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Author: Nicole Marie Howard


According to Castrogiovanni (2002), a peer group is defined as a small group of similarly aged;

fairly close friends, sharing the same activities. In general, peer groups or cliques have two to twelve

members, with an average of five or six. Peer groups provide a sense of security and they help

adolescents to build a sense of identity. Adolescents ask questions relating to social identity theory such

as, “Who am I?” and “What do I want out of life?” Feeling part of a group, be it the stereotypical jocks,

goths, or punks, allows adolescents to feel like they are on the way to answering some of these

questions. Given that adolescents spend twice as much time with peers as with parents or other adults, it

is important to study the influence or pressures that peers place on each other.

Adolescents are well aware that they influence each other. Lashbrook (2000) reported on a

national Gallup poll release that surveyed 13- to 17-year-olds.

As already eluded to, peers can also provide many positive elements in an adolescent’s life. It is

important, however, to remember that peer influence can potentially have a deadly impact or other

various negative effects. It is vital for education-related professionals to understand the complex aspects

of peer influence in order to stop these negative effects before they occur.

Publisher: Scribd - Read books, audiobooks, and more

Date Published: May, 2004


Article Title: How Peers Influence Academic Performance | LoveToKnow

Author: Valorie Delp


Research on Influence of Peer Groups

According to a study published by the Williams Project on the Study of Economics in Higher

Education, stronger students do have an impact on their peers and actually help improve the overall

academic performance of the peer group.

Another rather large study done by CREDE (the Center for Research in Education, Diversity and

Excellence) suggests that peer groups are highly influential during early adolescence but that peers are

less influential as kids get older.

Undoubtedly, experts agree that peer groups have an influence on academic performance. What

experts do not agree on is to what extent and the variables within that influence.

Publisher: LoveToKnow Corp

Date Published: 2011

Article Title: How The Impact of Peer Relations in the Academic Process among Adolescents

Author: Irma Leka (Peza), PhD Candidate

University of Tirana, Faculty of Social Sciences, Albania


Extensive literature emphasizes that peer group influences social and academic development and

that these influences are transformed into a startup of formal education (Anthony Pellegrini, 1992).

Influences and motivations for all sorts of behaviors of adolescents, including study habits and academic

personal development, do not come only from their peers, but also by their parents, teachers and others

with whom they establish contacts (Kathryn Wentzel, 1998). But, because of the time that many

adolescent spend every day with his friends or her coevals the impact can be substantial.

Studies on the impact of peer orientation and group rates in adolescents are a lens with which to

examine the academic achievement. From another point of view, previous studies have investigated the

impact of peer rejection on academic achievement. Research shows that peer rejection at all time points

(in the present and in the past) have negative effects on school attendance, and in external or inner

behavioral problems (DeRosier, Kupersmidt, and Patterson, 1994).

Publisher: MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy

Date Published: January 01, 2015