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Tension test

Subjects of interest

• Introduction/Objectives

• Engineering stress-strain curve

• True stress-true strain curve

• Instability in tension

• Stress distribution at the neck

• Ductility measurement in tension tests

• Effect of strain rate on flow properties

• Effect of temperature on flow properties

Tension test

Subjects of interest

• Thermally activated deformation

• Notch tensile test

• Tensile properties of steel

• Anisotropy of tensile properties

Objectives

tests where appropriate material parameters can be used for

material selection.

• Differences between engineering stress-strain curve and

true stress – true strain curve will be clearly understood.

• Effects of strain rate, test temperature, testing machine as

well as notch and anisotropy on tensile properties will be

highlighted.

Engineering stress-strain curve

Ao Af

Stress

Necking

Ultimate tensile strength

Fracture strength Fracture

Yield strength

Lo

Necking

Af

Young’s modulus = slope

Fracture = stress/strain

Non-uniform

Elastic Uniform plastic plastic

deformation deformation deformation

strain

Total strain

Engineering stress-strain curve

• Basic design information on the strength of materials.

• An acceptance test for the specification of materials.

Stress

Ultimate tensile strength

Fracture strength Fracture

tensile stress

Yield strength P

s= Eq.1

Ao

Young’s modulus = slope

= stress/strain

Average

linear strain

Non-uniform

Elastic Uniform plastic plastic

deformation deformation deformation

δ

∆L L − Lo

Elastic

strain

Plastic strain Strain

e= = = Eq.2

Total strain

Lo Lo Lo

Factors affecting shape and

magnitude of stress-strain curve

• Composition

• Heat treatment Metallurgical factors

• Strain rate

• Temperature Test conditions

• State of stress

Recoverable elastic strain and

plastic strain

• Loading of tensile sample beyond yield

Load point to A and then unloading give the

B

P2 unloading curve AA’ with its slope

P1 A parallel to the elastic Young’s modulus.

• Recoverable elastic strain b on

unloading is given by σ P /A

b= 1

= 1 o

E E

• Permanent plastic strain a Eq.3

O

A’ B’ Elongation • Loading and unloading following

ab d OABB’ gives plastic deformation c

c

whereas elastic deformation under

loading is d.

Tensile strength

maximum load Pmax divided by the original cross-sectional area Ao

of the specimen.

Pmax

su =

Ao Eq.4

results.

• Useful for specifications, quality control of a product.

• In engineering design, safety factor should be applied.

Note: yield stress is more practical for ductile materials. But

it has little relation to complex conditions of stress.

Yielding

Various criteria for the initiation of yielding are used depending

on the sensitivity of the strain measurements and the intended use

of the data.

measurement at strains on order of 2 x 10-6. Very

low value and is related to the motion of a few Load

hundred dislocations.

2) Proportional limit: the highest stress at which Offset yield

stress is directly proportional to strain.

3) Elastic limit: is the greatest stress the material

can withstand without any measurable permanent

Extension

strain after unloading. Elastic limit >

proportional limit.

4) Yield strength is the stress required to produce

a small specific amount of deformation.

Yield strength of materials

corresponding to the intersection of the stress-strain curve and

a line parallel to the elastic line offset by a strain of 0.2 or 0.1%.

(e = 0.002 or 0.001)

so = Eq.5

Ao

stress is referred to proof

stress either at 0.1 or

0.5%strain.

Used for design and specification

0.2% strain purposes to avoid the practical

0.1% strain Extension difficulties of measuring the elastic

limit or proportional limit.

Yield strength of materials

The yield strength is therefore defined by the offset of yielding.

• Yield strength can be improved by work hardening (cold

working). up to 300:1 stronger than original.

• Alloying of Al can improve elastic limit 1.5-2 times.

Load

Load

Load

modulus)

50%CW Al alloy

20%CW

Yielding

Elastic Plastic

A50%c w

Improvement in elastic

Improvement of yielding by cold working limit by alloying

Yield strength of materials

• BCC lattice materials (Fe) show a yield point phenomenon

Upper and lower yield points (depending on testing machine).

• Condition: Polycrystalline & small amounts of interstitial solute

atoms.

Upper yield point L2 Lower yield point L1

Ao Ao

Load

Upper yield

point

L2

Yield point

elongation

Energy

Energy required L1

for initial

movement of Lower yield

atom point

Interstitial

solute Distance Extension

atom

At yield point, localised internal friction requires more energy for

interstitial atom to move dislocation, after that dislocation are free

from interstitial atom (carbon, nitrogen).

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Ductility

Ductility is a qualitative, subjective property of a material.

indicating amount of deformation

can be applied without failure.

2) For stress calculation or the

prediction of severe load :

indicating the ability of the metal to

flow plastically before failure.

3) For indication of any changes in

heat treatments or processing

conditions in metal.

Measures of ductility

Elongation L f − Lo

ef =

Lo

Eq.6

Reduction of area, q Ao − A f

q=

Ao Eq.7

specimen back together and taking the measurement.

L − Lo Ao 1 q

eo = = −1 = =

Lo A 1− q 1− q Eq.8

Modulus of elasticity

Modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus is a measure of

material stiffness (given by the slope of the stress-strain curve).

Load • Modulus of elasticity is determined by the

binding forces between atoms (structure

insensitive property)

• Cannot change E, but can improve by

Slope = Young’s forming composites.

modulus

• Only slightly affected by alloying addition,

heat treatment or cold work.

Young’s modulus

Stiffness

Deflection

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Example: A 13 mm diameter tensile specimen has a 50 mm gauge

length. The load corresponding to the 0.2% offset is 6800 kg and the

maximum load is 8400 kg. Fracture occurs at 7300 kg. The diameter

after fracture is 8 mm and the gauge length at fracture is 65 mm.

Calculate the standard properties of the material from the tension test.

π L − Lo 65 − 50

Ao = (13) 2 = 132.7 mm 2 = 132.7 × 10 −6 m 2 ef = = = 30%

4 Lo 50

π Ao − A f 132.7 − 50.3

Af = (8) 2 = 50.3 mm 2 = 50.3 × 10 −6 m 2 q= = = 62%

4 Ao 132.7

su = = = 620 MPa strain at maximum load is

Ao 132.7 × 10 −6

Py6800 × 9.8 Pmax / Ao 620 × 10 6

so = = = 502 MPa eE = = = 0.0030

Ao 132.7 × 10 −6 E 207 × 10 9

sf = = = 539 MPa

Ao 132.7 × 10 −6 uniform elongation) is 22%, what is the

plastic strain at maximum load?

e p = etotal − e E = 0.2200 − 0.0030 = 0.2170

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Resilience

• Resilience is an ability of a material to absorb energy when

elastically deformed and to return it when unloaded.

• Usually measured by modulus of resilience (strain energy per

unit volume required to stress the material from zero to the yield

stress, σo.

1 1 s o2

Stress, s U o = σ x e x = U R = s o eo = Eq.9

2 2 2E

Modulus of

resilience, UR

1

UR = s o eo

2

Strain, e

modulus of elasticity.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Toughness

• Toughness is an ability to absorb energy in the plastic range.

• Or the ability to withstand occasional stresses above the yield

stress without fracture.

• Can be simply defined by the area under the stress-strain

curve (amount of work per unit volume that the material can

withstand without failure.)

• The structural steel although has a

lower yield point but more ductile than

high carbon spring steel. Structural

steel is therefore tougher.

• Toughness = strength + ductility

Ductile materials Brittle materials

U T ≈ su e f 2

UT ≈ su e f

so + su 3

Comparison of stress-strain curves for U T ≈ 2

ef

Eq.10 Eq.11

high and low-toughness materials.

(only approximation)

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

True-stress-true-strain curve

• True stress-strain curve gives a true indication of deformation

characteristics because it is based on the instantaneous

dimension of the specimen.

• The true stress-strain curve is also known as the flow curve.

• In engineering stress-strain curve,

stress drops down after necking since it is

based on the original area.

• In true stress-strain curve, the stress

however increases after necking since the

cross-sectional area of the specimen

decreases rapidly after necking.

Comparison of engineering and P

σ= (e + 1) = s (e + 1) ε = ln(e + 1)

the true stress-strain curves Ao

Eq.12 Eq.13

Note: these equations are used for data upto the onset of necking. Beyond

necking, use the actual measurements of load, cross-sectional area, diameter.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

True stress at maximum load

• True stress at maximum load corresponds to the

true tensile strength.

P

s u = max

The ultimate tensile strength Ao

Pmax

The true stress at maximum load σu =

Au

ε u = ln

maximum load Au

Ao

Eliminating Pmax gives σ u = su = su e ε u

Au Eq.14

εu true strain at maximum load

Au cross-sectional area of the specimen at maximum load

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

True fracture stress

• The true fracture stress σf is the load at fracture Pfracture

divided by the cross sectional area at fracture Af.

σf = state of stress existing in the tensile specimen

A fracture at fracture. Often error.

Eq.15

• The true fracture strain εf is • After necking, the true fracture

based on the original area Ao strain can be related to the area of

and the area after fracture Af. reduction q.

Ao 1

ε f = ln ε f = ln

Af Eq.16 1− q Eq.17

True uniform strain

• The true uniform strain εu is the

true strain based only on the strain

up to the maximum load.

• Can either be measured from Au or

Lu at maximum load. Engineering and true stress-strain

curves

• The uniform strain is often used in

estimating the formability of metals Ao

ε u = ln

from the result of a tension test. Au Eq.18

required to deform the specimen from the ε n = ln

Af Eq.19

maximum load to fracture.

Power-law flow curve

• The flow curve of many metals in the region of uniform plastic

deformation can be expressed by the simple power law.

Where n is the strain hardening exponent

σ = Kε n

K is the strength coefficient

Eq.20

maximum load will result in a straight line where n is the slope and K

is the true stress at ε = 1.0.

n = 1 elastic solid

For most metals, 0.1< n < 0.5

stress-strain curve curve σ = Kεn

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Variations of the power-law flow curve

Datsko showed that εo is considered as the amount of strain

hardening of the material obtained prior to tension test.

σ = K (ε o+ε ) n Eq.21

σ = σ o + Kε n Eq.22

low strain can be expressed by

σ = Kε n + e K e n ε

1 1 Eq.23

n is the slope of the curve

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Example: In the tension test of a metal fracture occurs at maximum

load. The conditions at fracture were: Af = 100 mm2 and Lf = 60 mm.

The initial values were: Ao = 150 mm2 and Lo = 40 mm. Determine the

true strain to fracture using changes in both length and area.

Lf

= ln = 0.405

60

ε f = ln At the maximum load, both area

Lo 40

and gauge length can be used for a

Ao

ε f = ln = ln 150 = 0.405 strain calculation.

100

Af

If a more ductile metal is tested such that necking occurs and the

final gauge length is 83 mm and the final diameter is 8 mm, while

Lo = 40 mm and Do = 12.8 mm.

Lf

= ln = 0.730

83 After necking, gauge length gives

ε f = ln

Lo 40 error but area of reduction can still

Do

2

be used for the calculation of true

ε f = ln = 2 ln 12.8 = 0.940 strain at fracture.

8

Df

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Instability in tension

Undergo necking after yielding with

Ideal plastic material no strain hardening

with strain hardening increasing

load-carrying capacity

starts at the maximum load, which is

opposed by a decrease in cross-

sectional area of the specimen as it

elongates.

www.seas.upenn.edu

reduced cross-sectional area > capability due to strain hardening

Instability in tension

Therefore the point of necking

can be obtained from the true

The condition of instability, which stress-strain curve by

leads to localised deformation is

defined by

dP = 0, P = σA

dP = σdA + Adσ = 0

Because the dL dA

volume is constant =− = dε

L A (a) Finding the point on the curve

having a subtangent of unity.

From the instability dA dσ

− =

condition A σ

So that at a point of dσ

=σ

tensile instability dε Eq.24

of strain hardening dσ/dε

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol equals the stress. May-Aug 2007

Considère’s construction for the

determination of maximum load

The maximum load can be determined from Considère’s

construction when the stress-strain curve is plotted in terms of true

stress σ and conventional strain e.

strain of 1.0.

• A line drawn from point A which is

tangent to the stress-strain curve will

give maximum load with the slope of

σ/(1+e).

• The strain at which necking

occurs is the true uniform strain εu

εu = n Eq.25

Example: If the true stress-strain curve is given by σ = 1400ε0.33,

where stress is in MPa, what is the ultimate tensile strength of the

material?

to maximum load is

ε u = n = 0.33

σ u = 1400(0.33) 0.33 = 971 MPa

maximum load is

From Eq.12 971 971

su = 0.33 = = 698 MPa

e 1.391

Flow instability (necking) in biaxial tension

Necking in a uniaxial cylindrical tensile specimen is isotropic. However

in a sheet specimen where the width of the specimen is much higher

than the thickness, there are two types of flow instability:

1) Diffuse necking

• Provide a large extent of necking on the

tensile specimen similar to necking from a

cylindrical specimen.

• Diffuse necking might terminate in fracture

Diffuse and localised necking

in a sheet tensile specimen. but normally followed by localised necking.

2) Localised necking

Power law flow curve for • Localised necking is a narrow band with

localised necking its size ~ specimen thickness, and inclined

at an angle φ ~55o.

ε u = 2n Eq.26

• Give no change in width through the

localised neck plain strain deformation.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Stress distribution in necking

• Necking introduces a complex triaxial state of stress in the

necked region ~ a mild notch.

• The average true stress at necking, which is much higher

than the stress would be required to cause a normal plastic flow

due to stresses in width and thickness directions.

(a) Geometry of necked region, (b) Elastic stresses beneath the notch in

stress acting on element at point O (a) plain stress, (b) plain strain

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Ductility measurement in tension test

length or cross-sectional area.

Uniform extension up to necking

Total extension Depends on

• Metallurgical condition of the material

(through n)

• Specimen size and shape on the

development of necking

the greater the effect of

Variation of local elongation with localised deformation at necking

position along gauge length of on total elongation.

tensile specimen

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Dimensional relationships of tensile specimens for

sheet and round specimens

gauge length Lo. %elongation as Lo

%Elongation Lo = 5.65 A Eq.27

A

Lo

Gauge length Lo

tensile specimens used in different countries

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Difference between % elongation and %

reduction of area

% Elongation

• % Elongation is chiefly influenced by uniform elongation,

which is dependent on the strain-hardening capacity of the

material.

Reduction of Area

• Reduction of area is more a measure of the deformation

required to produce failure and its chief contribution results

from the necking process.

• Because of the complicated state of stress state in the

neck, values of reduction of area are dependent on

specimen geometry, and deformation behaviour, and

they should not be taken as true material properties.

• RA is the most structure-sensitive ductility parameter

and is useful in detecting quality changes in the materials.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Effect of strain rate on flow properties

• Strain rate is defined as

• dε

ε=

dt Eq.28

dependence

Suranaree University of Technology and temperature May-Aug 2007

Strain rate sensitivity, m

• Strain rate sensitivity indicates any changes in deformation

behaviour.

• Measurement of strain rate sensitivity can be linked to

dislocation concept (velocity of mobile dislocations).

obtained from

• m

σ = C ε Eq.29

ε ,T

characteristic of superplastic metals

and alloys.

Dependence of tensile

elongation on strain-rate

sensitivity

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Effect of temperature on

flow properties

Temperature strongly affects

the stress-strain curve and the

flow and fracture properties.

Changes in

Temperature Strength engineering

stress-strain

curves of mild

steel with

Ductility temperature

(dislocation motion) and reduce strength at elevated

temperatures.

• Structural changes can occur at certain temperature

ranges (high temp / long term exposure) to alter the general

behaviour.

Effects of temperature Effects of temperature

on yield stress on ductility

is strongly dependent on while Ni decreases little in ductility

temperature where as in FCC over the entire temperature interval.

metals, the yield stress is only

slightly dependent on temperature.

Comparison of mechanical properties of

different materials at various temperature

temperature can be compared in terms of homogeneous

temperature (the ratio of the test temperature to the melting point,

expressed in degree kelvin).

Testing temperature

Homogenous temperature =

Melting temperature

than simple ratios of flow stress.

Influence of testing machine on

flow properties

controlled machine

• The operator adjusts the

load precisely and leave with • Displacement is controlled

whatever displacement and the load adjusts itself to that

happens to be associated with position. Ex: Screw driven

the load. machine.

the sum of

Currently we can have machines 1) Elastic strain rate in specimen

which can change from load 2) Plastic strain rate in specimen

control to displacement control. 3) Strain rate resulting from

elasticity of the machine.

Effect of the testing machine of the shape of

the stress-strain curve and fracture behavior

Hard machine Soft machine

• A rigid testing machine with a • Hydraulic testing machine.

high spring constant. • The effect of upper and lower yield

• Ex: Screw driven machine. point will be smeared out and only

• Will reproduce faithfully the the extension at constant load will

upper and the lower yield point. be recorded.

www.coronet.eu.com solids.ame.arizona.edu

Screw Hydraulic

driven testing

machine machine

Thermally activated deformation

Plastic deformation The effective shear stress is τ-τi

depends on Where τ is the applied shear stress

• Stress τi is the internal resisting stresses.

• Temperature The τi can be grouped into;

• Deformation 1) Long-range obstacles : barriers too

• Stain rate, high and long the be surmounted by

• Microstructure thermal fluctuation.

• Composition 2) Short-range obstacles : (~10 atom

diameters) thermal fluctuation can

Thermal activation energy assist dislocations in surmounting these

barriers. thermal activation barrier.

during the process.

∆H – Energy required to

overcome the barrier.

Long range and short

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol

range stress fields May-Aug 2007

Notch tensile test

Notch tensile test is used to evaluate notch sensitivity (the tendency

for reduced tensile ductility in the presence of a triaxial stress field and

steep stress gradient. express metallurgical or environmental

changes.

• 60o notch with a root radius of 0.025 mm or

less introduced into a round (circumferential notch)

Notch tensile

or a flat (double-edge notch) tensile specimen.

specimen

• The cross-sectional area under the notch root is

one-half of the unnotched area.

midas.npl.co.uk

Stress distribution

around tensile notches.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Notch strength

original cross-sectional area at the notch.

• Due to the constraint at the notch, the notch strength is higher than

the tensile strength of the unnotched specimen.

(high notch sensitivity) from;

Su (tensile strength for unnotched specimen)

Tensile properties of steel

Ferrous materials are of commercial importance. Great deal

of work is paid to relate microstructure, composition to

properties.

chief variables which control the properties of steel.

are controlled by

1) Flow and fracture characteristics of the ferrite (strength ~

alloying elements, grain size)

2) Amount of ferrite

3) Shape of ferrite

4) Distribution and amount of cementite (C content)

Tensile properties in steels with different

microstructures

due to more rapid rate of cooling, resulting in pearlite.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Tensile properties in steels with different

microstructures

www-g.eng.cam.ac.uk

different microstructures

• Tensile properties of pearlitic steel can be best

controlled by transforming the austenite to

pearlite at a constant temperature on continuous

cooling from above the critical temperature.

• The transformation product is lamellar pearlite. Pearlite microstructure

Transformation temperature

Spacing between

cementite platelets

properties of Ni-Cr-Mo steel

to isothermal transformation

temperature.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Tensile properties in quenched

and tempered steels

strength and ductility is

obtained in steel which has

been quenched to a fully

martensitic structure and then

tempered.

4340 steel as a function of tempering temperature

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Tensile properties in quenched

and tempered steels

• Martensitic structure provides hardness and strength.

• Mechanical properties are changed by altering the tempering

temperature.

as a function of carbon content hardness for quenched and tempered, annealed

and normalised steel

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Tensile properties in low-carbon steel

steels (0.3-0.5%C) do not depend

basically on alloy content, carbon content

or tempering temperature.

• Steels quenched to essentially 100%

martensite and then tempered can give

Tensile strength of in the range 700 –

1400 MPa. a wide variety of alloyed

steels are used.

• A range of specific properties can be

obtained as appeared in shaded area.

• in large steel sections, slack-quenched

structure (non-100% martensitic

structure-containing ferrite, pearlite,

bainite interspersed with martensite)

Relationships between tensile properties of

gives poorer properties. quenched and tempered low-alloy steels

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Anisotropy of tensile properties

Crystallographic anisotropy

orientation of the grains, which is produced by severe

plastic deformation.

• Yield strength and tensile strength to a lesser extent, are

the properties most affected.

• Crystallographic anisotropy can be eliminated by

recrystallisation.

• Example : Ears in deep-drawn cups.

Anisotropy of tensile properties

Mechanical fibering

• Mechanical fibering is due to

preferred alignment of inclusions,

voids, seggregation, and second

phase in the working direction.

important in forgings and plates. Alignment of particles or inclusions

along the working direction

• Ductility is the most affected.

Effect of

forging on

longitudinal

and

transverse

Reduction of area and angle between the reduction of

longitudinal direction in forging and the area

Suranaree University of Technology specimen axis May-Aug 2007

References

McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-100406-8.

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