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AN ASSIGNMENT OF

ETHICS AND VALUES IN MANAGEMENT

Topic: - Leadership Style

Submitted by: -
Name : - Bhavik Jagad
Roll no. : - 01
Batch : - 2016 – 18
Sem. : - Semester – 2nd
Guided by: -
Dr. A. Kumar

Submitted to: -
Department of Business Administration
M. K. Bhavnagar University,
Bhavnagar.

Date: - __________ Signature: - __________


INTRODUCTION
In any organization, people on their own don’t take
responsibility & perform any work, because of human nature to
resist the work. Not only that but such people frequently gets
misguided regarding the goals, responsibilities and authorities
given to them. So, to unite all the efforts of each individual in the
organization, a person is required to show them direction by his
own skill as well as to take work from them. Generally, leader is
somewhere a person who followers feel as their ideal in their life.
Leader, by his skills of communication, initiations, self awareness,
creates a charismatic personality which followers consider to work
under.
“Managers can get the work done either by the
authority vested in them or by winning support, trust and
confidence of the people.”
DEFINITION OF Leadership
Leadership is an art whereby an individual influences a
group of individuals for achieving a common set of goals. To expand
it further, leadership is a process of inter-personal relationships
through which a person attempts to influence the behaviour of
others for attainment of pre-determined objectives.

 DEFINITION OF Leadership :-
1. “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive
willingly for group objectives.”
— George R. Terry
2. “Leadership is the ability to secure desirable actions from a
group of followers voluntarily, without the use of coercion.”
— Allford and Beaty
3. “Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates
to work with confidence and zeal.”
— Koontz and O' Donnell
LEADERSHIP STYLES
“The total pattern of leaders’ actions as perceived by
their employees is called leadership style. It represents the
leaders’ philosophy, skills and attitudes in practice.”
It is necessary to study the different leadership styles from which
an appropriate style can be selected, depending upon the situation
in which leadership is to be exercised and the nature of the
followers involved. Mainly there are 4 leadership styles as shown
follows:
1. Autocratic Leadership
2. Democratic Leadership
3. Laissez-faire or Free-rein Leadership
4. Paternalistic Leadership

COMMUNICATION
1. AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP :-
This style of leaderships is also known as authoritarian or
dictatorial under this style of leadership, a leader believes in
centralisation of powers. He takes all decisions himself without
inviting any consultations from his followers; and expects them to
accept his decisions, unquestioningly. Under this style of leadership
there is complete centralisation of authority in the leader i.e.,
authority is centered in the leader himself. He has all the powers to
take decisions. He designs the work-load of his employees and
exercise tight control over them. The subordinates are bound to
follow his order and directions.

 ADVANTAGES OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP :-


o Permits quick decision-making.
o Provides strong motivation and satisfaction to the leaders.
o Yield better results when great speed is required.
 DISADVANTAGES OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP :-
o Leads to frustration, low morale and conflict among
subordinates.
o Subordinates tend to shirk responsibility and initiative.
o Subordinate’s potential cannot be exploited.
2. DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP :-
This style of leadership is also known as participative or
consultative. Under this style of leadership, a leader believes in
decentralization of powers; and invites followers to participate in
the decision-making process especially on matters, which concern
their work-field or otherwise affect their interests substantially. He
makes a final decision only after consultation with the subordinates.
Two - way communication channel is used. While delegating a lot of
authorities to subordinates, he defines the limits within which
people can function. Democratic leaders have a high concern for
both people and work.

 ADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP :-


o Improves job satisfaction and morale of the subordinates.
o Positive attitude and reduces resistance to change.
o The quality of decision is improved.
 DISADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP :-
o Time consuming and may result in delays in decision-making.
o Less effective if participation from the subordinates is for name
sake.
o In the long-run, lead to loss of leader’s control, over
subordinates.
3. LAISSEZ-FAIRE OR FREE-REIN LEADERSHIP :-
This style of leadership is also called ‘free-style’
leadership. Under this style of leadership, the leader plays only a
supervisory role over their functioning. The entire decision-making
authority is entrusted to them. The leader, so to say, does not
interfere, while the subordinates are performing. This style of
leadership is followed in circumstances, where subordinates are
educated and skilled and understand well as to how to do their jobs
independently, without seeking consultation from the leader.

 ADVANTAGES OF LAISSEZ-FAIRE OR FREE-REIN


LEADERSHIP :-
o Subordinates can make best and uninterrupted use of their
capabilities.
o The fullest exploitation of potential of subordinates.
o Technique of training and developing subordinates for higher
managerial positions.
 DISADVANTAGES OF LAISSEZ-FAIRE OR FREE-REIN
LEADERSHIP :-
o Minimizes the role of the leader. As such, his value among the
group members is substantially reduced.
o Subordinates may work at cross-purposes.
o Not suitable when subordinates are less educated or less
skilled.
4. PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP :-
Under this style of leadership, the leader plays a ‘father-
like’ role towards his followers; and takes care of their problems;
the way a father does for his family. A paternalistic leader, towards
his followers, believes in the philosophy ‘work hard and I will take
care of you.’ This leadership style has still been widely prevalent in
small firms in India. Paternalistic leadership style is mostly found in
‘family-concerns’; but it could equally well be applied to other types
of organisations.

 ADVANTAGES OF PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP :-


o Subordinates are loyal to the leader and the organisation both –
because of a ‘father-like’ approach of the leader.
o Good human relations in the organisation.
o Implies a balanced leadership approach; in that fear and love
both are combined in a unique manner by the leader.
 DISADVANTAGES OF PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP :-
o Unsuitable, when there is a lack of mutual trust between the
leader and the followers.
o Subordinates might take undue advantage of the leniency of
the leader.
o Leader might be more involved in personal problems of
subordinates than organizational issues.
CONCLUSION
Hence, in reality, there is no particular style of leadership,
which a leader adopts in all managerial situations, and at all times
in the organizational life. A practical leadership style is always
variable- changing with the situational factors. An autocratic leader
might become a democratic leader or a laissez-faire one –
depending on the demands of the work-situation. Further, a leader,
quite often might adopt a mix of various styles, at the same time i.e.
combining the finer elements of various leadership styles, for
optimizing managerial and operational efficiency.