerful than the cause
for which it was constructed?

The phrase, “Catch-22″ has become a buzz-


phrase for anyone caught in a dilemma.
Soon after the novel came out the term
became the cult favourite for the anti-
Vietnam, baby-boom generation that was
coming of age in the mid- and late-60s. And
since then it has entered the American
lexicon, and firmly into the English
language generally.

BIOGRAFÍA DE WILLIAM FAULKNER


(1897-1962)

William Faulkner (September 25, 1897 - July 6, 1962) writer. He was born in New Albania,
Mississippi, United States. He was born in a traditional southern family, and as an older
brother he had to assume several responsibilities.
Winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1949, Faulkner was one of the first literary
modernists in the United States to adopt narrative
techniques from European authors such as Virginia
Woolf or James Joyce. His work, characterized by a
careful lexicon, long phrases and new experiments
such as the inner monologue, is made up of works
such as Noise and Fury, centered on the decadent
Compson family, or the two intertwined stories of
The Wild Palm Trees, in addition to a countless short
stories included in his collection Tales gathered.

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Biography Mark Twain
(1835 - 1910)

Mark Twain as "father of American literature." However, it was not only Faulkner who saw
it that way, since Mark Twain is considered today as one of the best American novelists of
the late 19th century.
Twain was able to combine, on the one hand, the
carefreeness and illusions of childhood in contrast to
the disappointment of the adult world, less cheerful,
colder and with less illusions.
Of his more than 500 novels, which have transcended
the passing of the years, we highlight The Prince and
the Beggar (1882) or The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
(1876) and the continuation, The Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn (18 85).

Biography Ernest Hemingway


(1899 - 1961)

Ernest Hemingway. This novelist has had a remarkable influence on the way of writing by
other authors after him. Hemingway was an expert in representing in his novels the society
of the years he had to live. He was present in several conflicts during the Spanish Civil War
and World War II, which would inspire him to write
some of his best-known books.

It was Pulitzer Prize in 1953 thanks to the traveler


and the sea, but they are also worth mentioning.

He committed suicide in 1960 due to a long history


of mental problems that had resulted in a
depression he could not overcome. Hemingway is
probably the best American writer of the last
century.

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II. BRING TEN OF THE MOST OUTSTANDING PLAYS FOR EACH AUTHO

1) Edgar Allan Poe


His numerous tales and stories, such as those of terror:
1. The fall of the house Usher,
2. The premature burial,
3. The pit and the pendulum,
4. The barrel of amontillado,
5. The truth about the case of Mr. Valdemar,
6. Ligeia, The beating heart,
7. The black cat , etc.
His only novel:
1. The narration of Arthur Gordon Pym;
His poetry, such as:
1. The Raven and other poems,
2. Annabel Lee, etc.

2) Nathaniel Hawthorne
Novel

1. Fanshawe, a Tale (1828)


2. The Scarlet Letter (1850)
3. The House of the Seven Gables (1851)
4. The Blithedale Romance (1852)
5. The Marble Faun (1860).

Stories for children

1. Grandfather's Chair (1841)


2. Famous Old People (1841)
3. Liberty Tree (1841)
4. Biographical Stories for Children (1842)
5. A Wonder Book for Girls and Boys (1851)
6.

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3) Emily Dickinson

MOST FAMOUS POEMS:

1. Hope is the thing with feathers


2. Because i could not stop for death
3. I’m nobody! Who are you?
4. I heard a fly buzz – when i died
5. If i can stop one heart from breaking
6. Wild nights – wild nights!
7. Success is counted sweetest
8. Tell all the truth but tell it slant
9. Much madness is divinest sense
10. “Faith” is a fine invention

4) Henry James
The work of Henry James stands out for its extension and variety
1. Roderick Hudson (1875)
2. Washington Square (1880)
3. The Portrait of a Lady (1881)
4. The Bostonians (1886)
5. The pillage of Poynton (1896)
6. What Maisie knew (1897)
7. The sacred fountain (1901)
8. The Ambassadors (1903)
9. The ambassadors (1903)
10. The golden cup (1904)

5) T. S. Eliot

1. Inventions of the March Hare (compilation of youth poetry, 1909-1917)


2. Prufrock and other observations (1917)
3. Poems (1920)
4. The wasteland (1922)
5. The Hollow Men (1925)

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Test

1. The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism (1920)


2. The Second-Order Mind (1920)
3. Tradition and the individual talent (1920)
4. Homage to John Dryden (1924)
5. Shakespeare and the Stoicism of Seneca (1928)
6. For Lancelot Andrewes (1928)

6) Tennessee Williams

Plays, in chronological order

1. Beauty Is the Word (1930)


2. Cairo! Shanghai! Bombay! (1935)
3. Candles to the Sun (1936)
4. The Magic Tower (1936)
5. Fugitive Kind (1937)
6. Spring Storm (1937)
7. Summer at the Lake (1937)
8. The Palooka (1937)
9. The Fat Man's Wife (1938)
10. Not about Nightingales (1938)

7) Joseph Heller
Novel
1. Catch-22, 1961
2. Something Happened, 1974
3. Good as Gold, 1979
4. God Knows, 1984
5. Poetics, 1987
6. Picture This, 1988
7. Closing Time, 1994
8. Portrait of an Artist, as an Old Man, 2000

Theater

9. Bombed in New Haven, 1968


10. Clevinger's Trial, 1974

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8) WILLIAM FAULKNER

1. Soldiers' Pay, 1926


2. Mosquitoes, 1927
3. Sartoris (1929). His first uncut version, Flags on the dust, was published in 1973.
4. The noise and the fury (The Sound and the Fury, 1929)
5. As I Lay Dying, 1930
6. Sanctuary, 1931
7. Light in August, 1932
8. Pylon, 1935
9. Absalom, Absalom !, 1936
10. The Unvanquished, 1938

9) Mark Twain

His novels
1. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn -considered as the first novel in American
literature-,
2. 2. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,
3. Life in the Mississippi,
4. Hard Life or Passing Fatigue (Roughing it, in English),
5. The Golden Age,
6. Prince and Beggar ,
7. A Yankee in the court of King Arthur - historical fantasy;
8. Tom Sawyer
9. The Prince and the Pauper
His folkloric tales:
10. The famous jumping frog of Calaveras County;

10) Ernest Hemingway

Novel
1. The Torrents of Spring, 1926
2. The Sun Also Rises, 1926
3. A Farewell to Arms, 1929
4. To Have and Have Not, 1937

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5. For Whom the Bell Tolls, 1940
6. Across the River and into the Trees, 1950
7. The Old Man and the Sea (1952
8. Islands in the Stream, 1970
9. The Garden of Eden, 1986
10. True at First Light, 1999

III TEN SHORT STORIES

1) Edgar Allan Poe (Alone)

Since the time of my childhood, I have not been


as others were, I have not seen
as others saw, I couldn't get
My passions from a common spring.
From the same source I have not taken
my sorrow; would not wake up
my heart to joy with the same tone;
and everything I wanted, I wanted it alone.
Then - in my childhood - at dawn
from a very stormy life, he took
from every depth of the good and the bad
the mystery that still binds me:
from the torrent or the source,
from the red rock of the mountain,
From the sun that revolved around me
in its autumn tinged with gold,
from the lightning in the sky
that flew past me,
from thunder and storm,
and the cloud that took the form
(when the rest of the sky was blue)
Of a demon before my sight.

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2) Nathaniel Hawthorne (Wakefield)

I remember reading in a magazine or old newspaper the story, told as true, of a man — let's
call him Wakefield — who abandoned his wife for a long time. The fact, thus exposed in the
abstract, is not very infrequent, nor should it - without adequate discrimination of
circumstances - be censored by wayward or absurd. Be that as it may, this, although far
from being the most serious, is perhaps the strangest case of marital crime of any news.
And it is also the most remarkable extravagance of those that can be found in the complete
list of the oddities of men. The couple in question lived in London. The husband, under the
pretext of a trip, left his house, rented rooms on the next street and there, without his wife
or friends knowing about him and without any shadow of reason for such self-exile, lived
for more than twenty years. In the course of this time he looked at the house every day and
often saw the helpless wife. And after such a long break in his marital happiness when his
death was already taken for granted, his inheritance had been distributed and his name
erased from all memories; when it was so long since his wife had resigned herself to an
autumnal widowhood — one night he quietly entered through the door, as if he had been
outside only during the day, and was a loving husband until death.

This summary is all I remember. But I think that the incident, although it manifests an
absolute unprecedented originality and is likely never to be repeated, is one of those that
awaken the sympathies of the human race. Each of us knows that, on his own, he would not
commit such madness; and yet, intuit that anyone else could do it. In my meditations, at
least, this case appears insistently, astonishing me always and always accompanied ...

3) Emily Dickinson

Poety I taste a liquor never brewed


I taste a liquor never brewed
From Tankards scooped in Pearl
Not all the Frankfurt Berries
Yield such an Alcohol!
Inebriate of air – am I,
And Debauchee of Dew,
Reeling, – through’ endless summer days,
From inns of molten Blue.
When “Landlords” turn the drunken Bee

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Out of the Foxglove’s door,
When Butterflies renounce their “drams”,
I shall but drink the more!
Till Seraphs swing their snowy Hats,
And Saints – to windows run,
To see the little Tippler
Come staggering toward – Sun!

4) Henry James (The Gold Cup)


Adam Verver, a wealthy American widower retired from business, travels
Europe with his daughter Maggie buying and collecting antiques. When
Maggie knows and falls in love with Americo, a Roman prince rich in
apostorship and lineage, but not in fortune, his father "buys" it as he has
bought everything he has liked in life, at the time he acquires, for her second
nuptials, an attractive, and also poor, American girl, Charlotte Stant. Charlotte
is a friend of Maggie and is also a friend of the Prince: her friendship with him
goes back to a time when poverty seemed to condemn them to never join.
Now they meet again in luxury and slack, but if the old obstacles have
disappeared it is only thanks to those with whom they have married ... A
splendid game of variations on the possibilities of this unique ménage a quatre
constitutes and articulates what it had to be Henry James' last complete novel,
"a wonderfully luminous drama" in the words of Gore Vidal, in which
knowledge is "both fascination and fear."

5) T. S. Eliot (Eyes That Last I Saw In Tears)

Eyes that last I saw in tears


Through division
Here in death’s dream kingdom
The golden vision reappears
I see the eyes but not the tears

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This is my affliction

This is my affliction
Eyes I shall not see again
Eyes of decision
Eyes I shall not see unless
At the door of death’s other kingdom
Where, as in this,
The eyes outlast a little while
A little while outlast the tears
And hold us in derision.

6) Tennessee Williams (The Rosse Tatto)

Serafina delle Rose (Anna Magnani), a passionate Italian-American woman, of Sicilian origin,
who lives in New Orleans, lives tormented by the idea of being unfaithful to her husband,
already deceased at the hands of a policeman. But one day he meets a tough truck driver
(Burt Lancaster). The Sicilian widow, Serafina, continues to remember her husband with
great love. He lives in the company of his daughter Rosa, who is courted by a sailor named
Jack. One day she discovers that her husband was cheating on her with a cabaret girl, so she
suffers a great disappointment. That's when she meets Álvaro, a man younger than her,
who physically reminds her of her late husband. Serafina establishes relationships with
Álvaro, and one afternoon, after drinking a lot, he stays home completely drunk. Jack, who
watches the house, believes that Álvaro is understood with Rosa, which leads to a tragedy.

7) Joseph Heller (Catch-22, 1961)

The action takes place during the last months of World War II and focuses on a squad of
American bombers. Colonel Cathcart, squad leader, wants to be promoted to general. And
he finds no better way than to send his men to carry out the most dangerous missions. With
a sinister logic, Yossarian, a subordinate pilot of Cathcart who tries to be exempted from
the service alleging mental illness, receives by response that only crazy people accept air
missions and that his disgust shows that he is healthy and that, therefore, he is fit to fly

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8) WILLIAM FAULKNER (While Dying)
In a rural agricultural town in Yoknawpatapha County, the Bundren family prepares for the death of
their matriarch, Addie Bundren. Former school teacher and mother of five children, Addie gets sick
and asks to be buried with her family in the city of Jefferson. She had four children with her husband
Anse: Cash, Darl, Dewey Dell, and Vardaman, and a son - Jewel - from her extra-marital relationship
with a local priest named Whitfield. Cash, an expert carpenter, works persistently in his coffin, while
neighboring farmers Vernon and Cora Tull offer their help and sympathy. The rival sons Darl and
Jewel leave for a job that has been entrusted to them in order to earn three dollars in salary, while
their mother is dying. When they are absent, Addie closes her eyes and exhales her last breath.

When the boys return, Anse prepares the family for the trip to Jefferson. They place Addie in the
home-made coffin and then put this inside a rickety cart. It has been raining heavily, which has made
the terrain difficult for the trip. When they reach their first destination, they discover that the bridge
has been razed. Tull has followed them to the bridge wishing to help, while his wife Cora prays for
their souls. Convinced that they must persist, they cross the river without the Tull mule. He finally
gives it to them. However, in their attempt to cross the ford, a loose trunk disrupts the car, injuring
Cash's injured leg, and almost losing the coffin in the water, and killing the mules.

Anse mortgages his agricultural tools and exchanges Jewel's horse for a new team of mules, so that
the family can move on. Enraged by Anse's trap, Jewel disappears from the farm they are on. While
the Bundren cross Mottson, they cover Cash's leg with cement in a futile attempt to splint it and
allow it to heal, and Dewey Dell tries to get an abortion with a local pharmacist, with no luck. When
night comes, they spend the night in the Gillespie barn. Vardaman is fascinated with the buzzards
that surround his mother's coffin and Jewel returns to argue with Darl. One night, Vardaman sees
Darl set the barn on fire, causing its impending destruction. Jewel rushes into the barn to save his
mother's coffin and several farm animals and burns his back in doing so.

The family set out for Jefferson the next day and arrives ready to bury Addie. A worker at a local
pharmacy seduces Dewey Dell while she tries to get an abortion, while Peabody attends Cash's
shattered leg. The family discovers that Darl is the man responsible for burning the Gillespie barn
and realizes that Gillespie plans to sue them. Instead of sending him to jail, Anse coordinates for
Darl to be admitted to a center for the mentally ill. Darl laughs hysterically on the train to Jackson,
his new home.

Anse visits a local house to ask to borrow shovels to bury his late wife, and ends up spending time
with another woman. After burying Addie, Anse returns the shovels and does not return to the cart
until the next morning. When he returns, he is well shaved, brings a new denture, a gramophone
and a new wife.

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9) Mark Twain (The Prince and the Pauper

In the time of King Henry VIII, a young beggar named Tom Canty lived in London. On one
occasion, after sneaking into the royal palace, Tom found himself before the Prince of
Wales. When analyzing their great resemblance, they decided to exchange clothes and their
role in life. Thereafter, the situation of both was reversed and the poor boy and accustomed
to misery was treated as a prince of royal blood, while the king's son knew hunger,
persecutions and injustice.

10) Ernest Hemingway (The old man and the sea)


Santiago is an old Gulf Stream fisherman. He is accompanied by a young boy, with whom the feeling
of appreciation is mutual, but he had to leave him for other fishermen with more fortune in their
fishing. However, he kept helping him.

One day the old man went out to sea with the aim of ending his bad streak in fishing. The boy had
got him bait. After a few hours of sailing, having lost sight of the coast, a fish stung the hook. It was
an offshore fish. The old man's forces were going less and less and he predicted that the fish could
kill him, but he had a strong determination to get him out of the water, and he didn't care if he had
to leave his life in the attempt. After a long and hard battle, the fish had the worst luck, and the old
man, overflowing with happiness, since he did not believe that the fish was so immense, he tied it
to the side of the boat, to set course for the coast. "So big, it was like mooring a much bigger boat
alongside yours." All his efforts would have been useless if he failed to bring the fish to the mainland,
however, and to his disappointment, a shark appeared. When the shark approached to eat the fish,
the old man dealt a deadly blow to the head with his harpoon, had freed himself from the shark,
but it would not take any longer to get closer by following the trail of blood scattered from the
injured fish. The old man managed to beat them, but he had eaten half a fish. At night they
approached him more than they finished him, leaving only the head, the spine and the tail, enough
to bear witness to the feat.

Thus, I finally arrive at the port, it was night and there was no one to help you pick up. When he
finished he went home to sleep. The next morning the boy, very worried, went to his house to see
how he was and promised that he would go fishing with him.

The other fishermen recognized the merit of Santiago, seeing the remains of the fish, which was a
shark.

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Vocabulary
1. Literary Terms: Literary terms refer to the technique, style, and formatting used by
writers and speakers to masterfully emphasize, embellish, or strengthen their
compositions

2. Short Story: A story with a fully developed theme but significantly shorter and
less elaborate than a novel.

3. Character: A person in a novel, play, or movie.

4. Setting: The place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or


where an event takes place.

5. Plot: The main events of a play, novel, movie, or similar work, devised and
presented by the writer as an interrelated sequence.

6. Theme: A theme can be an underlying topic of a discussion or a recurring idea in


an artistic work. Anxiety about getting married is a big theme in romantic
comedies.

7. Allusión: An expression designed to call something to mind without


mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.

8. Met·a·phorA figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an


object or action to which it is not literally applicable.

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Conclusion

To conclude we can say that Walt Whitman, Herman Melville, Emily Dickinson and their
contemporaries Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allen Poe among others they represent
the first generation of great states writersb United. In the case of fiction writers, the
romantic visión He tended to express himself in the form they called "romance," that is, an
exalted, emotional and symbolic variety of the novel.

The romances were not love stories, but serious novels in which special tec hniques were
used to communicate complex and subtle meanings

Literature within the school has a very important role as a means of transmitting values and
culture. Through the study of the classics students know the basis of Western thought and
have access to a common discourse. Culture, understood as the configuration of patterns
of behavior and understanding of the meaning, value of things, ideas or emotions, helps
students to become citizens in the manner of the Greeks.

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