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A b-boy performing in Turkey surrounded by a group of spectators.

Breaking, also called breakdancing or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street


dancein 1980 in United States. While diverse in the amount of variation available in the
dance, breakdancing mainly consists of four kinds of
movement: toprock, downrock, power moves and freezes. Breakdancing is typically set to
songs containing drum breaks, especially in hip-hop, funk, soul
music and breakbeat music, although modern trends allow for much wider varieties of
music along certain ranges of tempo and beat patterns.
B-boying

A b-boy performing outside Faneuil Hall,


Boston, United States

Genre Hip-hop dance

Inventor Street dancers

Year Early 1970s

Origin New York City


A breakdancer performing in Schildergasse, Cologne, 2017

Breaking was created by the African American youth in the early 1970s.[1] The earliest
breakdancers were the 1st Generation Bboys known as Trixie (Lauree Myers), Dancing
Doug (Douglas Colon), A1 Bboy Sasa, The Legendary Smith Twins and Clark Kent. The
groups included the "Zulu Kings".[2] By the late seventies, the dance had begun to
spread to other communities and was gaining wider popularity;[3] at the same time, the
dance had peaked in popularity among African Americans and Puerto Ricans.[3]
A practitioner of this dance is called a b-boy, b-girl, or breaker. Although the term
"breakdance" is frequently used to refer to the dance in popular culture and in the
mainstream entertainment industry, "b-boying" and "breaking" are the original terms
and are preferred by the majority of the pioneers and most notable practitioners.[4][5]

Locking is a style of funk dance, which is today also associated with hip hop. The name is
based on the concept of locking movements, which basically means freezing from a fast
movement and "locking" in a certain position, holding that position for a short while and
then continuing at the same speed as before. It relies on fast and distinct arm and hand
movements combined with more relaxed hips and legs. The movements are generally
large and exaggerated, and often very rhythmic and tightly synced with the music.
Locking is performance oriented, often interacting with the audience by smiling or
giving them a high five, and some moves are quite comical.
Locking was originally danced to traditional funk music, such as that produced or
performed by James Brown. Funk music is still commonly favored by locking dancers
and used by many competitions such as the locking division of Juste Debout. Locking
movements create a strong contrast towards the many fast moves that are otherwise
performed quite continuously, combined with mime style performance and acting
towards the audience and other dancers. Locking includes quite a lot of acrobatics and
physically demanding moves, such as landing on one's knees and the split. These moves
often require knee protection of some sort.

A dancer doing various locking moves

HistoryEdit
The beginning of Locking can be traced to one man, Don Campbell. In the late 1960s he put
together several fad dances adding moves of his own (known as the "Lock") when
performing. The original lock was created by accident: Campbell couldn't do a move called
the 'Funky Chicken' and stopped at a particular point whilst moving his arms, creating a
'locking' effect.[1][2] He wasn't able to perform it fluently, for he couldn't remember which
step to take next. (Even the acting towards the audience was spontaneous: when people
started laughing at Don because of his unfamiliar moves, he responded by pointing at
them.) These halts soon became popular as Don added them into his performances. The
resulting dance was called Campbellocking, which was later shortened to Locking. In the
early 1970s this set off a movement of Locking dance groups, notably Campbell's group The
Lockers. Other lockers Jimmy "Scoo B Doo" Foster, Greggory "Campbellock Jr." Pope, Tony
"GoGo" Lewis, Fred "Mr Penguin" Berry (a.k.a. Rerun), Leo "Fluky Luke" Williamson,
Damita Jo Freeman and others also helped set the foundation for the locking dance and
clothes style.
Clothes style can consist of loud striped socks, pegged pants that stopped at the knees,
bright colorful satin shirts with big collars, big colorful bow ties, gigantic Apple Boy hats,
and white gloves.

MovesEdit
Locking may be done in solo or in unison with two or more dancers doing steps or
handshakes together. A locker may smile while performing to emphasize the comical
nature of the dance; other times, a serious demeanor will be maintained to place emphasis
on technique. Other important stylistic features are waving of arms, pointing, walking
stationary and grabbing and rotating the cap or hat. Don Campbell created the original
freezes, incorporating his unique rhythm and adding gestures such as points and
handclaps. Other dancers also adapted this style while creating other steps and moves.

Locking is by nature an improvisational dance but also consists of a set of signature moves
of locking pioneers, However, many lockers alter or blend these with other moves or create
their own variations. In general, Lockers will often put a small pause and move up on the
second and fourth beats to emphasize the locking.

Alpha
Created by Alpha Anderson. One leg is kicked forward from a crouching position
while the upper body is leaned backwards. The upper body can be supported by
both hands or no hands at all.
Break down/Rocksteady
In the squatting position, shift the pelvis to the side, then back to the center. Stand
up, then return to the squatting position again and repeat the movement for the
other side.
Jazz split
A semi-split done with one leg bent, enabling the dancer to get up again in one swift
movement.
Whichaway
Altering twirl kicks to the sides first, starting with one leg and using the momentum
to "kick" the other out like a pendulum. The upper body remains stationary with the
arms out front.
Kick
A single powerful and high leg kick while standing on the other.
Knee Drop
A drop to the knees with the knees pointing inwards(into a W shape leg position).
Leo Walk
A funky two step where the first step is an exaggerated step in a particular direction.
The other foot is then slid across the floor to meet the first.
Lock/Double Lock
Bending slightly forward with arms forming a circle downward, as if lifting a heavy
object.
Up Lock (Muscle man)
A macho man pose, where the arms are drawn above the shoulder. The pose is
generally held for a moment or two.
Pacing
A quick jab to the side. The wrist should be loose while the arm is tight. The arm is
lowered in between jabs.
Pimp Walk
A two step involving a small kick of one leg before bringing the other foot beside it.
As the other foot reaches the first one, there is a knee split into a "v" shape without
stepping again.
Stop and Go
Created by Jimmy "Scoo B Doo" Foster; starting with a muscle man lock, step back
with one foot and punch, do a quarter turn in the direction of the back foot
breakdown once, and then return reach-around to the same position.
Stomp the cockroach
A ground technique that involves going on one knee and smacking the ground with
your hand, indicating you are stomping something beneath you.
Scoo B Doo
Created by Jimmy "Scoo B Doo" Foster; doing a muscle man lock then doing two
separate kicks while pacing with one hand in time with the kicks
Scoo B Doo walk
Created by Jimmy "Scoo B Doo" Foster; Walking forward, lifting leg up and bending
your back towards the knee
Scoobot
Created by Jimmy "Scoo B Doo" Foster; One arm and leg out then switching to the
other leg. Leg out and arms crossed then wrist twirl andclap behind
Scoobot hop
Slightly varied from scoobot with legs hopping towards the sides then the front.
Floor Sweep
Using your hand to swiftly move left to right on the floor, as if using a cloth to wipe.
The Skeeter Rabbit/Skeeter Rabbit Around the World
Created by James "Skeeter Rabbit" Higgins; a kick and shuffle hop move, either at
the sides and/or front and back.
Funky Guitar
Hands positioned as if holding a guitar, and start walking backwards.
Point
A quick, extended pointing gesture coming from opposite shoulder, usually held for
a few seconds for emphasis.
Wrist Twirl
Twirling wrists while moving arms up
The Seek
Doing a breakdown whilst rolling your arms in front of you and then lifting a hand
up over your eyes as if you are looking/seeking for something
Hitch Hike
Arms up and then crossed in front of you, and then three hitchhiker thumbs up to
the right and then the left.

Popping is a street dance adapted out of the earlier Boogaloo cultural movement
in Oakland, California, the Robot styles in Richmond, California, the Strutting movements
in San Francisco, California and the dances of the Oak Park community of Sacramento,
California which were popular through the mid-1960s to the 1970s.[1][2] Popping would
be eventually adapted from earlier Boogaloo movements in Fresno, California in the late
1970s by way of California high-school gatherings of track & meet events - the West
Coast Relays.[3] [4] The dance is rooted through the rhythms of live funk music, and is
based on the technique of Boogaloo's posing approach, quickly contracting and relaxing
muscles to cause a jerk or can be a sudden stop in the dancer's body, referred to as
a pose, pop or a hit.[5][6][7] This is done continuously to the rhythm of a song in
combination with various movements and poses.[8] It was popularized by a Fresno &
Long Beach-based dance group called the Electric Boogaloos that mixed popping
techniques to boogaloo.[9] Closely related illusory dance styles and techniques are often
integrated into popping to create a more varied performance. These dance styles
include the robot, waving and tutting. However, popping is distinct
from breaking and locking, with which it is often confused. A popping dancer is
commonly referred to as a popper.
Part of the series on
Popping

Related styles

 Boogaloo
 Electric boogaloo
 Strutting
 Animation (popping)
 Richmond Robot
 Snaking
 Strobing
 Ticking
 Turfing
 Waving

See also
 Hip-hop dance
 Locking

view
Because of Popping's cultural Boogaloo roots, Popping developed before Hiphop's
cultural movement and help influence the tradition of styles of hip hop dancing.[10][11] It
is often performed in battles, where participants try to outperform each other in front of
a crowd, giving room for improvisation and freestyle moves that are seldom seen in
shows and performances, such as interaction with other dancers and spectators.
Popping and related styles such as waving and tutting have also been incorporated into
the electronica dance scene to some extent, influencing new styles such as liquid and
digits and turfing.

TerminologyEdit
As stated earlier, popping has become the latest umbrella term for a group of closely
related styles and techniques rooted in the Boogaloo tradition that have often been
combined, evolved or danced together with popping, some of which are seldom seen
outside of popping contexts.[12]
CharacteristicsEdit
Popping is centered around the technique of popping, which means to quickly contract and
relax muscles to create a jerking effect (a pop or hit) in the body. Popping can be
concentrated to specific body parts, creating variants such as arm pops, leg pops, chest
pops and neck pops.[13]
MusicEdit
Having its roots in the late 1970s funk era, popping is commonly danced
to funk and disco music. Popular artists include Zapp, Dayton, Dazz Band and Cameo.
During the 1980s, many poppers also utilized electro music, with artists such
as Kraftwerk, Yellow Magic Orchestra, Egyptian Lover and World Class Wrecking Crew.
More mainstream hip hop music was also employed by poppers during the 1980s,
including Afrika Bambaataa, Kurtis Blow, Whodini and Run DMC. Today, it is common to
see popping danced to more current music genres such as modern hip hop
(often abstract/instrumental hip hop) and various forms of electronic dance music such
as dubstep.
Songs that are generally favored have a straight and steady beat at around 90-120 beats
per minute, a 4/4 time signature and a strong emphasis on the back beat, normally by
a snare drum or a drum machine. The pops performed by the popper normally occur on
every beat or on the distinct back beats. The popper can also choose to follow the music
more freely such as by timing the pops to the rhythm of a melody or other rhythmic
elements.
VariationsEdit

A street dancer doing the backslide or "moonwalk", a common move in the floating style often seen combined with
popping.

Animation
A style and a technique where the dancer imitates film characters being animated by stop
motion. The technique of moving rigidly and jerky by tensing muscles and using techniques
similar to strobing and the robot makes it appear as if the dancer has been animated frame
by frame. Walt Disney was the first to use this term, referring to his character Steam Boat
Willie’s motions as “the animation dance” in 1929. This style was heavily inspired by
the dynamation films created by Ray Harryhausen, such as The Seventh Voyage of
Sinbad (1958).[13]
Boogaloo
Boogaloo or "bug'n" is an older umbrella name of funk dances originating in Oakland,
California.[14] It can be described as a free-form dance style with loose movements trying to
give the impression of a body lacking bones, partly inspired by animated
movies and cartoons. It utilizes circular rolls of various body parts, such as the hips, chest,
shoulders, knees and head - this technique is also referred to as "wormin" and isolates
sections of the body toward funk rhythms, especially sectioning through separating the rib
cage from the hip. "Wormin" was innovated by Jerry Rentie of One Plus One. [15], and the
rolling of the chest or "wiggling" was innovated by Donald "Duck" Mathews.[16] It also
makes heavy use of angles and various steps and transitions to get from one spot to the
next.
Main article: Boogaloo (funk dance)

Tutting/King Tut
Inspired by the art of Ancient Egypt (the name derived from the Egyptian
pharaoh Tutankhamun, colloquially known as "King Tut"), tutting exploits the body's ability
to create geometric positions (such as boxes) and movements, predominantly with the use
of right angles. It generally focuses on the arms and hands, and includes sub-styles such
as finger tutting.[17]

Everything You Should Know about Hip


Hop Dance
There are many iconic dance styles that suit each decade, but hip hop has continued to
evolve and stay relevant since its beginning. If you’re considering signing up your child for
dance lessons, it’s important to consider hip hop as an option because of its cultural
significance, versatility, and enjoyable nature. Here’s what you need to know about how hip
hop culture came to be, and why so many dancers, young and old, continue to choose it as
their favourite.

The History of Hip Hop


The hip hop dance style originated in the Bronx, New York City during the late 1970s. The
influence of the music genre, fashion style, and dance took longer to develop compared to
the rock music scene in Canada. Although there was a temporary rise in popularity of the
genre between 1989 to 1991, it remained an underground phenomenon in Canada until the
early 2000s.

It became widely known after the first professional street dance crews formed, including
Rock Steady Crew, The Lockers, New York City Breakers, and The Electric Boogaloos. Much
of hip hop dancing came from the 1990s’ adaptation of funk styles such as the Running
Man, the Worm, and the Cabbage Patch. The 2000s brought forth dances like the Cha Cha
Slide, and the Dougie.

Although the term “hip hop” generally refers to a style of music, there are several important
elements that define it. The main elements of hip hop culture include rapping, DJing,
breakdancing, and graffiti art. It can also include beatboxing, street entrepreneurship, hip
hop language, fashion and style, and more. Thanks to the rise of new media platforms in the
2000s, hip hop spread around the world through social networking sites like MySpace,
YouTube, SoundCloud, Worldstarhiphop, and Spotify. These platforms spread the influence
of the catchy culture and has since been adapted by artists around the world to develop
new sounds and styles.
East Coast Roots

Hip hop may have developed in New York, but artists of the city invented a style and dance
culture that blew up decades before the rise of the Internet. Before it was dubbed “hip hop”
the art form developed in the East Coast by DJ Herc, who moved to Brooklyn at the age of
12 from Jamaica. As one of the pioneers of the genre, he began an informal performance
career and became one of the most popular DJs in NYC. He made unique music using two
record machines with the same record on each and created one of the most significant
founding elements of the genre. He also extended the dance section of his songs to allow
dancers to perform longer, as they were a significant part of the foundation of hip hop.

West Coast Hip Hop

The West Coast may have borrowed from the Bronx, but they developed their own style of
hip hop. Thanks to the Jackson Five’s music of the 60s and 70s, robotic moves entered the
dance culture. West Coast hip hop dancers began creating dance moves that replicated
movements of artificial life, shaping hip hop on their side. Two huge pioneers of the rise of
hip hop in the West Coast included Boogaloo Sam who created “popping,” and Don
Campbellock, who invented “locking.” Both iconic dance moves shaped the scene of hip
hop.

Why Hip Hop Remains the Most Popular Dance Style


Many dancers, old and new, enjoy hip hop even though the dance begun decades ago. The
reason for this is because hip hop appeals to everyone. Unlike classical dance that is limited
to age and body type, hip hop can be performed by anyone who wants to learn. The dance
is also so versatile that it can be enjoyed on stage for a grand performance or in a club with
friends. Today, almost everyone has seen some form of hip hop dance, whether it be in real
life or on television. The dance’s use of music makes it fun to watch and perform as it can
captivate audiences with its mixture of sharp and fluid movements. These reasons have led
it to be the most popular dance form that exists today.

FAQ on the Hip Hop Dance Style


What is hip hop mostly about?

As with any art form, hip hop carries different meanings for each person. One of the early
hip hop influencers, MC Kid Lucky, mentioned that breakdancing, a popular aspect of hip
hop, was used to combat each other without fighting. Afrika Bambaataa, a man inspired by
DJ Kool Herc, used hip hop in his organization to help teenagers get out of a lifestyle of
gangs, drugs, and violence, and use the culture to create art.
What kind of shoes do you wear for hip hop dance?

Most dancers tend to wear comfortable shoes such as sneakers or skate shoes.

What clothes to wear for hip hop dancing?

Hip hop requires a lot of different moves, just like ballet, however, hip hop carries a culture
with it. That’s why many dancers choose to wear baggy pants instead of spandex pants.
Shows like So You Think You Can Dance are a great place to find out what professional hip
hop dancers wear, and it can help get your child inspired to dance.

What was the first hip hop song ever made?

The first song that popularized hip hop around the world was a 1979 single by The Sugarhill
Gang called “Rapper’s Delight.”

What are the main instruments used in hip hop music?

Original hip hop from the 1970s used instruments like turntables and a DJ mixer. Later on,
technology allowed for instruments like digital samplers, sequencers, drum machines, and
sound synthetizes to be implemented. Sometimes hip hop producers would bring in
traditional instruments such as electric guitars and bass.

Hip Hop Dance is a style of dance with deep historical and social roots in African culture.

It’s a part of a whole culture of Hip Hop, which started in the 1970’s in the Bronx, New York.

The History of Hip Hop Culture


The Bronx in the 70’s was a rough, dangerous place to grow up. The youth were surrounded by
drugs, crime, poverty, gang violence, and overall struggle.

Yet they, particularly the African American and Latino youth (minority groups), were at best
neglected by mainstream institutions.

Desperate for a way to escape their everyday struggles, they invented their own art forms.

These art forms, which the youth embodied in the way they dressed, talked, moved, and
expressed themselves, soon became a lifestyle. A way to live.

This lifestyle and culture became known as Hip Hop.


Despite the negativity and tumult in the South Bronx, Hip Hop heads were able to rise above
their environment and create a positive form of release.

Instead of substances and violence, their energy was redirected to values like originality,
creativity, identity, respect, and community.

The same way that our religious, ethnic, familial backgrounds inform our way of being in the
world, Hip Hop was the way that people could be in a way that felt right to them.

Deejaying, Emceeing, Breaking and Dancing, and Graffiti weren’t just hobbies, they were
sanctuaries.

As much as the art forms within Hip Hop have evolved over the decades, the core tenants of the
culture remain.

“Hip” = present “Hop”= action.

Hip Hop is a movement that represents the freedom to learn, grow, and evolve.

It is still the same movement it was in the 70’s – the one that gave the inner-city youth the
motivation to live a better life.

He stresses that in order for you to be Hip Hop, you must actively participate in the culture by
means of…

Deejaying (turn tabling)


Emceeing (rapping)
Graffiti (writing / art)
Breaking (dance)
Knowledge
These are the 5 elements of Hip Hop.