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World declaration on

World declaration
Dams Safety
and Hydropower
for African Sustainable Development
T he construction, operation and mainte- dams in operation has been reduced signifi- safety that have been learned over time. training and understanding of their dam.
nanceuring of the
dams past
andcentury, hydropower
their storage reser- continent
cantly, which andis the necessary
a positive institutional
achievement that together
Furthermore,(ministers of water
all involved and energy)
entities should to be who must in all circumstances
Mis-operation derive sustainable
of a dam, especially of spillway
has made an important
voirs have provided significant benefits to contribution structures for such a power pool.
reflects the worldwide influence of ICOLD unlock the hydropower potential
reminded to ensure, through the fulfillment of Africa as benefits from the project.
gates, can lead to accidents, The costs of social
to development, as shown in the experience That great development potential of this a major renewable energy option to promote and environmental mitigation measures and
humankind throughout history. Storage in raising dam design and management of their responsibilities, that these funda- flooding or potential overtopping of the dam.
of developed countries, where most hydro- clean renewable resource is precisely available sustainable development, regional integra- plans should be fully assessed and integrated
powerwater behind
potential hasdams regulates Innatural
beenharnessed. some standards.
in some of Nonetheless,
the countries constant
with the vigilance
greatest mentals
tion, waterareandrespected in order and
energy security, to minimize
poverty inn  Sharing
the total costlessons
of the learned
project. benefits the
streamflow, provides
developing countries, hydropower benefits resulting from
has contri- and commitment to dam safety
need for increased installed capacity. is still required
In some risks associated with dams
eradication in Africa”. This commitment and reservoirs. entire industry,
We call upon making
Governmentsall dams safer. The
to recognize
buted to water poverty availability,
reduction renewable
and economic energy in the
of order to continue
African the global
countries, there trend towards
is no feasible was reaffirmed by the African Ministers the need to plan
experience hydropower
of ICOLD developments
has shown that sharingin
growth through and reduction of adverse impacts
regional development and to safer dams. source
alternative Any dam incidentavailable
of power is a matter on ofa responsible for Damelectricity during their alessons
river basinfromcontext against the
dam incidents and background
failures is
expansion by ofnature’s
industry. extremes
In this of flooding
regard, we the gravest
realistic concern
scale. Grandfor Ingadam professionals.
project’s energy
Pillars of Safety
conference organized by the African Union ofcrucial
the full range ofstate-of-the-art
alternatives forpractices.
to improve
production would beDeclaration
equivalent to thatmoreDam than With almost aincentury
Commission of commitment
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to production ; planning should
note drought.
and that two-thirds of economically
This document addresses viable
the It is our ICOLD For all involved parties, it isgive
thusdue weight
100 million
is ourtons of fossil fuel per year, which dam safety,
March 20-24,and knowing that the zero risk
2006. tothat
environmental and socialon factors,
importance is yetwhich
the dam safety, to be encom-tapped Safety highest priority. any documentation dam as well as
and 90%
passes of this
water dams, potential
mining is still
dams would be impossible to buy anyway. Already,
does not exist,the representatives
ICOLD recognizes of national
several economic and financial factors. Africa has
including independent expert reports on the
in developing
and levees. countries. Hydropower has also two major environ- and local governments,
overarching pillars of damrepresentatives
safety: of 61 international shared rivers, whose basins
mental advantages: Conditions
first it is a renewable utilities and the private sector, United Nations root causes
comprise of such
almost 61%incidents,
of the be made freely
surface area
In Africa, less than 7% of hydropower n  Structural integrity of dams is the
potential has population in our fragile
been developed .We agree world thatis energy and by far the most abundant one. agencies, multilateral financial institutions, ofaccessible to the international
the continent. Accordingly community.
causing steady increases in demand
the large remaining potential in developing for water, of Dam
90% of world Safety
electricity produced with
keystone to dam safety. Best current practices
other international organizations, non-government co-operation in the development
n  A comprehensive dam safety of the water-
food, energy,
countries, as well minerals and flood
as in countries withcontrol.
econo- Due to the energy
renewable vital need
comesfor water, food, energy,
from hydropower. of dam designtheand
organizations, performance
scientific community during resources of Africa is of criticalofimportance.
will allow minimization risks. This
Dams are critical can beinfrastructure to Then too, and
it is aflood
energy since the green- the occurrence of hazardous events such as
mies in transition, harnessed to bring minerals the total num- and academia, and international industry is Wedonecall on multilateral
through collaboration andofbilateral
meet to these
these basiccountries,
human needs bearing as inwellmindas house
ber of gasdamsemissions
worldwide associated
continues with to itgrow.
are extreme floods
associations, having andmet earthquakes
at the United have been
Nations funding agencies to engage with structural
organizations to support dam safety:
very low compared to thetrend
otherofmajor sources largely documented by ICOLD bulletins countries
that thestandards
rising world’s poor countries
of living. At the use sameonlytime,
one Maintaining the present a decreasing Symposium on Hydropower and Sustainable measures on for hydropower
strengthening development,
the structure’s
however, dams of create
the energy consumed
new hazards by the
involving of electricity
incidence of dam(coal, gas,isoil).
failure Currently,
a never-ending in order to create
Development from a27sound basis on 2004,
to 29 October which promoting national and regional project
integrity and stability; measures to minimize
world’s rich countries.
potential risks to downstream communities, many Africans rely on firewood
challenge for the profession. ICOLD’s as a primaryrole in Beijing,
existing China,dam
and future have underlined
structures shouldthe be development facilities and innovative
energy source for domestic purposes and this “strategic importance of hydropower for the consequences
funding mechanisms. of failures as well as
including potential adverse impacts on life, in knowledge transfer and capacity building designed, built and operated in safe conditions.
Huge needs in turn results in significant environmental sustainable development”. education and public awareness about dams.
property and the environment. The potential through n  A routine surveillance and maintenance
Among and healththe dissemination of the best
problems. Recently on March 16-17 2007, the World InA comprehensive
conclusion:dam safety approach should
for dam all developing
safety incidents,areas of theresulting
possibly world, practices is as pertinent as ever.adopted
The 2004 Political Declaration The science,
at the programme
Energy Council is necessary
convened for early detection.
a high-level also considerNeeded
the fact that river basins, many of
Africa is undoubtedly the
in an uncontrolled or catastrophic releasecontinent where of technology and human roles for
in dam safety Inspection and upkeep are ofthehigh importance Urgently Now!
needs are the most urgent. In Africa. 65 % of Bonn International Conference Renewable International Forum under theme: “How which are transboundary basins, often include
stored water is of the highest concern. are in constant
Energies acknowledged evolutionthat with many
renewable tomake
to minimize the risk
the Grand andHydropower
Inga to ensure dam safety
Project Conditions
several dams,are or now
systems ripe
of for
dams hydropower
and levees.
the population do not have access to electricity development in Africa and this is a period of
The profession of live
and consequently damwith engineering
poor quality has ofa changing conditions:
energies, including hydropower, combined in the long
happen term. Periodic
for Africa”, in Gaborone, safetyBotswana.
review by
  A dam owner
unique opportunity:
n has the ultimate responsibi-
services, in ethical
oflighting, clean to carry out
water, with enhanced
n  Ageing energy efficiency,
of existing can contribute
infrastructure, creating qualified
The Forum engineers
came up that are highly
with experienced
the establishment
lity for its dam. ICOLD recognizes that the
its care andduties
professional education.
so thatElectricity
dams and reser- is yet to
concerns development,
related to the tolongevity
providing of of
in andam Ingasafety
Action Plan to facilitate
assessment is mandatory. the
development The political
●safety of all dams context is very the
is primarily favourable:
an essential
voirs tool forconstructed
are designed, achieving the andobjectives
access to energy, especially for the poor, and
constructionmaterialandequipment,including Supervision ofofdams the Project.
should be based on both The
bilityAfrican ministers
and liability haveand
of owners delivered
of NEPAD (New Partnership
in the most effective and sustainable for Africa’s way,
to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions.
infilling of reservoirs with sedimentation. theWe firmly believe
operator´s that there and
self-supervision is a periodic
need to
strong message of support for hydropower
develop hydropower that is economically, Adequate personnel and financial resources
while also ensuring UNMillennium
that both new Development
and existing external safety reviews by an independent and with theiras2006 Ministerial Declarations in
Synergy betweeninwater
n  Lack of experience dam safety manage- socially, and environmentally sustainable. as well relevant know-how are essential
Goals are
dams andsafesustainable
during their development.
entire lifespan, The competent authority or institution. Johannesburg and Addis Ababa. It is imperative
World Energy Council has calculated that a ment energy
and and operations
schemesin some countries But the above-quoted manifestations of conditions to meet this responsibility.
from construction to decommissioning. n  An instrumentation
goodwill will not be sufficient andin themselves.
monitoring that Africa takes the lead in promoting this
per capita consumption of 500 kWh/year is engaged
Africa hasinabundant
water requiring
potentialthe of n  The role of regulatory authorities is
need for capacity programme projects
Hydropower is essential throughout
are capital intensive. the
the very minimum to ensure a reasonable which only 4% is building.
being exploited. However, paramount for safety. Regulatory authorities
quality of life. The average life of a actions
Tangible dam. Aincomprehensive dam moni-
the financial mechanisms
ICOLD and Damconsumption Safety in itn  Retirement
is to be noted thatof Africa lacks the personnel
experienced infrastruc-
but alsoprogramme
toring a political will and serious
is necessary to: commit-
a) deter-
●should take a strong
International role in ensuring
Institutions are encouragingadequate
Africa is 547 kWh/person/year(1) whereas it ture to manage water variability.
in all countries, leading to a deficiency in Reservoir the
investigation, of hydropower:
best practice The United
For almost
is 10,833 a century, the
kWh/person/year International
in North America. storage available per capita is very small, ment
mine by all theduring
behavior potential stakeholders
construction; are
b) assess
qualified engineers trained in dam design. required to develop Nations
standards, Symposium on Hydropower
quality construction, and
Commission on Large
But even this low figure is misleading, Dams (ICOLD) 38 m3 for Ethiopia and 687 m3 for South performance duringsustainable hydropower
first reservoir filling; Sustainable Development has ended with a
has projects in Africa. The African Union is striving tual frameworks, emergency preparedness
sincemade dam safetythe
it misrepresents onelargeof its highest
disparities n  Increasing
Africa, versusparticipation
4700 m3 for of the private
Australia and c) compare actual performance with design; strongly worded October 2004within
declaration in
to and operational compliance accepted
in national consumption. commitments,For as stated
instance in sector 6000
nearly in them3development of dams
for North America. as well
Currently, d) characterize long-term behavior; e)for
create a coordination structure providethe
support of hydropower.
the ICOLDaccounts
Mission for 2250 kWh/person/year ;
statement: development of the big integrating hydropower guidelines and standards. Developing norms,
only some 40%cost
as increasing of the
pressure on is early warning of abnormal conditions;
South Africa projects in Africa, with the aim of having standards and safeguards is a key factor to
«ICOLD leads4542 the KWh/person/year
profession in setting but served
developers,with potable and safe
designers, water supply.
contractors and
capture & analyze response
for dialog andtocooperation
events, such ● International lenders are now supporting
proper dam safety surveillance.
Zambia 604 kWh/person/year and Burundi Multipurpose
operators, creating hydropower
a need schemes
for new have gover-a as large floods, earthquakes, etc.; g) predict dams and hydropower
standards and establishing guidelines to between all stakeholders.
22kWh/person/year. crucial role to play
nance conditions forindampromoting
safety. water se- future performance of dam; and h) demons- n  An international perspective to dam
ensure that dams
A reliable are built and
electricity operated
supply, taken safely,
for curity providing the double benefit of water ●safety can be
Production costsenlightening.
of HydropowerInternational
efficiently, economically, andworld,are environ- n  Climate change causes changes in extreme trate safe management of the dam to
granted in many parts of the can be a storage capacity and power generation. Promoting hydropower develop- are “cheap” andsuch
organizations independent
as ICOLD,ofwhich fluctuations
life-saving sustainable
commodity andinsocially
the lessequitable.»
developed precipitation
In general, andbothdrought
energy and events,
water resulting
needs regulatory authorities.
ment that is environmentally inguidelines
fossil fuel prices,
based on while pricesexperience,
worldwide of other
African nations,
Before the creation of ICOLDin that it can provide in 1928, re- in increased
are critical inhydrological
these nations,risks.soItthe
is critical
obvious to n  Design-Intrinsic risks need to be adequa- energies are generally
friendly, socially responsible can provide importantrising.
guidance to designers,
frigeration for food and
knowledge on dam safety was disparate, medical supplies, consider benefits
multiple changes ofin hydro
during (particu-
planning tely addressed. These risks are based on dam
and a power supply owners and government authorities to better
while the need for for healthcare
building waterfacilities.
storage larly when storageincluding
and management, reservoirsresilient
are included)
design and economically
type, materials, viable hydraulic
ageing, foundations, ● Hydropower generation is “clean” and thus
understand the current state of best practices
infrastructure was very high and there
Particularly in rural communities, growing. are are
special significance in Africa.of dams.
reservoir operation structures, etc.,
Regarding the in which good practices
environmental and socialand forms part of the solution to the problem
for design and safety of dams.
also major educational benefits: the provision In Thesome effects of extreme
regions, climatic
this results in conditions
a need to surveillance
impact are the keysa for
of hydropower, safety.of lessons
number of climate change ; a most important issue
It therefore became a priority of ICOLD to
of electricity will enable children to benefit (large-scale
increase thefloodsheightand regularexpand
of dams, droughts) that
spillway have been learnt from past experience. during the century to come ;
from computer thetechnology,
understanding as wellof the design
as light to Africa suffers from can be vastly mitigated n  Natural hazard risks change with time,
and operation
do evening of dams based on experience
capacity, modify reservoir operating proce-
by dam/reservoir schemes. Naturally the supply
thus should financing agencies
be regularly and industry
reviewed and Summary Declaration
dures, and/or construct new dams. There have developed policies, frameworks and Hydropower potential in Africa is vast and

within the global dam engineering com- of clean drinking water and irrigation updated. These hazard risks like floods and With the aspirational
underexploited ; goal of working towards
may also be a need to security,
assess and guidelines for evaluation and mitigation of
Tremendous And along with this dissemination
potential water to enhance food areaddress
major earthquakes areand
environmental external
social threats, continuous reduction of dam safety incidents,
came other hazards created by climate change as
At thea samestrongtime,focus there
on dam is asafety that has
tremendous additional benefits of hydro schemes. risks are accepted
addressing based on of
the concerns known ●ICOLD,
Needs of
vulnerable as the leading
population areorganiza-
permeated up to the modern era. part of the planning, design and operational and likelihood of occurrence. tion committed
almost dam safety, calls upon all
to emergency.
in a state of
potential for producing electricity in Africa. communities affected by hydropower develop-
There arehas projects likeaGrand Ingain(40 000 MW phases.
Millennium Development Goals ment. involved professionals and companies to
ICOLD played key role improving n  Emergency planningmust
Those guidelines be adjusted
is of utmost to
dam safety throughplantsitsand workgenerating
in collectingmore and n  The most
Therefore, suitable
African sites for
potential for hydropower
dams have the relevant individual country Itmake
tance for all dams. Emergency plans should is now time
a firm for Africa to safety
commitment use itsimpro-
energy than
analyzing 280 TWh /year)
information on the which
lessonshave learnedthe has to bebeen
largely developed now,
utilized, thusifnew
we want
damsto reach
must be be We note that
developed withthethekey resources
objective for
vements and
of avoiding to finally engage its at
risk reductions long-awaited
all dams.
potential to deliver exceptionally cheap elec- the
builtgoals forand
in more water
moreand energy set
challenging by the
locations, successful resettlement include development!
from past successes and(2) failures. Since the loss of life and reducing damage to property, Furthermore, Governments, Financial Ins-
tricity at less than $ 0.01 , when the average African
especiallyHeads of State
regarding and conditions.
geological Government of resettlement, commitment to the objectives
very beginning, ICOLD and its thousands of infrastructure and the environment resultingIttitutions and toother
is now time go forDevelopers,
a significantindeve-
cost for coal is $ 0.04, and most of the other during the recent Summits of the African of the resettlement by the developer, rigorous
energies (gas,within thewind,
member solar)countries n  Changing local, regional and national from a damplanning
failure. The contribution
of damstoandthe development and
nuclear, are still Union and in the context of NEPAD and of resettlement with first filling of the
full participation hydropower in Africa!
more expensive. The kWh oftopower
continuously contributed the impro-from governance
UN Millennium can Development
have a significant impact in
Goals. reservoir being a critical period
of affected communities, giving particular regulation of dam infrastructure, are called
vement of dam safety
diesel generators, through
widely usedpublication
in Africa, of regulatory
Already,authority forMinisters
the African dams. responsible which thetoemergency
attention vulnerable plan upon to
must be readyThe
communities. Africa for make
must a similar
seize political and
this opportunity andfinan-
costs frompapers$ 0.15and to $exchange of experience
0.30. Inter-continental for
As awater and energy,
recognized after a organization
international meeting in implementation
decision making in a timely
process manner.
should cial commitment
incorporate signingsothis
the all-important
during Annual will be required
Meetings to develop
and Congresses. Johannesburg,
of experts in dam South Africa , ICOLD
engineering, 8-9 Marchcalls review,
the updates
informed and practiceofofthe
participation they
emergency do their best to
recommendations foraccompany
dams outlined thisin
power distribution
ICOLD’s Technical networksCommittees acrossdevelopthe 2006, have committed themselves “to working
upon governmental authorities and financing communities great
and those negatively affected,
plan is mandatory. ICOLD continent in this
Bulletins, willendeavour.
be disseminated to the ■
Bulletins for publication that summarize the institutions to promote an awareness of n  Adequate training of operators is part of relevant entities and followed to completion.
current state of the practice. the subject of Dam Safety. The goal of this a comprehensive dam safety programme. This common effort will contribute
Since the creation of ICOLD, the number ICOLD World ICOLD declaration on Dam Safety Those placed in charge of dams bear an immeasurably to the overarching ICOLD
of failures compared to the total number of is to restate the fundamentals of dam important responsibility to maintain their vision:

Aproved on November 24th 2008 in Paris, by:

The African Union
“Better Dams for a Better World”
(AU), The Union of Producers, Transporters and Distributors of Electric Power in Africa (UPDEA),
The World Energy Council (WEC), The International Commission On Large Dams (ICOLD), th
The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), and on October
The International 18 2019,
Hydropower in Porto.
Association (IHA).
International Commission On Large Dams
(1) IEA - « Energy Balances for Non-OECD Countries » and « World Energy Statistics 2006 », IEA, Paris 2006 - (2) This cost is just “out the power station” (« bornes Centrale ») and does not take into account the cost of the transmission system.
Déclaration mondiale sur la
World declaration
Sécurité des Barrages
LDams and Hydropower
a construction, l’exploitation et la main-
tenance des barrages et de leurs réser-
de barrages en exploitation a été réduit de En tant qu’organisme international reconnu
d’experts en ingénierie des barrages, la CIGB
dans le but d’éviter la perte de vies humaines
et réduire les dommages aux biens, aux

for African Sustainable Development

manière significative, ce qui est un résultat
voirs de stockage ont été très bénéfiques pour positif qui reflète l’influence mondiale de appelle les autorités gouvernementales et les infrastructures et à l’environnement résul-
l’humanité, tout au long de son histoire. Le la CIGB dans l’amélioration des normes de institutions de financement à promouvoir tant d’une rupture du barrage. Le premier
stockage de l’eau par les barrages permet de conception et d’exploitation des barrages. une prise de conscience au sujet de la sécurité remplissage du réservoir est une période

réguler le débit naturel des cours d’eau  ; il Néanmoins, une vigilance et un engagement des barrages. L’objectif de cette Déclaration critique au cours de laquelle le plan d’urgence
procure des bénéfices
uring the pastgrâce à lahydropower
century, meilleure continentpour
continus andlathe necessary
sécurité institutional
des barrages sont mondiale
together de la CIGB
(ministers sur and
of water la sécurité des
energy) to whodoit êtrein prêt
must à être mis en
all circumstances oeuvre.
derive L’examen
disponibilité made
eau, an
à laimportant
production contribution
d’énergie structures
encore for suchpour
nécessaires a power pool. la tendance
perpétuer unlock
barragesthe hydropower potentialles
est de réaffirmer of Africa as
principes benefits from the
périodique, project.
les mises Theet
à jour costs of social
les tests de mise
to development,
renouvelable as shown
et à la réductionin the
impacts That great
mondiale vers development
une meilleure potential
sécurité of this
des afondamentaux
major renewable deenergy optiondes
la sécurité to promote
barrages andenenvironmental
œuvre du planmitigationd’urgence sontmeasures and
of developed
négatifs causés par countries, where most
les catastrophes hydro-
naturelles clean renewable
barrages. resource de
Tout incident is precisely
barrage available
inquiète sustainable development,
qui ont été appris au fil duregional
temps. En integra-
outre, il plans should be fully assessed and integrated
n  Une formation adéquate des opérateurs
comme potential has beenharnessed.
inondations In some
et les sécheresses. Ce in some of les
grandement the professionnels
countries withdes the barrages.
greatest tion, water and
faut rappeler energyles
à toutes security, and povertyde
entités concernées in the total cost of the project.
need for increased installed capacity. In some eradication fait
We partie d’un programme complet de
document countries,
traite hydropower
de l’importance de lahas contri-
sécurité La Déclaration de la CIGB confirme que veiller, par l’in Africa”.
exercice This responsabilités,
de leurs commitment call upon Governments to recognize
desbuted to poverty
barrages, ce qui reduction
comprendand les economic
barrages of the African countries, there is no feasible was
à ce reaffirmed by the fondamentaux
que ces principes African Ministers
soient thesécurité des hydropower
need to plan barrages. Les propriétaires
developments in et
sécurité des sourcebarrages
of power est available
notre prioritéon a responsible for electricity during their exploitants de barrages portent
a river basin context against the background la lourde
growth through regional development and to
classiques, les barrages de stériles miniers et absolue. respectés afin de minimiser les risques associés
expansion of industry. In this regard, we realistic scale. Grand Inga project’s energy conference organized by the African Union ofresponsabilité
the full range de maintenir leur
of alternatives formation
for energy
that two-thirds of economically viable production would be equivalent to more than aux barrages etinaux
Commission réservoirs.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, et la compréhension
production ; planning should de give
weight La
croissance potential
démographique is yet to dans notre
be tapped L’évolution
100 million tons ofdes fossilconditions
fuel per year, which March 20-24, 2006. to mauvaise
environmental exploitation d’un barrage,
and social factors, as well as en
and 90%
monde fragileof this potential
entraine uneisaugmentation
still available dewould sécurité
be impossible desto barrages
buy anyway. Les piliers
Already, de la sécurité
the representatives of national economic
particulier anddes financial
vannesfactors. Africa haspeut
de déversoir,
in developing
constante countries.en eau, nourriture,
de la demande L’eau,Hydropower
la nourriture, hasl’éalso two les
nergie, major environ-
minéraux et
and barrages
governments, representatives of 61entraîner
internationaldes shared rivers,
accidents, deswhose basins en
énergie, In minéraux
Africa, less than
et en 7% of hydropower
dispositifs de contrôle mental advantages: first it is a renewable utilities
Avec près and d’un
the private
sièclesector, United Nations
d’engagement pour la comprise
aval ou lealmost
débordement61% ofpotentiel
the surface area
du barrage.
le contrôle des inondations restent des besoins
crues. Les hasbarrages
been developed
sont des.We agree that
infrastruc- energy and by far the most abundant one. agencies,
sécurité des multilateral
barrages, financial
tout en sachantinstitutions,que le of the continent. Accordingly international
vitaux et world
cela explique pourquoi le nombre n  Le partage des leçons apprises profite
the large remaining potential
tures essentielles pour répondre à ces in developing 90% of electricity produced with other international organizations, non-government co-operation in the development of the water-
total de barrages risque zéro n’existe pas, la CIGB reconnaît à l’ensemble de isl’industrie, rendant ainsi
countries, as well as in countries with econo- renewable energynecomes cesse fromde croître dans le
hydropower. organizations, the scientific community resources of Africa of critical importance.
besoins fondamentaux de l’homme, ainsi plusieurs piliers fondamentaux de la sécurité : tous les barrages plus sûrs.
mies in transition, can be harnessed to bring monde.
Then too, Leitmaintien
is a cleande la tendance
energy since theactuelle
green- and academia, and international industry We call on multilateral andexpérience L’ bilateral de
que pour l’amélioration du niveau de vie. En la CIGB a montré
benefits to these countries, bearing in mind d’une
gas emissions de l’incidence
associateddes ruptures
with it are n  L’intégritéhaving
associations, de la structure
met at the des United barrages
Nationsest funding agencies to que le partage
engage des leçons
with African
mêmethat temps,
the world’sles barrages créent de
poor countries use nouveaux
only one deverybarrage représentetoun
low compared thedéfi permanent
other pour
major sources la clé de voûte
Symposium de la sécurité
on Hydropower anddes barrages.
Sustainable tirées desonincidents
countries hydropower et desdevelopment,
défaillances des
dangers liés à des
twenty-fifth of therisques
energy potentiels
consumed pour by les
the laofprofession.
electricity Le (coal,
rôle de gas,
la CIGBoil).dans
le trans- Development
Les meilleuresfrom 27 to actuelles
pratiques 29 October en 2004,
matière barrages est
promoting essentiel
national and pour améliorer
regional projectl’état
communautés vivant
world’s rich countries. en aval, y compris les many
fert desAfricans rely onet
connaissances firewood as a primary
le renforcement des in
de Beijing,
conceptionChina, have underlined
et de performance des barragesthe development
de l’art. Pour facilities and innovative
toutes les parties concernées, il
effets potentiels négatifs sur la vie, les biens et energy source
capacités grâcefor domestic
à la diffusion purposes and this
des meilleures “strategic
lors de la importance
survenue d’événementsof hydropower dangereux for funding
est donc mechanisms.
impératif que toute documentation
Huge needsLes risques d’incidents liés à in turn results
pratiques garde in significant
toute environmental
sa pertinence. Les rôles sustainable
tels que desdevelopment”.
crues extrêmes et des tremble- sur les incidents de barrage, y compris les
la sécurité
Among des all barrages,
developing quiareas
of theentraî-
world, deand la health
science, problems.
de la technique et de l’homme Recently
ments de terre on ont
March 16-17 2007,
été largement the World
documentées Inrapports
d’experts indépendants sur les causes
un rejet incontrôlé ou catastrophique
is undoubtedly the continent where de The 2004 Political Declaration adopted at the Energy Council convened a high-level Urgently
profondes Needed Now! soit librement
de ces incidents,
dans la sécurité des barrages sont en constante dans les bulletins de la CIGB afin de créer
l’eau stockée,
needs are the sont les urgent.
most plus préoccupants.
In Africa. 65 % of Bonn International Conference for Renewable International Forum under the theme: “How
Energiesavec le changementthat
acknowledged de nombreuses
renewable une
to basethesolide
make Grand surInga
laquelle les structures
Hydropower Projectde Conditions are now ripe forinternationale.
accessible à la communauté hydropower
population do not have access
de l’ingénierie to electricity
des barrages ont conditions
energies, :including hydropower, combined barragesforexistantes
happen Africa”, inetGaborone,
futures devraient
Botswana. être development
n  Le propriétairein Africa andbarrage
d’un this is a aperiod of
la respon-
une and consequently
grave responsabilité live éthique :
with pooril quality
leur fautof conçues, construites et exploitées de manière unique opportunity:
services, nwith
  Le enhanced energy efficiency,
vieillissement can contribute
des infrastructures The Forum came up with the establishment sabilité ultime de son barrage.   La CIGB
remplir leursinobligations
terms oflighting, clean water,
professionnelles afin to sustainable
existantes crée de development, to providing
nouvelles préoccupations sûre.
of an Inga Action Plan to facilitate the reconnaît que la sécurité de tous les barrages
health care and education. Electricity is yet ● The political context is very favourable:
que les barrages et les réservoirs soient conçus, access
liées à latolongévité
energy, especially
des matériaux for the
de poor, and
construc- development
n  Il faut unofprogrammethe Project. de surveillance est principalement la responsabilité des pro-
an essential tool for achieving the objectives The African ministers have delivered a
construits et exploités de manière la plus to mitigating greenhousey gas emissions. We firmly et believe that there ispour a needassu- to priétaires et des
(New Partnership
et la plusUNMillennium
durable possible,
for Africa’s
tout en
tion et de l’équipement, compris le remplis- régulière
de maintenance strong message of exploitants. Des ressources
support for hydropower
Development), Development sage des réservoirs par des sédiments. rer une hydropower
détection précoce that is economically,
des problèmes. financières
with their 2006etMinisterial
un personnel en nombre
Declarations in
Goalsà ce and quesustainable
les nouveauxdevelopment.
barrages comme The Synergy between water socially,
L’inspection and etenvironmentally
l’entretien sont sustainable.
d’une grande suffisant et correctement formé sont des
  Le manque d’expérience Johannesburg and Addis Ababa. It is imperative
barragesEnergy existants
Council restent sûrs pendant
has calculated that a
nand energy schemesdans la gestion de But the above-quoted manifestations of
importance pour minimiser les risques et conditions
that Africa takes essentielles
the lead in pour assumerthis
promoting cette
toute la sécurité des barrages et de leur exploitation goodwill will not be sufficient in themselves.
capitadurée de vie, de la
consumption ofconstruction
500 kWh/year à lais Africa has abundant fresh water potential of assurer la sécurité responsabilité.
the very minimum to ensure a reasonable dans
which certains
only 4% pays aujourd’hui
is being exploited. engagés dans
However, Hydropower projectsdesarebarrages sur le long
capital intensive.
lait is
construction de Africa
barrages  terme. L’eactions
Tangible xamen in dethe
sécurité par des
financial ingénieurs
mechanisms n  Le rôle des autorités réglementaires est
quality of life. The average consumption in to be noted that lacks; the
● International Institutions are encouraging
LaAfricaCIGB is 547etkWh/person/year
la sécurité(1) whereas it lature
nécessité du renforcement
to manage water variability. des capacités.
Reservoir but also a political will and serious écommit-
qualifiés et très expérimentés dans l’ valuation primordial pour la sûreté. Elles devraient
de la by
ment sécurité
all the despotential
est obligatoire. areLa thejouer
development of hydropower:
un rôle important The United
pour assurer une étude
is 10,833
des barrages kWh/person/year in North America. nstorage
  Le départavailable
à laper capita de
retraite is very small,
personnes Nations Symposium on Hydropower and
But even this low figure is misleading, surveillance
required des barrages
to develop devrait
sustainable être fondée
hydropower de site adéquate, des normes de conception
38 m3 for Ethiopia
d’expérience dans tous and 687les m
3 for South
pays, ce qui Sustainable Development has ended with a
since itprès d’un siècle,
misrepresents thelalarge
sécurité des
disparities Africa, une versus 4700d’ingénieurs
m3 for Australia and à la fois
projects sur l’auto-surveillance
in Africa. The African Unionde l’exploi-
is striving alignées sur les meilleures pratiques,inune
entraîne pénurie qualifiés et to create strongly worded October 2004 declaration
barrages est l’un des engagements
in national consumption. For instance organi- nearly 6000 m 3 for North America. Currently, tant et sura des coordination
contrôles de structure
sécuritéfor the
externes construction de qualité, des cadres contrac-
formés à la conception des barrages. development support of hydropower.
Libya accountsles plusfor forts
2250 dekWh/person/year
la Commission ; only some 40% of the rural population is périodiques,ofeffectués
the big integrating
par une autorité hydropower ou une tuels, la préparation aux situations d’urgence
South Africades Grands
4542 Barrages (CIGB),
KWh/person/year but   L’augmentation
nserved with potable deandla safe
water supply. du projects
institution in indépendante
Africa, with the aim of having
et compétente. et des contrôles de conformité
a framework for dialog and cooperation ● International lenders are nowaux recomman-
Zambia le précise ses missions : and Burundi
604 kWh/person/year secteur privé hydropower
Multipurpose dans le développementschemes havedes a n  Un programme d’instrumentation et de dations
dams and et aux normes en vigueur. L’élaboration
22kWh/person/year. barrages,
crucial roleainsitoque
play l’augmentation
in promotingdes coûtsse-
water et between all stakeholders.
« La CIGB aide la profession à mettre en place surveillance est essentiel tout au long de la de normes et de mesures de sauvegarde est un
A reliable
des normes et à fixerelectricity
des règles supply,
afin detaken
garantir for curity
des providing
contraintes de the
temps double
sur lesbenefit of water
développeurs, vie du barrage. Un programme complet de ● Production
facteur clé costspour of uneHydropower generation
bonne surveillance de la
granted in many parts of the world, can be a storage
les capacity and
concepteurs, les power les
constructeurs Promoting hydropower develop-pour : aresécurité
“cheap” desand independent of fluctuations
la sécurité, l’efficacité, l’optimisation des coûts, surveillance des barrages est nécessaire
life-saving commodity in the less developed In general,
exploitants, ce quiboth energy
oblige and une
à créer water needs
nouvelle in fossil fuel prices, while prices of other
la African
protection de l’environnement
nations, in that it can et la prise
provide re- are critical in these nations,des so the obvious
ment that is environmentally
a) déterminer le comportement de l’ou- n  Une perspective internationale à la
décisions socialement équitables lors de la gouvernance pour la sécurité barrages. vrage pendant la construction ; b) évaluer la energies are generally rising.
for food and medical supplies, multiple benefits of hydro schemes (particu- friendly, socially responsible sécurité des barrages peut être instructive.
and a power et l’supply
exploitation d’un barrage.
for healthcare »
facilities.   Les changements
nlarly when storage climatiques
reservoirs are provoquent
included) and economically viable remplissage
performance lors du premier Des organismes internationaux tels que la
● Hydropower generation is “clean” and thus
Avant la création in rural
de la communities,
CIGB en 1928, there lesare des
are ofchangements
special significance dans inlesAfrica.
événements du réservoir ; c) comparer la performance CIGB,
forms quioffournissent
part the solution destolignes directrices
the problem
Regarding the environmental and social
also major educational
connaissances sur la sécuritébenefits:des the barrages
provision extrêmes de crues
The effects et de climatic
of extreme sécheresse, ce qui
conditions réelle avec
impact celle du projet;
of hydropower, d) caractériser
a number of lessons le offondées
climatesur l’expérience
change ; a most dans le monde
important entier,
of electricity
étaient disparates, willtandis
enableque children to benefit
le besoin de entraîne
risques andhydrologiques
regular droughts) accrus.
that comportement à long terme
have been learnt from past experience. ; e) fournir une peuvent
during fournir to
the century descome
; importants aux
from computer
construire technology, as well
des infrastructures as light to
de stockage IlAfrica suffers de
est essentiel from cancompte
tenir be vastly desmitigated
change- alerte précocefinancing
Governments, des conditions
agencies and anormales
industry ; concepteurs, aux propriétaires et aux autorités
au evening
était très homework.
élevé et en croissance. La by dam/reservoir
ments climatiques schemes.
lors deNaturally the supply
la planification et f) enregistrer
have developedetpolicies, analyserframeworks
la réactionand aux ● Hydropower
gouvernementales potentialafinindeAfrica
mieuxis comprendre
vast and
Cela peutwater signifier and irrigation
la conception événementsfortels
guidelines que les and
evaluation grandesmitigationcrues,ofles underexploited
l’état de l’art des ; meilleures pratiques pour la
diffusion des connaissances sur la conception
Tremendous potential water to etenhance
résiliente la gestion food security,duare
adaptative major
réservoir tremblements de
environmental andterre,
socialetc. ; g) prédire
impacts, and for la conception et la sécurité des barrages.
et l’exploitation des barrages et de l’expérience additional benefits of hydro schemes.
At theausame time, there is a tremendous des barrages. Dans certaines régions, cela se addressing
performancethefuture concerns du ofbarrage vulnerable ; et ● Needs of the African population are now
acquise sein de la communauté mondiale
potential for producing electricity in Africa. traduit par la nécessité d’augmenter la hau- communities
h) démontrer affected
aux by hydropower
autorités develop-
réglementaires almost
Résumé in a statede of emergency.
la Déclaration
de l’ingénierie des barrages est donc devenue Millennium Development Goals
There are projects like Grand Inga (40 000 MW teur des barrages, d’accroître la capacité d’éva- ment.
que leThose
barrage guidelines
est exploité must be adjusted
en toute sécurité. to
une priorité de laplants
hydropower CIGB. Et and avec cette diffusion,
generating more It Étant
is nowle time
principal organisme
for Africa to useinternational
its own
cuation African
de crues, depotential
modifierfor leshydropower
procédures the relevant individual country context.
accentthan fort280 a été mis/year)
sur lawhich
sécurité n  Les risques intrinsèques de conception
TWh havedes the has to be developed now, if we want to reach We note that the key ingredients for consacrétoàfinally
resources la sécurité
engagedes barrages, ayant
its long-awaited
d’exploitation des réservoirs, et/ou de
to deliver quiexceptionally
nous à accompagné cheap elec- the goals for water and energy set by the successfulêtre
doivent correctement
resettlement include pris en compte.
comme objectif la réduction continue des
at less than $ 0.01(2), when the average construire
African Heads de nouveaux
of State and barrages. Il peut
Government Ces
of risques sont
resettlement, basés sur letotype
commitment incidents affectant la sécurité des barrages, la
de barrage,
the objectives
CIGB fora coal
joué isun$ rôle
0.04,cléand dansmost of the other
l’amélioration également être nécessaire d’
during the recent Summits of the African valuer et de traiter lesthe
of matériaux,
resettlement le vieillissement, It CIGB
by the developer,is nowappelle
time totous
les fondations,
rigorousgo les
forprofessionnels et toutes
a significant deve-
la sécurité (gas,
barrageswind, grâcesolar)
à son are still
travail d’autres
Union and dangers
in theliés aux changements
context of NEPAD and clima-
of les structuresplanning
resettlement hydrauliques,with full les entreprises
lopment of dams concernées
etc.,participation and hydropower
dans lesquels à s’engager ferme-
in Africa!
more expensive. The kWh
de collecte et d’analyse des leçons tirées des of power from tiques pendant lesDevelopment
UN Millennium phases de planification,
Goals. de lesaffected
of bonnes pratiques
communities, ment pour améliorer la sécurité et réduire les
et la surveillance
giving particular sont les
diesel generators, widely usedDepuis
in Africa, conception
xploitation. Ministers responsible attention Africa
to vulnerable communities. The
clés de la sécurité. must
risques seizelesthis
de tous opportunity and the
réussites et des échecs passés. ses
costs from $ 0.15 to $ 0.30. Inter-continental for water and energy, after a meeting in
n  La plupart des sites appropriés pour les decision organizations signing this declaration pledge
making process should incorporate
débuts, la CIGB et ses milliers de profession- n  Les risques naturels changent avec le temps
En outre, les gouvernements, les institutions
co-operation will be required to develop Johannesburg, they will do their best to accompany this
barrages ayant South Africa , utilisés,
été largement 8-9 March les the informed participation of the vulnerable
et devraient donc être régulièrement révisés financières
nels parmidistribution
power les pays membres networks n’ontacross
cessé de the 2006, have committed themselves “to working communities and those negatively affected, great continentetinautres développeurs sont ■éga-
this endeavour.
contribuer à l’amélioration de la sécurité des nouveaux barrages doivent être construits et actualisés. Ces risques, tels que les crues et
lement appelés à s’engager politiquement et
barrages par la publication de documents tech- dans des sites de plus en plus difficiles, en les tremblements de terre, sont des menaces financièrement pour le développement et la
niques et par les échanges d’expériences lors des particulier en ce CIGB qui concerne les conditions externes, pour lesquelles les risques sont réglementation des infrastructures de barrages,
réunions annuelles et des Congrès. Les comités géologiques. ICOLD acceptés sur la base des connaissances actuelles
afin que les recommandations de sécurité
techniques de la CIGB élaborent et publient n  Des changements de gouvernance locale, et de la probabilité d’occurrence. décrites dans les bulletins de la CIGB, soient
des bulletins qui résument l’état de l’art actuel.
régionale et nationale peuvent avoir un n  Les mesures d’urgence sont d’une impor- diffusées aux entités concernées et respectées.
tance capitale pour tous les barrages. Les Cette action commune confortera considéra-
Aproved on November 24th 2008impact
Depuis la création de la CIGB, le nombre significatif sur l’autorité réglementaire
in Paris, by:
de défaillances par rapport au nombre total en charge des barrages. plans d’urgence devraient être mis au point blement la vision globale de la CIGB :
The African Union (AU), The Union of Producers, Transporters and Distributors of Electric Power in Africa (UPDEA),
The World Energy Council (WEC), The International Commission On Large Dams (ICOLD),
The International
“De meilleurs Barrages pour un Monde meilleur”
Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), and The International Hydropower Association (IHA).
Approuvée le 18 octobre 2019, à Porto.
Commission Internationale des Grands Barrages
IEA - « Energy Balances for Non-OECD Countries » and « World Energy Statistics 2006 », IEA, Paris 2006 - (2) This cost is just “out the power station” (« bornes Centrale ») and does not take into account the cost of the transmission system.