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Foundation Program

Physics
Student Tutorial Book
Semester 2
UNSW Foundation Studies
UNSW Global Pty Limited
UNSW
Sydney NSW 2052 Australia

Copyright  2017

All rights reserved. Except under the conditions described in


the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent
amendments, this publication may not be reproduced, in part
or whole, without the permission of the copyright owner.
Foreword
Tutorial Program
There will be two tutorials each week. They are conducted in small groups and are
designed to reinforce concepts introduced in lectures. Tutorials are compulsory
and rolls are marked at each tutorial session.

Tutorials are designed to be informal learning periods, during which time students
are expected to ask questions and to clarify concepts. Students should have
completed the tutorial topic questions set before each tutorial. Some tutorial
questions require the use of physical constants. These can be found on the Data
Sheet towards to back of the book.

During the tutorial sessions your teacher will go over problem areas or questions
as required by students. In addition to the tutorial exercises which are listed in this
Tutorial Handbook, we very strongly recommend you do questions from your
textbook: Giancoli-Physics. You will find relevant chapters from the textbook in
Appendix I.

During some tutorial periods multiple choice tests will be given. These tests are
non-assessable, but give a good indication to you about your progress.

A set time block is allocated for consultation with your teachers. Consultations
are opportunities for students to receive more personal assistance with specific
questions and areas of difficulty they may be having with the course. It is strongly
advised that you use this opportunity early in the year to ensure that you are
keeping abreast of the physics course.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Table of Contents
Contents 
Foreword ....................................................................................................... 1 
Tutorial Program ........................................................................................... 1 
Table of Contents .......................................................................................... 2 
26  Rigid Body Dynamics I ..................................................................... 3 
27  Rigid Body Dynamics II .................................................................... 6 
28  Reflection ......................................................................................... 11 
29  Refraction ......................................................................................... 13 
30  Images .............................................................................................. 16 
31  Optical Systems ............................................................................... 19 
32  Simple Harmonic Motion ................................................................ 22 
33  Wave Motion I ................................................................................. 25 
34  Wave Motion II ................................................................................ 28 
35  Sound I ............................................................................................. 32 
36  Sound II ............................................................................................ 33 
37  Interference I .................................................................................... 37 
38  Interference II................................................................................... 41 
39  Magnetism I ..................................................................................... 44 
40  Magnetism II .................................................................................... 47 
41  Magnetism III................................................................................... 50 
42  Electromagnetic Induction ............................................................... 54 
43  EM Applications .............................................................................. 58 
44  Electromagnetic Waves ................................................................... 61 
Answers....................................................................................................... 63 
APPENDIX 1   PHYSICS SYLLABUS ................................................. 68 
SOME MOMENTS OF INERTIA ............................................................. 71 
PHYSICS DATA SHEET........................................................................... 72 

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
26 Rigid Body Dynamics I
Exercise 1

A spin dryer takes 40.0 s to accelerate from rest to its operating speed of 372 rpm.
(revolutions per minute).

(a) Calculate its average acceleration.

(b) Calculate the number of revolutions turned during this time.

Exercise 2

A wheel is accelerated from rest to 5.40 × 102 rad s-1 in seven complete
revolutions.

(a) Calculate the average angular acceleration of the wheel.

(b) Calculate the time required to reach the 5.40 × 102 rad s-1 angular speed.

Exercise 3

A torque of 16 N m is applied to a uniform disc of mass 20.0 kg and diameter 4.0


m. It is able to rotate about its frictionless axle which is at its centre.

(a) Calculate the moment of inertia of the disc.

(b) Calculate the angular acceleration of the disc.

(c) Calculate the tangential component of linear acceleration of the rim of the
disc.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 4

A wheel mounted on a fixed axle has a cord wound around its rim. The moment
of inertia of the wheel is 0.250 kg m2. The tension in the free end of the cord is
40.0 N.
T = 40.0 N

The wheel is initially at rest and the free end of the cord is pulled over a distance
of 1.20 m horizontally.

(a) Calculate the rotational kinetic energy gained by the wheel.

(b) Calculate the final angular speed of the wheel.

Exercise 5

A thin uniform cylindrical rod is 1.20 m long. It is rotated around a point P which
is 0.40 m from one of its ends.
P

0.4 m 0.8 m

The mass of the rod is 0.50 kg.

Calculate the moment of inertia of the rod about the axis through P.

 Exercise 6

A pulley wheel of radius 0.30 m has a cord wound around its rim. The wheel is
suspended from the ceiling and a 0.25 kg mass is hung from the cord.

Pulley Wheel

m = 0.25 kg

After the mass is released from rest it drops 0.80 m in 0.50 s.

(a) Find the moment of inertia of the pulley wheel.

(b) Find the tension in the rope. (Assume the rope does not slip on the pulley).

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
 Exercise 7

0.20 m 0.10 m

0.50 kg X Y 0.25 kg

0.40 m

Two small spheres of masses 0.500 kg and 0.250 kg respectively are joined by a
light rigid rod of negligible mass as shown, so that their centres are 0.400 m apart.

Calculate:

(a) the moment of inertia and radius of gyration about an axis perpendicular to
the rod and passing through X, a point on the rod mid-way between the
centres of the spheres;

(b) the kinetic energy of this body when it is rotated about such an axis at 20.0
rad/s;

(c) parts (a) and (b) again for an axis passing through Y as shown.

Exercise 8

A 1.00 m long thin rod AB has a mass of 0.200 kg. A small object of mass 0.300
kg is attached to A. The system is free to rotate on a smooth horizontal surface at
a speed of 4.00 rad s-1.

(a) Calculate the angular momentum of the system if it rotates about a vertical
axle through O, the midpoint of AB.

(b) Calculate the angular momentum of the system if it rotates about a vertical
axle through B.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
27 Rigid Body Dynamics II
Exercise 1

A uniform solid cylinder of mass 1.00 kg and diameter 0.500 m rotates about a
vertical axis with a frequency of 1.59 Hz. A very small body of mass 0.500 kg is
dropped onto the cylinder 0.150 m from the axis. The body sticks to the cylinder
and rotates with it. Calculate the angular speed of the cylinder with the 0.500 kg
body on it.

 Exercise 2

The diagram below shows a disc D1 and a shaft of total moment of inertia 0.15 kg
m2 rotating with an angular speed of 10.0 rad s-1 anti-clockwise. Another disc D2
of moment of inertia 0.10 kg m2 is dropped onto disc D1. The two discs stick
together.

D2

D1

(a) Calculate the combined angular speed of the system if D2 was not rotating
before they coupled.

(b) Calculate the combined angular speed of the system if D2 was rotating with an
angular speed of 5.0 rad s-1 anti-clockwise as it fell on D1.

(c) Calculate the combined angular speed of the system if D2 was rotating with an
angular speed of 5.0 rad s-1 clockwise as it fell on D1.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 3

An object of mass 0.400 kg revolves in a circular path on a smooth horizontal


surface.

circular path of
rotating mass

hole rotating
smooth horizontal mass 0.4 kg
surface

cord

It is held by a cord which passes through a small hole in the centre of the surface.
The angular speed of the mass is originally 2.50 revolutions per second and the
radius of its path is 0.800 m.

(a) Calculate the tension in the cord.

The cord is pulled down by 0.100 m.

(b) Calculate the new angular speed of the mass in rad s-1.

(c) Calculate the tension in the string when the mass rotates with this new speed.

(d) Calculate the work done by the cord to change the speed of the mass.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 4

An ice skater has a moment of inertia of 4.00 kg m2 when her arms are
outstretched and 1.50 kg m2 when her arms are brought to her sides. Her angular
speed when her arms are outstretched is 1.20 revolutions per second.

(a) Calculate the ice skater’s angular momentum when her arms are outstretched.

(b) Calculate the kinetic energy of the ice skater at that time.

(c) Calculate the angular velocity of the ice skater when her arms are at her sides.

(d) Calculate the kinetic energy of the ice skater at that time.

(e) Account for the difference between your answers in


(b) and (d).

 Exercise 5

A thin hollow cylinder of mass 3.00 kg and radius 0.500 m rolls down an inclined
plane that makes an angle of 20.0 with the horizontal. The cylinder is initially at
rest.

20o
(a) Calculate the angular speed of the cylinder after rolling 10.0 m down the
plane.

(b) Calculate the linear speed of the cylinder at that time.

(c) Calculate the total kinetic energy of the cylinder at that time.

(d) Explain why the inclined surface cannot be smooth.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 6

The pulley wheel on the diagram below is able to rotate freely about its axle. The
mass of the wheel is 1.30 kg and its diameter is 0.760 m. A mass of 0.700 kg is
hanging from the rim of the wheel on the end of an ideal string. The pulley may
be treated as a solid disc.

The mass is released. Calculate its speed after falling 1.20 m. (Assume the string
does not slip).

Exercise 7

Bodies of masses 0.800 kg and 2.00 kg are joined by a light cord which passes
over a smooth pulley of mass 0.250 kg and diameter 50.0 mm - the two masses
hanging freely as shown.

The pulley may be considered a solid disc. The system is released so that the 2.00
kg body descends and the 0.800 kg body rises.
50 mm

m1 =2.0 kg

1m
m2 =0.8 kg

Using energy considerations calculate:

(a) the speed(s) of the masses and the angular velocity of the pulley when the
larger mass has descended 1.00 m;

(b) the acceleration of each body and the angular acceleration of the pulley;

(c) the tension in the string on each side of the pulley.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
 Exercise 8

A freely rotating turntable is rotating with an angular speed of 3.50 rads-1. Its
moment of inertia is 2.25  10-2 kg m2. The diameter of the turntable is 0.600 m.
A small bug of mass 0.500 g sits at the edge of the turntable. It suddenly starts
running at a speed of 1.45 ms-1 around the perimeter.

(a) Calculate the new speed of the turntable if the bug is running in the same
direction as the turntable.

(b) Calculate the new speed of the turntable if the bug is running in the opposite
direction as the turntable.

(Hint: Calculate the initial angular momentum of the system and write down an
expression for the final angular momentum for the system).

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
28 Reflection
Exercise 1

A person 1.80 m tall is standing in front of a vertical mirror. Calculate the


minimum height of the mirror if the person can see his/her complete image.

Exercise 2

A person is running towards a vertical mirror with a speed of 1.20 m s -1. How fast
is the image formed by the mirror approaching the person?

Exercise 3

A ray of light strikes a plane mirror. The angle between the incident ray and the
reflected ray is 45°.

ref
lec
ted
ray

45o mirror

ay
ide nt r
inc

The direction of the incident ray is kept fixed while the mirror is rotated through
2.0°. Calculate the two possible angles formed between the original incident ray
and the new reflected ray.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
 Exercise 4

Two plane mirrors are arranged at an angle of 120° to each other. A ray of light is
incident on one of the mirrors at an angle of 70° as shown on the diagram below.

inc
ide
nt
ray
r2
rro
70o
120o mi

mirror 1

(a) Calculate the angle of incidence of the reflected ray on the second mirror.

(b) Calculate the angle which is formed by the original incident and the final
reflected rays.

Exercise 5

Light is reflected consecutively from two plane mirrors which are inclined at 90°
to each other. Show that the initial incident ray i is parallel to the final reflected
ray r for all angles of incidence.

 Exercise 6

A square mirror has 0.50 m sides and is fixed to a vertical wall facing the sun.
Calculate the area of the rectangular patch of reflected light on the floor when the
sun is 50.0° above the horizon.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
29 Refraction
Exercise 1

A ray of light strikes the boundary between air and water at 25.0° as shown on the
diagram below. The refractive index of water is 1.33.

air

25o
water

(a) Calculate the speed of light in water.

(b) Calculate the angle of refraction in the air.

(c) Calculate the critical angle of water.

 Exercise 2

A ray of monochromatic yellow light is incident in air on an equilateral triangular


glass prism. This ray is in the same plane as the equilateral triangular cross section
of the prism; the angle between the ray and the prism face is 60.0°, and the
refractive index of the glass is 1.54 for this light.

60

60

60 60

(a) Find the angle the emergent ray makes with the prism face at which it
emerges. Illustrate your answer with a diagram.

(b) Calculate the angle through which the incident ray is deviated by the prism.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 3

Use the diagram which you drew to solve the previous problem (2) and include the
possible rays of monochromatic red and blue light. Give a full explanation for
your answer.

Exercise 4

A ray of light is incident on a parallel-sided slab of glass of refractive index 1.58.


The thickness of the slab is 50.0 mm and the angle of incidence is 35.0°. Calculate
the lateral displacement of the ray.

Exercise 5

In periscopes, binoculars and in other optical instruments 45°-45°-90° prisms are


used to change the direction of light by 90° as shown on the diagrams below.

Calculate the minimum value of the refractive index of the material which is suitable
to make such devices.

Exercise 6

A coin is placed in a long narrow glass which is full of water. The refractive index
of water is 1.33. How far below the surface of the water does the coin appear to be
when the actual depth is 0.120 m?

Hints:

1. Sketch a diagram showing 2 rays diverging from the coin, one of them
meeting the water along the normal.

2 Use the small-angle approximation sin   tan  .

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 7

A boat floats on the surface of a calm lake. A fish swims towards the boat at a
depth of 5.0 m. How close can the fish swim to the boat before

(a) the fisherman on the boat can see the fish?

(b) the fish can see the boat?

Both distances are measured horizontally. The refractive index of the water is 1.3.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
30 Images
Exercise 1

Find the position, size and nature of the image produced when an object 8.0 mm
high is placed:

(a) 0.750 m from a concave mirror of radius of curvature 0.600 m;

(b) 0.300 m from a concave mirror of focal length 0.200 m;

(c) 0.200 m from a concave mirror of focal length 0.250 m;

(d) 0.200 m from a convex mirror of radius of curvature 0.600 m.

Exercise 2

An object is placed 200 mm from a convex spherical mirror and an image with
linear magnification 0.5 results.

(a) Calculate the radius of curvature of the mirror.

(b) Describe a method by which the image in this case could be located
experimentally.

Exercise 3

An object 20.0 mm high is placed:

(a) 0.800 m from a convex lens of focal length 0.250 m;

(b) 0.200 m from a convex lens of focal length 0.250 m;

(c) 0.500 m from a concave lens of focal length 0.300 m.

For each case find the position, linear magnification, size and nature of the image
produced.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 4

When a luminous object is placed 0.75 m from a convex lens a well-focused image
is produced on a screen 1.50 m on the other side of the lens.

(a) What is the linear magnification of this image?

(b) Calculate the focal length of the lens.

 Exercise 5

A convex lens has a focal length of 0.250 m. It is used to form an image of an


object 20.0 mm high. The object and the image must be 1.50 m apart.

(a) If the image must be real, show that there are two possible positions for the
lens and find the image height in each case.

(b) If the image must be virtual, show that there is one possible position for the
lens and again calculate the image height.

 Exercise 6

A convex lens  1 of focal length 120 mm is placed 600 mm from an identical lens
 2 . An object P is 180 mm from  1 and 780 mm from  2 as shown in the
diagram below.

1 2

(a) Calculate the position of the image of P formed by  1 .

(b) Calculate the position of the final image of P.

(c) Calculate the linear magnification of the final image relative to the original
object.

(d) Is the final image upright or inverted compared with the original object?
Explain.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 7

An object P is placed 20 mm from a lens. A virtual image of P is formed 10 mm


from the lens.

(a) Calculate the focal length of the lens.

(b) Is the lens convex or concave? Justify your answer.

 Exercise 8

Lens  1 has a focal length of 0.30 m and lens  2 has a focal length of -0.30 m.
The lenses are placed 0.10 m apart as shown on the diagram below. A luminous
object P is placed 0.20 m from  1 and 0.30 m from  2 .

1 2
(a) Calculate the position of the primary image.

(b) Calculate the position of the final image.

Suppose a small object is placed at the position of P.

(c) What is the linear magnification of the final image? Is this image upright or
inverted, relative to the original object?

Exercise 9

What do you understand by “spherical aberration”? Illustrate your answer with a


sketch. Suggest some ways to reduce this effect.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
31 Optical Systems
Exercise 1

The focal length of the eyepiece of a compound microscope is 25.0 mm and the
focal length of its objective lens is 10.0 mm. An object is placed 10.5 mm in front
of the objective lens. The microscope is adjusted for most distinct vision and the
final image is 0.100 m long.

(a) Calculate the position of the primary image with respect to the objective.

(b) Calculate the magnification of the objective lens.

(c) Calculate the distance between primary image and the eyepiece.

(d) Calculate the linear magnification of the microscope.

(e) Calculate the length of the object.

(f) Is the final image real or virtual? Explain your answer.

Exercise 2

A person has a least distance of distinct vision of 1.20 m. What kind of contact
lenses should this person wear to reduce this distance to 0.250 m?

Exercise 3

The focal length of a projector is 127 mm. It is used in an auditorium where the
screen is 25.5 m from the projector. A person borrows the projector, takes it home
and places it 1.50 m from the wall. How far and in what direction should the lens
be moved to form a focused image on the wall?

Exercise 4

A point object P is placed on the principal axis of a convex lens of focal length
0.30 m at a distance of 0.60 m from the lens. A convex mirror is placed 0.20 m
from the lens so that the lens is between the mirror and P with the reflecting
surface of the mirror facing the lens. If rays from P through the system return to
P, find the focal length of the mirror.

How could this arrangement be used to find the focal length of a convex mirror
experimentally?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 5

The objective and eyepiece of a compound microscope are 190 mm apart and have
focal lengths of 7.00 mm and 50.0 mm respectively.

The microscope is adjusted so that the final image is formed at the near point
(0.250 m from the eyepiece, which is near enough to 0.250 m from the eye itself).

(a) Calculate the distance between the primary image and the eyepiece.

(b) Calculate the distance between the object and the objective lens.

(c) Calculate the magnification of the microscope.

Exercise 6

An astronomical telescope is used to view the planet Mars. The eyepiece of the
telescope has a focal length of 20 mm and its objective lens has a focal length of
0.60 m. What is the angular magnification of the final image of Mars? (Assume
that the telescope is adjusted for relaxed viewing)

Exercise 7

The objective lens of a Galilean telescope has a focal length of 400 mm and its
eyepiece is 150 mm from the objective lens. Assume that the telescope is adjusted
for relaxed viewing.

(a) Calculate the focal length of the eyepiece.

(b) Calculate the angular magnification of the telescope.

(c) Name two advantages and one disadvantage of this type of telescope
compared with the Keplerian type (with two convex lenses).

(d) Repeat parts (a) and (b) if, with the lenses in the same positions, the telescope
is adjusted for most distinct viewing.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 8

A refracting telescope has an objective lens without any significant aberrations. Its
focal length is 1.20 m. It is fitted with an eyepiece of focal length 24 mm. An
astronomer uses it to observe a star cluster.

(a) How far should the eyepiece be from the objective if the astronomer wants to
observe for a long time with a relaxed eye?

(b) What then is the angular magnification of the telescope?

(c) Where (in relation to the eyepiece) should the final image be if the astronomer
wants the most distinct view?

(d) What is the angular magnification of the telescope when adjusted as in (c)?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
32 Simple Harmonic Motion
Exercise 1

A spring has a force constant of 1.00 kN m-1. When an object of mass 6.12 kg is
hanging from the spring, its extended length is 0.180 m. Calculate the extended
length of the spring when an object of mass 10.2 kg is hanging from it.

Exercise 2

The diagram below represents a spring gun which is placed on an horizontal


smooth surface. The relaxed length of the spring is 0.250 m and its elastic
constant is 0.120 kN m-1.

250 mm

A steel ball of mass 0.600 kg is placed on the horizontal surface and the spring is
compressed with the ball to a length of 0.100 m.

100 mm

(a) Calculate the elastic potential energy of the compressed spring.

The spring is released and the ball is free to move on the smooth horizontal
surface.

(b) Calculate the initial acceleration of the ball.

(c) Calculate the maximum speed of the ball.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 3

A mass is moving with simple harmonic motion of amplitude 400 mm. Its position
initially is zero and its position at t = 0.500 s is 150 mm as shown on the diagram
below.

x (mm)

400

150

0
0.5 t (s)

(a) Write an expression for the position of the mass as a function of time in
general form.

(b) Substitute the given values in your equation and calculate the period of the
motion.

Exercise 4

A group of students performed an experiment with a simple pendulum. The table


below shows their measurements.

No. of complete swings Elapsed time (s)


10 15
20 31
30 46
40 70
45 68
50 75

(a) Draw a graph of the number of swings against elapsed time. Use this graph to
calculate the period of the pendulum.

(b) Did you use all the measurements? Explain your answer.

(c) What was the length of the pendulum?

(d) At what point(s) of the swing was the acceleration of the pendulum
maximum? Explain your answer.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 5

A girl of mass 30.0 kg sits on a playground swing which has a period of oscillation
4.1 s. The total horizontal displacement of a half-swing is 0.85 m as shown on the
diagram below.

0.85

(a) Calculate the length  of the swing.


(b) Calculate the maximum speed of the girl.

A boy of mass 45 kg sits on the same swing.

(c) If the horizontal distance remains 0.85 m, how would the period and the speed
change? Explain your answer.

 Exercise 6

A mass of 1.20 kg oscillates on a smooth horizontal surface through a maximum


distance of 85.0 mm as shown on the diagrams below.

85 mm

The mass completes 10.0 vibrations each second.

(a) Calculate the maximum acceleration of the mass

(b) Calculate the maximum force exerted by the spring system on the mass.

(c) Calculate the force constant of the system.

(d) Calculate the maximum speed of the mass.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
33 Wave Motion I
Exercise 1

Calculate the frequency range of a radio receiver which is able to operate on a


waveband between 10.0 m and 95.0 m. The speed of the radio waves in air is 3.00
 108 m s-1.

Exercise 2

Two particles on a progressive wave of wavelength 2.50 m are 1.00 m apart. What
is the phase difference between the vibrations of these particles in (i) radians; (ii)
degrees?

Exercise 3

A longitudinal wave of frequency 2.0 × 102 Hz is set up in a metal rod. The wave
passes from the rod into air. The speed of wave in the metal is 5.0 x 103 m s -1 and
in air it is 3.4 x 102 m s -1.

(a) Calculate the wavelength of the wave in air.

The wave is partly reflected at the metal-air interface.

(b) Does the wave change phase on reflection? Justify your answer.

(c) Does the wave change phase on transmission? Justify your answer.

 Exercise 4

A motor boat sails first from the shore to an island, then back from the island to
the shore. On the first journey the boat meets one wave in every 2.00 seconds; on
the second journey it meets one wave in every 9.23 seconds. The speed of the boat
relative to the land is 12.0 m s -1 in both cases. Assume the speed of the boat is
greater than the speed of the waves.

Calculate:

(a) the wavelength;

(b) the speed;

(c) the frequency

of the ocean waves.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 5

Three strings of different linear densities are joined together and one end of the
combination is attached to a brick wall, as shown:

The combination is put under tension, which must necessarily be the same in each
part. The speed of waves and pulses in a stretched string is given by:

F tension  N 
v 
 linear density  kg m-1 

An upward pulse is generated at the left-hand end of the left-hand string. Each
time this pulse reaches a junction (or boundary), some of its energy is reflected and
some transmitted across the boundary. [Transmission into the brick wall is
negligible.]

For the pulses which return to the left-hand end by a single reflection, explain
whether it is upright (as originally generated) or inverted.

Exercise 6

A standing wave pattern is established on a tight rope. The distance between a


node and its neighbouring antinode is 0.20 m. Calculate the frequency of the
vibration if the speed of the wave in this rope is 20.0 m s-1.

Exercise 7

A transverse wave is established in a rope. At one instant a photograph is taken of


 
the rope and its shape is described by the function y  0.40 sin 6 x  
 2
(m)

(a) What is the amplitude of the wave?

(b) What is the wavelength of the wave?

(c) Express the phase of the function in degrees at the time the photograph is
taken.

(d) Draw a sketch of this function at the time the photograph is taken.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 8

Figure (i) shows a transverse wave at t = 0.0 s. Figure (ii) shows the same wave at
t = 0.20 s. The wave is travelling to the right.

displacement (m)

displacement (m)
0.3 0.3

1 3 5 7 distance (m) 2 4 6 8
distance (m

(i) (ii)
(a) What is the wavelength of the wave?

(b) Calculate the minimum velocity of the wave.

(c) What is the period of the vibration of the wave for this minimum velocity?

(d) What is the period of vibration for the second lowest possible velocity?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
34 Wave Motion II
Exercise 1

A stretched wire is observed to vibrate in three loops each of length 0.750 m when
the frequency of vibration is 50.0 Hz. The tension in the wire is 6.00 N.

(a) Draw a diagram of the vibrating wire and state the number of nodes and the
number of antinodes.

(b) Calculate the speed of the transverse waves in the wire.

(c) Calculate the linear density of the wire.

Exercise 2

A viola string is stretched between two supports 0.600 m apart. When it is


plucked, the fundamental frequency of the emitted sound is 4.60×102 Hz.

(a) What is the wavelength of the wave in the string?

(b) Calculate the speed of the wave in the string.

(c) Calculate the wavelength of the sound produced by the vibrating string.

Exercise 3

A string is stretched between two fixed points. Standing waves are set up on it
with 3 nodal points between the ends (not including the ends themselves).

(a) Draw a sketch of the vibrating string.

The frequency of the vibration of this string is 680 Hz.

(b) Calculate the frequency of vibration when this string vibrates in its first
overtone mode.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 4

The graph below represents two pulses X and Y travelling on a string at t = 2.0s.

60

displacement (mm)
0 X
Y

-60
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
distance (m)

Pulse X is travelling to the right with a velocity of 0.5 m s -1. Pulse Y is travelling
to the left.

(a) How far did each pulse travel in 8.0 s?

(b) Draw the shape of the string at t=10.0s.

 Exercise 5

A progressive transverse harmonic wave of wavelength 0.50 m and amplitude


12 mm travels in a stretched string of length 5.0 m. The wave is reflected from the
fixed ends of the string and the two waves form a standing wave pattern.

(a) Calculate the amplitude of the standing wave.

(b) Calculate the frequency of the standing wave, given that the speed of the
original wave is 120 m s -1.

(c) How many antinodes are formed in the standing wave pattern?

(d) Write down the displacement-time function of the original wave; that is, write
an expression of the form:
displacement = (amplitude) sin2 f t 

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
 Exercise 6

A 1.5 m long string has a mass 1.5 x 10-2 kg. It is under a tension of 144 N. A
student has a set of four tuning forks marked 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 150 Hz and 200 Hz.
First the student plucks the string by hand.

(a) Calculate the velocity of the wave produced in the string.

The student tries to establish a standing wave in the string by exciting it using the
“resonance method” as shown on the diagram below.

vibrating tuning fork

1.5 m smooth pulley

tight string

F=144 N

(b) Explain what the term ”resonance” means.

(c) Which one of the tuning forks is able to establish a standing wave in the
string?

(d) Which mode of vibration is established?

(e) What is the wavelength of the standing wave in the string?

(f) What is the wavelength of the progressive sound wave produced by the
vibrating string?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
 Exercise 7

The graph below illustrates a pulse which moves to the right along a string at a
velocity of 2.0 m s -1.

0.4

displacement (m)
0.2
D
0
A B C P
-0.2

-0.4
2 6 10 14 18 22
Position (m)

A, B, C, D and P are points on the string.

(a) Calculate the velocity of points A, B, C and D.

(b) Construct a displacement-time graph for point P taking t = 0 the instant when
the displacement-position graph was drawn.

(c) At what time is the instantaneous speed of point P maximum?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
35 Sound I
Exercise 1

Three properties of musical notes that enable us to distinguish them from one
another are loudness, pitch and tonal quality or timbre. Explain how each of these
is determined by physical properties of the sound wave.

Exercise 2

When you are 10.0 m from a sound source you hear a sound intensity of
6.00 x 10-10 W m-2.

(a) Convert this intensity to decibels.

(b) How far do you have to walk from the source to reduce the intensity to 2.00 x
10-10 W m-2?

(c) Calculate the loudness of the sound at that place.

Exercise 3

An orchestra has seven electric guitars. When only five of them are played they
produce an average sound level of 85.0 dB. Calculate the average sound level
when all seven guitars are played.

 Exercise 4

In a factory workshop 16 identical machines produce a sound level of 90.0


decibels. This must be reduced to a maximum of 84.0 decibels. How many
machines must be stopped?

Exercise 5

At a certain point on a factory floor the sound level when heavy machine M1 is
switched on is 70.0 dB. When another machine M2 is switched on as well the
sound level rises to 71.0 dB. Calculate the sound level produced by M2.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
36 Sound II
Exercise 1

A group of students found, while experimenting with resonating stopped tubes,


that the shortest tube which resonates with a 560 Hz tuning fork is 0.150 m.
Calculate the speed of sound in air. (End corrections may be ignored.)

Exercise 2

A tube is fitted with a movable piston so as to produce a pipe of variable length


open at one end and closed at the other. When tuning forks are sounded over the
open end, the following values for resonant lengths are found.

Resonant Lengths (m)


Frequency (Hz) 1st 2nd
256 0.345 1.018
320 0.278 0.815
384 0.231 0.697
512 0.276 0.613

(a) Plot a graph of the wavelength against period using the above results.

(b) From your graph, obtain a value for the speed of sound at the temperature of
the experiment.

 Exercise 3

The speed of sound in a metal rod is 3.60 km s -1. The rod is 1.20m long and
clamped at one of its ends.

(a) Determine the frequency of its vibration if longitudinal waves are established
in the rod and it is vibrating in its first overtone mode.

(b) Which harmonic of the fundamental is the first overtone?

The same metal rod is clamped now in its centre and longitudinal stationary waves
are established in the rod, which again vibrates in its first overtone mode.

(c) Draw a sketch of the vibrating rod.

(d) Determine the frequency of its vibration.

(e) Which harmonic of the fundamental is the third overtone?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 4

A closed pipe (stopped at one end) and an open pipe are placed side by side. It is
found that the second overtone produced by the closed pipe gives the same pitch as
the third overtone of the open pipe. Calculate the ratio of their lengths.

 Exercise 5
Two loudspeakers, L1 and L2, are connected in the same phase to an oscillator on
an open field as shown on the diagram below.

L1
Sound generator
f = 560 Hz

3.6 m

L2

The speakers are 3.60 m apart and the frequency of the oscillator is 560Hz. The
speed of sound under these conditions is 342 m s -1.

(a) Calculate the wavelength of sound emitted by the speakers.

(b) Calculate the number of nodal lines produced by the interference of the sound
waves from the two speakers to their right.

(c) Calculate the angle between the two central nodal lines.

The electrical connections between the oscillator and L1 are reversed so that the
two speakers receive their signals “out of phase”.

(d) Calculate the number of nodal lines produced with this arrangement.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
 Exercise 6
A group of students conduct an experiment to find the velocity of sound in air.
They use a tuning fork marked 500.0 Hz and a glass tube 2.50 m long filled with
water and fitted with a tap at its lower end in order to regulate the length of the air
column in the tube.

2.5 m

The students found the velocity of sound in air to be 342 m s -1.

Ignore the “end correction” in answering parts (a) and (b).

(a) How many positions of resonance could they have found?

(b) What was the length of the air column at the 4th resonance point?

(c) How should the students perform their calculations in order to counteract the
effects of “end correction”?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 7

A speaker from a signal generator is attached to the open end of a transparent tube
of length 1.0 m which contains a very fine and light powder. When the frequency
of the signal generator is adjusted to resonate with the air in tube, the powder
settles as shown on the diagram below:

1.0 m

speaker A B C

signal
generator

(a) What is the wavelength of the sound generated in the tube?

(b) What is the frequency of the signal emitted by the speaker?

(c) At a particular instant the air particles at C are displaced by 2.0 m to the
right from their mean positions. What is the displacement of the air particles
at this time at

(i) A
(ii) B

(d) What is the fundamental frequency of the tube?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
37 Interference I
Exercise 1

S1 and S2 are two coherent point sources of monochromatic light of wavelength 


that are in phase. Consider the situation at a point P where the path difference
S1P - S2P is:

(i) 
(ii) /2
(iii) /4
(iv) 5/4
(v) 3/4
(vi) 7/4
(vii) 2.

(a) What is the phase difference, in radians, between the light waves, in each case?

(b) In which of (i) - (vii) could the light waves be described as “in phase”?

(c) In which of (i) - (vii) could the light waves be described as being “completely
out of phase”?

Exercise 2

Monochromatic light of wavelength 590 nm is incident on two narrow slits that are
0.15 mm apart. What is the distance between the two second-order maxima
observed on a screen 1.20 m from the slits?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 3

An airport is equipped with two short-wave radio aerials A and B which are 40.0
m apart as shown on the diagram below. They emit 12.0 m wavelength signals
with a phase difference of  radians.

A
runway

40 m

(a) If an aeroplane is approaching the runway along the marked dotted line would
the signal it receives from A and B be minimum or maximum? Explain your
answer.

(b) An aeroplane approaching the runway from a great distance receives a


minimum signal. If it is off-course, what is the minimum angle by which it is
off-course?

Exercise 4

Light of wavelength 481 nm falls normally on a double slit where the slit
separation is 1.30 x 10-4 m.

(a) How many maxima could be found on the screen on the other side of the
double slit and parallel to it?

(b) Calculate the angle of deviation for the highest order maximum obtained.

Exercise 5

If white light containing wavelengths in the range of 400 nm to 750 nm falls


normally on the double slit of Question 4,

(a) What is the angular spread of the first order spectrum?

(b) Which colour is deviated most?

(c) Which colour is deviated least?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 6

Monochromatic blue light of wavelength 440 nm is incident normally on a double


slit and forms an interference pattern on a screen. When the light source is
changed, the interference pattern is also altered.

(a) Calculate the two longest possible wavelengths which are able to form a
minimum in the same position as the first order maximum for the blue light.

(b) What colours are those lights?

Exercise 7

On the diagram below the line H represents a long straight highway running to the
north, X and Y are two radio towers separated by 3000 m emitting, in phase,
waves of frequency 2.0 x 105 Hz.
H

1500 m 1500 m

X Y

(a) Calculate the wavelength of the signals

(b) Find the directions of the antinodal lines.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 8

Monochromatic light of wavelength 542 nm is incident normally on a double slit.


An interference pattern is seen on a screen 1.20 m from the double slit. The
distance between the consecutive bright fringes near the centre of the pattern is
5.00 mm.

(a) Calculate the separation of the slits.

(b) What would be the effect on the interference pattern if the slit separation were
halved?

(c) Calculate the distance between consecutive maxima near the centre of the
pattern, if light of wavelength 6.00 × 102 nm were used with the original
double slit.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
38 Interference II
Exercise 1

Light of wavelength 5.60 × 102 nm falls normally on a transmission grating which


has 6.80 × 10 2 lines per millimetre.

(a) Calculate the distance between consecutive lines.

(b) Calculate the maximum number of bright lines which can be seen on a screen
2.4 m away and parallel to the grating.

(c) Calculate the distance between the two first order maxima.

Exercise 2

Monochromatic red light of wavelength 670 nm is falling at right angles on to a


transmission grating. The angular separation between adjacent maxima near the
centre of the pattern is
2.0 x 10-3 radian. Calculate the spacing between the lines of the grating.

Exercise 3

A transmission grating has 5.50 × 102 lines per mm. A screen is set up 3.00 m
from the grating and parallel to it. A mixture of two yellow lights  = 588.99 nm
and  = 589.59 nm is incident normally on the grating.

(a) Calculate the distance between the two spectral lines in the first order
spectrum.

(b) Calculate the distance between the two spectral lines in the second order
spectrum.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 4

Monochromatic light (literally light of one colour but we use this term to mean
light composed of only one wavelength) falls normally on a transmission grating
with 5.00 × 102 lines per millimetre. When a large screen is placed 0.400 m behind
the grating and parallel to it, it is found that the two second order maxima are
0.600 m apart

(a) Calculate the wavelength of the light.

What is the highest order maximum that is formed?

The screen is moved close to the grating so that all maxima appear on it.

(c) How many maxima are there?

The space between the grating and the screen is now filled with oil of refractive
index 1.40.

(d) Calculate the wavelength of the light in the oil.

(e) How many maxima now appear on the screen?

Exercise 5

When a draining soap film or an oil slick is viewed in white light, vivid colours
(described as “false spectral colours”) are observed.

(a) Explain this effect.

(b) Why are the colours “false” rather than “true” spectral colours?

Exercise 6

Explain why camera lenses are “bloomed”, i.e. Coated with CaF2 or other
transparent materials which have refractive indices different from glass.

Exercise 7

Explain what Newton’s rings are and how are they formed.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 8

Explain how “thin film interference” may be used to determine:

(a) the optical flatness of a glass

(b) the diameter of a thin thread.

Exercise 9

A thin piece of glass with an index of refraction of n = 1.50 is placed on top of a


medium that has an index of refraction n = 3.00. A beam of light traveling in air (n
= 1.00) shines perpendicularly down on the glass. The glass thickness is to be
optimised such that two colours are efficiently reflected from the thin film. These
colours are blue light with a wavelength in air of 495 nm and red light with a
wavelength in air of 660 nm.

(a) What is the minimum non-zero thickness of the glass that gives completely
constructive interference for the blue light reflecting from the film?

(b) What is the minimum non-zero thickness of the glass that gives completely
constructive interference for the red light reflecting from the film?

(c) What is the minimum non-zero thickness of the glass that gives completely
constructive interference for BOTH the blue and red light simultaneously?

(d) The thin piece of glass in is now removed and placed on top of water n =
1.33. Again, a beam of light traveling in air (n = 1.00) shines perpendicularly
down on the glass. Which visible wavelengths (380nm <  < 750nm) will
now be completely reflected, that is, undergo complete constructive
interference?

Exercise 10

A thin glass film (n=1.46) is to be deposited on a silicon (n=4.11) photovoltaic cell.


Assuming the light shines perpendicularly down on the silicon through air, what
minimum thickness does the film need to be so that green light with a wavelength
in air of 550nm (where much of the suns energy is centred!) will not be reflected.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
39 Magnetism I
Exercise 1

(a) What is a line of magnetic flux?

(b) How can you tell from a flux line diagram the direction of the magnetic field
at a point?

(c) Why do lines of magnetic flux not cross?

Exercise 2

A coil with an iron core and a bar magnet are placed as shown. The effects of the
earth’s magnetic field can be ignored and the two compass needles P and Q point
in the directions indicated.

Bar magnet Q P Coil

Core

Battery

(a) Sketch the magnetic field lines between the magnet and the coil and indicate
the polarities of each, the neutral point and the current direction in the coil.

(b) What happens to the neutral point if the iron core is removed from the coil?

Exercise 3

A student is standing directly underneath a current-carrying cable. What is the


direction of the magnetic field of the current when the student faces in the same
direction as the current?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 4

One of the walls in a house is built in a north-south direction. This contains a wire
which carries direct current to some electronic equipment. If a compass needle is
placed to the east side of this wall, the compass needle points to the south.

(a) What is the direction of the wire in the wall?

(b) What is the direction of the current in the wire?

Exercise 5

A long straight wire carries a direct current of 3.80 A. Calculate the induction (or
flux density) of the magnetic field at P, which is
0.0600 mm from the wire.

I = 3.8 A

60 mm

Exercise 6

The induction of a magnetic field (or its flux density) has a value of 6.0 x 10-3 T in
air at a distance of 0.040 m from a long straight wire.

(a) Calculate the current in the wire.

(b) Comment on the magnitude of this current.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 7

The diagram below shows two coplanar insulated wires  1 and  2 .  1 carries a
current of 0.50 A and  2 carries a current of 0.80 A in the indicated directions.

l1
20 mm
20
50 mm
mm Q
50 mm
P

l2

P and Q are points in the plane of  1 and  2 . P is 0.050 m and Q is 0.020 m from
each wire. Calculate the net flux density of the magnetic field generated by the
currents in  1 and  2 at

(i) P
(ii) Q

Exercise 8

The following experiment is performed in Sydney where the earth’s magnetic field
has a flux density of 56.0 T at an angle of inclination of 63.0 above the
horizontal. Neglect the magnetic variation or declination. That is, assume that
magnetic north and true north are the same.

A long straight wire is suspended horizontally in a north-south direction above a


horizontal table. It carries a current of 5.00 A to the north. A small compass is
placed on the table directly below the wire and 30.0 mm from it.

(a) What is the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field in Sydney?

(b) What is the magnetic flux density on the table-top due to the current in the
wire alone?

(c) In what direction does the compass point?

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
40 Magnetism II
Exercise 1

A long straight horizontal cable carries a direct current of 4.50 × 102 A. The
vertical component of the earth’s magnetic field is 4.80 x 10-6 T. Calculate the
magnitude of the horizontal force exerted on a 5.00 m section of the cable by the
earth’s magnetic field.

Exercise 2

A wire 750 mm long carries a current of 4.5 A and makes an angle of


40.0 o with a uniform magnetic field. A force of 1.80 x 10-2 N is exerted on the
wire by the magnetic field. Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic induction.

Exercise 3

A 5.00 A current flows in a northerly direction in a horizontal conductor of length


0.150 m. Calculate the magnetic force on this conductor due to the earth’s
magnetic field which has a flux density of 5.00 x 10-5 T towards North 30.0o above
the horizontal.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
 Exercise 4

A spring with a natural length 100 mm is hung vertically. When a rectangular coil
of 50 turns and mass 81.6 g is attached to the spring, it elongates to 140 mm. The
coil is 120 mm wide and 180 mm long and its lower edge is in a uniform
horizontal magnetic field of intensity 2.00 x 10-2 T. When a current is flowing in
the coil, the spring elongates to 167 mm. (All distances are measured to the nearest
mm.)

100 mm 140 mm 167 mm

120 mm

180 mm

B=2x10-2T B=2x10-2T

no current with current

(a) State the direction of the current in the coil.

(b) Calculate the force constant of the spring.

(c) Calculate the current which flows in the coil.

 Exercise 5

A very long straight wire carries a direct current of 40.0 A. A rectangular


conductor is placed 60.0 mm from the wire as shown on the diagram below. The
rectangular coil contains a 120 V D.C. power supply and a 2.00  resistor.
I = 40.0 A
60 mm

180 mm

2
120 V
120 mm

Calculate the magnetic force experienced by the straight wire.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 6

Two straight parallel wires  1 and  2 are 5.00 mm apart.  1 is 6.00 m long
and carries a current of 0.120 A.  2 is 2.00 m long and experiences a force of
3.00 x 10-6 N repulsion from  1 .

1

2

Calculate the magnitude and direction of the current in  2 .

Exercise 7

A tightly wound circular coil has one thousand turns. It rests horizontally on a
table and an anticlockwise current (as seen from above) of 0.80 A produces a
magnetic field of 1.0 x 10-2 T in its centre.

(a) What is the direction of the magnetic field?

(b) What is the diameter of the coil?

DATA: The flux density at the centre of a tightly-wound flat coil of radius a
having N turns is

0 I
given by B  N .
2a

 Exercise 8

A long solenoid has 5.00 × 103 turns per metre and carries a current of 2.50 A.

(a) What is the magnitude of the flux density of the magnetic field inside this
solenoid?

A core of relative permeability of 40.0 is inserted inside the solenoid.

(b) Calculate the new flux density of the solenoid.

DATA: The flux-density inside a solenoid  m long, having N turns of wire, is


N
given by B   o I.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
41 Magnetism III
Exercise 1

Two long straight parallel wires  1 and  2 are separated by 0.12 m in air. The
current I1 carried by  1 is 1.5 A and I2 carried by  2 is 2.0 A.

(a) Calculate the force per unit length on each wire.

(b) Is this force attractive or repulsive when the currents are flowing in the same
direction?

The current in  1 is doubled and the current in  2 is reversed.

(c) Calculate the force experienced by a 2.0 m section of  2 .

(d) Calculate the force experienced by a 0.50 m section of wire  2 if the current
in  1 ceases to flow.

Exercise 2

Three very long straight coplanar wires w1, w2 and w3 are arranged as shown on
the diagram below. w1 carries a current of 4.0 A, w2 carries a current of 2.0 A
and w3 carries a current of 3.0 A in the directions shown. The distances between
the wires are also indicated. The three wires are parallel.

w1 4A
1.2 mm
2A w2
.8 mm
w3 3A
Calculate the magnitude and direction of the net magnetic force acting on one
metre length of wire

(a) w1
(b) w2
(c) w3

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 3

A proton is projected with a horizontal eastward velocity of 1.00 x 106ms-1 at right


angles into a magnetic field of flux density 0.0800 T directed horizontally to the
north.

(a) Calculate the magnitude of the force exerted on the proton by the magnetic
field.

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration of the proton.

(c) What is the direction of this acceleration?

(d) Calculate the radius of curvature of the proton’s orbit.

Exercise 4

An alpha particle is injected at right angles into a magnetic field of flux density
0.12 T. The speed of the alpha particle at entry is 2.0 x 106 ms-1.

(a) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic force on the alpha particle.

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the intensity of a uniform electric field which is
able to exert this force on an alpha particle.

Exercise 5

In a particle accelerator singly charged ions of momentum of magnitude


5.30 x 10-16 kg m s -1 are held in a circular orbit of radius 1.20 km. Calculate the
induction (flux density) of the magnetic field used if it is perpendicular to the
orbital plane.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
 Exercise 6

The diagram below is a simplified diagram of a mass spectrograph.

Uniform Magnetic Field out of Page


Photographic Plate
+ x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
-
Velocity
x x x x Results
Selector x x x x
x x x x

A B
Entry of Particles
Singly charged monatomic ions are admitted to the uniform magnetic field through
the velocity selector which has a magnetic field of 2.00 x 10-2 T and a
perpendicular electric field of
8.00 x 104 V m-1.

(a) What is the velocity of the ions which pass through the velocity selector in a
straight line?

The intensity of the uniform magnetic field used to deflect the ions is 8.00 x 10-1
T. It is found that the photographic plate is affected only in two places: A and B,
which are 314 mm and 418 mm from the entry point of the ions respectively.

(b) Calculate the masses of the ions.

(c) Identify the ions.

Exercise 7

An alpha particle is observed in a bubble chamber to have a circular path of


diameter 596 mm when a magnetic field of induction 8.00 x 10-2 T is directed at
right angles to the velocity of the alpha particles. Given that the mass of the
orbiting alpha particle is 6.64 x 10-27 kg:

(a) Calculate the speed of the alpha particle

(b) Calculate the kinetic energy of the alpha particle

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
 Exercise 8

A beam containing two types of singly charged helium ions with masses 3.00 and
4.00 units passes without deviation through a velocity selector and then enters at
right angles a uniform magnetic field of induction 0.800 T. The plates of the
velocity selector are 15.0 mm apart and a potential difference of 4.50 kV is
maintained between them. The magnetic field of the velocity selector is 0.600 T.

(a) Calculate the speed of the ions as they enter the uniform magnetic field.

(b) The radius of the orbit of each kind of ion in the uniform magnetic field.

(c) The maximum separation of the two orbits.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
42 Electromagnetic Induction
Exercise 1

A straight piece of wire, CD, is at right angles to a magnetic field as shown.

x x x x x
x x x x x
v
C D
x x x x x

x x x x x B is into the page

(a) Explain why the end D of the wire becomes negative when the wire is moved
with a velocity, v, as shown.

(b) Calculate the potential difference between C and D if the length of the wire is
0.23 m, the magnetic induction is 0.17 T and v is 3.6ms-1.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 2

A rectangular coil of wire ABCD of length 2.20 m and width 1.20 m is moving
with a uniform speed of 2.50 m s -1 in a magnetic field of intensity 0.500 T as
shown on the diagram below. The resistance of the wire is negligible. There is a
resistance of 4.00 ohms between C and D.

A B

2.2 m
2.5 m s-1

4
D C
1.2 m

(a) Calculate the potential difference between the points listed below and state
which point is at the higher potential.

(i) A and B
(ii) B and C
(iii) C and D
(iv) D and A

(b) Calculate the current in the coil.

(c) Calculate the rate at which work is done by moving the coil.

(d) Explain why the coil does not accelerate although work is done on it.

 (e) Repeat your calculations for (a) if the 4.00 ohm resistance is evenly
distributed along the whole length of the wire ABCD.

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
Exercise 3

A rectangular coil of two hundred turns has a length of 0.200 m and width 0.120
m. The coil rotates with a constant angular speed of 1.20 × 103 revolutions per
minute about an axis through the midpoints of the two 0.200 m sides in a uniform
magnetic field of 2.40 x 10-2 T.

(a) Starting from a time when the coil’s plane is parallel to the magnetic field,
calculate the average induced electromotive force whilst the coil is turning
1
 radians.
2

(b) Calculate the average induced electromotive force whilst the coil is turning 
radians.

(c) Calculate the average induced electromotive force whilst the coil is turning
40 radians.

Exercise 4

A flat coil of 5.00 × 102 turns is wound into a circular loop of radius 0.100 m. The
coil can be rotated by 90.0 about a diameter in 0.200 s. The coil is positioned in
such a way, that the magnetic flux through it is a maximum, and it is rotated until
the magnetic flux first becomes zero. If the average voltage induced in the coil is
0.500 V how large is the uniform magnetic field?

 Exercise 5

A rod of length 0.600 m and weight 0.400 N slides down parallel conducting rails
making an angle 20.0 to the horizontal as shown on the diagram below.

0. 6 1.4  10  2 

90o 20o

The rails have negligible resistance and are joined on the bottom to form a loop.
The resistance of the rod is 9.10 m and the vertical magnetic field is 1.40  10 2
T. Calculate the terminal velocity of the rod as it slides down the perfectly smooth
rails.

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Exercise 6

A rectangular coil of wire has 25 turns. Each turn has an area of 4.0 x 10-3 m2.
The total resistance of the coil is 15 ohms. The coil is placed in a magnetic field in
such a way, that the field lines are perpendicular to the coil as shown in the
diagram below.

(a) At what rate must the magnitude of the magnetic field B change in order to
induce 5.0 x 10-3 A current in the coil?

(b) How would you determine the direction of the current in the coil?

(c) If the magnetic field increases in the direction shown on the diagram, what is
the direction of the current in the coil?

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43 EM Applications
Exercise 1

A transformer is made by winding both primary and secondary coils on thin steel
plates separated by insulating materials. The primary coil has 5.0 × 102 turns and
is connected to the 240 V power source. The transformer draws 12 W of power.
The potential difference across the secondary coil is 1600 V.

(a) Why is the core of the transformer laminated?

(b) Calculate the primary current.

(c) Calculate the number of turns of the secondary coil.

(d) Calculate the secondary current if the transformer is ideal.

The transformer is not ideal its efficiency is 92%.

(e) Calculate the secondary voltage and current.

Exercise 2

An ideal step down transformer is used to change a 240 V power supply to 48 V


which is used in household equipment, which has a resistance of 19.2 .

(a) Calculate the secondary current.

(b) Calculate the current in the primary coil.

(c) Calculate the power supplied by the transformer to the equipment.

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Exercise 3

A transformer has a primary coil of 5.00 × 102 turns and two secondary coils of
1.00 × 103 turns each as shown on the diagram below.

Secondary coil S1

R1
N
R2

Primary coil CORE Secondary coil S2


N=500

The power input is 2.40 × 102 V, 0.150 A and the two loads supplied by the
secondary coils are R1 and R2. The transformer has an efficiency of 100%.

(a) Calculate the total power output of the transformer.

(b) Calculate the current in secondary coil S1 if the value of R1 is 20.0 k.

(c) Calculate the power consumption of the secondary coil S2.

(d) Calculate the current which flows through the resistance R2.

(e) Calculate the value of R2.

Exercise 4

A certain D.C. motor uses 115V. When it is first switched on it draws 36.0 A
which drops back to 4.00 A when the motor is turning at full speed.

Calculate the “back emf” when the motor draws 4.00 A.

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Exercise 5

The diagram below represents an ideal transformer with a two thousand turn
primary and two secondary coils S1 and S2. S1 has one thousand turns and S2 has
four hundred turns. The primary circuit is protected by a 2.00 A fuse and is
connected to a 0.240 kV power supply. S1 contains a 0.100 k load whilst S2
contains an adjustable resistor R.

2000 1000
2A
turns turns S1
fuse

100

240 V a.c.

400 S2
turns

(a) Calculate the maximum power drawn by S2 without blowing the fuse in the
primary circuit.

(b) Calculate the minimum value R may have without blowing the 2.00 A fuse.

(c) Calculate the current in S2 at that time.

Exercise 6

A 60.0 V source is applied between the terminals of a 2.00  coil in a d.c. motor.
When the armature spins at its rated (i.e. normal) angular velocity there is a 3.00 A
current in the coil.

(a) What current flows in the coil when it is first switched on?

(b) What back-emf does the motor develop when it reaches its rated angular
velocity?

(c) What should be the resistance connected in series with the motor in order to
limit its start-up current to 7.5 A?

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44 Electromagnetic Waves
Exercise 1

A ray of electromagnetic radiation is travelling to the north. At a certain instant at


a given point the electric vector is horizontal and to the west.

(a) What is the direction of the magnetic vector at this instant at this point?

(b) What are the directions of the electric and magnetic vectors at a point 1.5
wavelengths further north at this instant?

Exercise 2

(a) List the main regions of the electromagnetic wave spectrum in order of
increasing frequency.

(b) For each region name (i) a source, (ii) a method of detection.

Exercise 3

The intensity of solar radiation at the top of the earth’s atmosphere near the
equator is 1.34 kW m-2. The distance to the sun from the earth is 1.49 x 108 km.
Estimate the power radiated by the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

Exercise 4

A radio station sends out radio waves at a frequency 102.5 MHz.

(a) How long does it take the transmitter to send out one complete cycle of a
radio wave?

(b) What is the wavelength of these radio waves as they travel in dry air?

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Exercise 5

The radio station in question 4 is situated east of a radio receiver. At one instant
the electric field observed at the receiver is directed to the south and it has
maximum value. If the radio waves are plane polarised,

(a) What is the direction of the magnetic field?

(b) What is the direction of the electric field 1.5 m to the west of the receiver?

(c) What will be the direction of the electric field at the receiver 1.5 x 10-7 s after
the instant we are considering?

Exercise 6

A plane-polarised electromagnetic wave of frequency 100 Hz is travelling towards


you. The magnetic field at a particular instant is pointing vertically upwards and
has its maximum value.

(a) What is the direction of the electric field at that instant?

(b) What will be the direction of the magnetic field 7.5x10-3s later?

(c) When will be the magnetic field point to your left?

(d) What is shortest period of time after the instant in question when the electric
field will point to your left?

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Answers
Topic 26 — Rigid Body Dynamics I
1. (a) 0.974 rad s-2 (b) 124
2. (a) 3.31× 103 rad s-2 (b) 0.163 s
3. (a) 4.0 × 101 kg m2 (b) 0.40 rad s-2 (c) 0.80 m s -2
4. (a) 48.0 J (b) 19.6 rad s-1
5. 0.080 kg m2
6. (a) 0.012 kg m2 (b) 0.85 N
7. (a) 0.0300 kg m2, 0.200 m
(b) 6.00 J
(c) 0.0475 kg m2, 0.252 m, 9.50 J
8. (a) 0.367 kg m2 s-1 (b) 1.47 kg m2 s-1

Topic 27 — Rigid Body Dynamics II


1. 7.35 rad s-1
2. (a) 6.0 rad s-1 (b) 8.0 rad s-1 (c) 4.0 rad s-1
3. (a) 79.0 N (b) 20.5 rad s-1
(c) 118 N (d) 9.67 J
4. (a) 30.1 kg m2 s-1 (b) 114 J
(c) 20.1 rad s-1 (d) 303 J
5. (a) 11.6 rad s-1 (b) 5.79 m s-1 (c) 101 J
-1
6. 3.49 m s
7. (a) 2.84 m s-1, 114 rad s-1
(b) a1 = 4.02 ms-2 , a2 = 4.02 ms-2  ,161 rad s-2
(c) T1= 11.6 N, T2= 11.0 N
8. (a) 3.49 rad s-1 (b) 3.51 rad s-1

Topic 28 — Reflection
1. 0.900 m
2. 2.40 m s-1
3. 41, 49
4. (a) 50, (b) 600 or 120 (120o is angle of deviation)
6. 0.21 m2

Topic 29 — Refraction
1. (a) 2.26  108 m s-1 (b) 34.2 (c) 48.8
2. (a) 60.0 (b) 120
4. 12.7 mm
5. 2 , say 1.41.
6. 90.2 mm
7. (a) & (b) No restrictions from the laws of refraction; visibility is
determined by illumination.

Topic 30 — Images
1. (a) 0.500 m in front of mirror, 5.3 mm, real
(b) 0.600 m in front of mirror, 16 mm, real
(c) 1.00 m behind the mirror, 40 mm, virtual

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
(d) 0.120 m behind the mirror, 4.8 mm, virtual
2. (a) 400 mm
3. (a) 0.364 m behind lens, 0.455, 9.09 mm, real, inverted
(b) 1.00 m in front of lens, 5.00, 0.100 m, virtual, upright
(c) 0.188 m in front of lens, 0.375, 7.5 mm, virtual, upright
4. (a) 2.0 (b) 0.50 m
5. (a) p1 = 1.18 m, p2 = 0.317 m; 5.36 mm, 74.6 mm
(b) p=0.218 m, 158 mm
6. (a) 360 mm to right of  1 (b) 240 mm to right of  2
(c) 2.0  (d) 2 inversions  upright
7. (a) -20 mm (b) concave
8. (a) -0.60 m (b) -0.21 m (from  2 )
(c) 0.90, upright

Topic 31 — Optical Systems


1. (a) 0.210 m from it towards eyepiece. (b) 20.0
(c) 22.7 mm (d) 220 (e) 0.45 mm
2. Convex lens f = +316 mm (power = +3.17 m-1)
3. 11.0 mm away from the film/screen (towards wall)
4. -0.20 m
5. (a) 41.7 mm (b) 7.35 mm (c) 121
6. 30
7. (a) -250 mm (b) 1.6 (d) -125 mm, 1.6
8. (a) 1.22 m (b) 50.0 (c) 0.250 m from it towards
objective (virtual image) (d) 54.8

Topic 32 — Simple Harmonic Motion


1. 0.220 m
2. (a) 1.35 J (b) 30.0 m s -2 (c) 2.12 m s-1
3. (a) x  400sin t (b) 8.2 s
4. (a) 1.5 s (c) 0.56 m
5. (a) 4.2 m (b) 0.65 m s-1
6. (a) 168 m s -2 (b) 201 N
(c) 4.74  103 N m-1 (d) 2.67 m s-1

Topic 33 — Wave Motion I


1. 3.16 - 30.0 MHz
2. 2.51 rad, 144
3. (a) 1.7 m (b) No (c) No
4. (a) 39.5 m (b) 7.73 m s—1 (c) 0.196 Hz
6. 25 Hz
7. (a) 0.40 m (b) 0.33 m (c) 90.0
8. (a) 4.0 m (b) 5.0 m s-1 (c) 0.80 s (d) 0.16 s

Topic 34 — Wave Motion II


1. (a) 4 and 3 (b) 75.0 m s-1 (c) 1.07  10-3 kg m-1
2. (a) 1.20 m (b) 552 m s-1 (c) 0.746 m
3. (b) 340 Hz
4. (a) 4.0 m

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5. (a) 24 mm (b) 240 Hz
(c) 20 (d) x  1.2  102 sin 480 t (m)
6. (a) 120 m s-1 (c) 200 Hz
(d) 5th harmonic (4th overtone)
(e) 0.60 m (f) 1.7 m
7. (a) (A) 0.60 m s-1 up (B) 0.13 m s-1 down (C) 0 m s-1
(D) 0.40 m s-1 down
(c) 7 s  t  8s

Topic 35 — Sound I
2. (a) 27.8 dB (b) 17.3 m (c) 23.0 dB
3. 86.5 dB
4. 12
5. 64.1 dB

Topic 36 — Sound II
1. 336 m s-1
2. 346 m s-1
3. (a) 2.25 kHz (b) 3rd
(d) 4.50 kHz (e) 7th
4. 8:5
5. (a) 0.61 m (b) 12 (c) 9.7 (d) 11
6. (a) 7 (b) 1.20 m
7. (a) 0.80 m (b) 430 Hz
(c) (i) 2 m left (ii) zero (d) 86 Hz

Topic 37 — Interference I

1. (a) 2 ,  , 21  , 2 21  , 1 21  , 3 21  , 4
(b) (i) and (viii) (c) (ii)
2. 19 mm
3. (a) minimum (b) 17.5
4. (a) 541 (b) 87.4o
5. (a) 0.15o (b) red (c) violet
6. (a) 293 nm 880 nm (b) invisible: uv. ir
7. (a) 1500 m (b) along lines running
- due N - S along H (m=0)
- N30E - S30W (m=1)
- N30W - S30E (m=1)
- due E from Y (m=2) -due W from X (m=2)
8. (a) 1.30  10-4 m (b) fringe spacing doubled
(c) 5.54 mm

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Topic 38 — Interference II
1. (a) 1.47  10-6 m (b) 5 (c) 1.98 m
2. 3.4 10-4 m
3. (a) 1.17 mm (b) 4.48 mm
4. (a) 6.00 × 102 nm (b) 3rd (c) 7 (d) 429 nm (e) 9
9. (a) 165 nm (b) 220 nm (c) 660 nm (d) 440 nm (Violet) and
566 nm (Green) only
10. 94.2nm

Topic 39 — Magnetism I
3. Horizontally to the left
4. (a) vertical (b) down
5. 1.27  10 T into the page
-5

6. (a) 1200 A - improbably large


7. (i) 5.2  10-6 T into the page
(ii) 3.0  10-6 T out of the page
8. (a) 25.4 T North (b) 33.3 T West (c) N 52.7 W

Topic 40 — Magnetism II
1. 1.08  10-2 N
2. 8.3  10-3 T
3. 1.88  10-5 N east
4. (a) anticlockwise (b) 20.0 N m-1 (c) 4.50 A
5. 7.2  10-4 N away from the loop
6. 313 mA opposite direction to current in  1 .
7. (a) vertically up (b) 0.10 m
8. (a) 1.57  10-2 T (b) 6.28  10-1 T

Topic 41 — Magnetism III


1. (a) 5.0 10-6 N m-1 (b) attractive
(c) 2.0  10-5 N repulsion (d) zero
2. (i) 1.3  10-4 N up (ii) 1.7  10-4 N up
(iii) 3.0  10-4 N down
3. (a) 1.28  10-14 N (b) 7.66  1012 m s -2
(c) Vertically up (d) 0.130 m
4. (a) 7.7  10-14 N (b) 2.4  105 Vm-1
5. 2.76 T
6. (a) 4.00  106 m s-1 (b) 5.0210-27 kg, 6.69  10-27 kg
(c) 32 He  , 42 He 
7. (a) 1.15  106 m s-1 (b) 4.38  10-15 J
8. (a) 5.00  10 m s (b) 19.5 mm, 25.9 mm
5 -1

(c) 13.0 mm

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Topic 42 — Electromagnetic Induction
1. (b) 0.14 V
2. (a) (i) 1.50 V (A higher) (ii) zero
(iii) 1.50 V (D higher) (iv) zero
(b) 0.375 A (c) 0.563 W (e) 1.24 V, 0.485 V, 0.265 V, 0.485 V
3. (a) 9.22 V (b) zero (c) zero
4. 6.37 mT
5. 20.0 m s-1
6. (a) 0.75 Ts-1 (c) acw as viewed from above

Topic 43 — Electromagnetic Application


1. (b) 0.050 A (c) 3.3 × 103 (d) 7.5 mA
(e) 1600 V, 6.9 mA
2. (a) 2.5 A (b) 0.50 A (c) 120 W
3. (a) 36.0 W (b) 24.0 mA (c) 24.5 W
(d) 51.0 mA (e) 9.41 k 
4. 102 V
5. (a) 336 W (b) 6.86  (c) 7.0 A
6. (a) 30.0 A (b) 54.0 V (c) 6.00 

Topic 44 — Electromagnetic Waves


1. (a) Up (b) East, Down
3. 3.74  1023 kW
4. (a) 9.76 ns (b) 2.93 m
5. (a) Up (b) North (c) North
6. (a) to your right (b) no direction, it’s zero
(c) Never (d) 2.5  10-3 s

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APPENDIX 1 PHYSICS SYLLABUS

TOPIC REFERENCES REFERENCES IN


IN GIANCOLI COLLEGE PHYSICS
(OpenStax)

26. RIGID BODY Chapter 8: 8.1-8.6 Chapter 10


DYNAMICS I
Rotational kinematics;
moment of inertia; radius
of gyration; rotational
dynamics.

27. RIGID BODY Chapter 8: 8.7, 8.8 Chapter 10


DYNAMICS II
Translation and rotation;
the conservation laws.

28. REFLECTION Chapter 23: 23.1, Chapter 10


Wave-fronts and rays; laws 23.2
of reflection; plane mirrors;
image formation.

29. REFRACTION Chapter 11: 11.14 Chapter 25


Laws of refraction; Chapter 23: 23.4-23.6
refractive index; critical Chapter 24: 24.4
angle; dispersion;
applications.

30. IMAGES Chapter 23: 23.3, 23.7, Chapter 25


Kinds of lenses and curved 23.8
mirrors; image formation;
linear magnification;
aberrations.

31. OPTICAL SYSTEMS Chapter 23: 23.9 Chapter 26


The refracting telescope Chapter 25: 25.4-25.6
and compound microscope.

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TOPIC REFERENCES REFERENCES IN
IN GIANCOLI COLLEGE PHYSICS
(OpenStax)

32. SIMPLE HARMONIC Chapter 11: 11.1-11.4 Chapter 16


MOTION
Periodic motion;
oscillating springs; the
circle of reference; simple
pendulum.

33. WAVE MOTION I Chapter 11: 11.7, 11.8, Chapter 16


Pulses and waves; 11. 11
graphing waves; e7: 11.10
transverse and longitudinal
waves; reflection.

34. WAVE MOTION II Chapter 11: 11.6, 11.12. Chapter 16


Progressive and standing 11.13
waves; superposition and e7: 11.11-11.12
interference; standing
wave patterns in strings.

35. SOUND I Chapter 11: 11.9 Chapter 17


Nature of sound; intensity Chapter 12: 12.1-12.3,
and decibels. 12.5

36. SOUND II Chapter 12: 12.4-12.6 Chapter 16


Interference; vibrational
modes of air-columns.

37. INTERFERENCE I Chapter 24: 24.3 Chapter 16


Superposition and phase;
Young’s double slit; nodal
lines; coherent sources.

38. INTERFERENCE II Chapter 24: 24.6, 24.8 Chapter 16


Thin films and wedges
(qualitatively only);
transmission gratings;
grating spectra.

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TOPIC REFERENCES REFERENCES IN COLLEGE
IN GIANCOLI PHYSICS
(OpenStax)

39. MAGNETISM I Chapter 20: 20.1, 20.2, Chapter 22


Magnetic fields: 20.5
permanent magnets, earth,
wires, solenoids; magnetic
flux-density as a vector
quantity.

40. MAGNETISM II Chapter 20: 20.3-20.5, Chapter 22


Magnetic force on a 20.9
current; calculating
magnetic flux-density.

41. MAGNETISM III Chapter 20: 20.4, 20.6, Chapter 22


Magnetic force on moving 20.7, 20.11
charges; force between
currents.

42. ELECTROMAGNETIC Chapter 21: 21.1-21.4 Chapter 23


INDUCTION
Magnetic flux; Faraday’s
and Lenz’s laws.

43. ELECTROMAGNETIC Chapter 21: 21.5-21.7 Chapter 23


APPLICATIONS
Special cases of Faraday’s
and Lenz’s laws.

44. ELECTROMAGNETIC Chapter 22: 22.2, 22.3 Chapter 24


WAVES
Nature and generation; the
electromagnetic spectrum.

FINAL EXAMINATION

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© UNSW Foundation Program Physics Tutorial Book Semester 2
SOME MOMENTS OF INERTIA

BODY OF REGULAR SHAPE AND UNIFORM MOMENT OF INERTIA


DENSITY
Sphere radius R about a diameter 2 2
 mR (solid)
5

2
I mR 2 (thin hollow)
3
Solid cylinder (disc) radius R about
an axis through centre and 1 2
perpendicular to circular cross  mR
section 2

Thin-walled, hollow cylinder (ring)


radius R about an axis through
centre and perpendicular to circular
cross section
  mR 2

Rod length l about perpendicular


axis through one end 1
  ml 2
l 3

Rod length l about perpendicular l


axis through its centre 1 2
 ml
12

Rectangular plate, about a

 
perpendicular axis through centre 1
 m a 2  b2
12
b

Hollow cylinder (thick walled

 
pipe) about an axis through centre 1
 m R1  R2
2 2
and perpendicular to circular cross
section inner and outer radii 2
R1and R2
PHYSICS DATA SHEET
QUANTITY SYMBOL VALUE

Mass of Earth ME 5.98  1024 kg

Mean radius of Earth RE 6.37  106 m

Mean radius of Earth's orbit 1 A.U. 1.49  1011 m

Gravitational acceleration on Earth g 9.80 m s2

Universal gravitational constant G 6.67  1011 N m2 kg2

Intensity of sound at threshold of hearing I0 1  1012 W m2

Speed of sound (dry air, 20oC, 101 kPa) vs 3.43  102 m s1

Speed of light in a vacuum c 3.00  108 m s1

Elementary charge e  1.60  1019 C

9.11  1031 kg
Electron rest mass me
or 0.000549 u

1.6726  1027 kg
Proton rest mass mp
or 1.007276 u

1.6749  1027 kg
Neutron rest mass mn
or 1.008665 u

Atomic mass unit u 1.6605  1027 kg

1
Electric force constant 4  0 9.00  109 N m2 C2

Permeability of a vacuum 0 4  107 N A2

0
Magnetic force constant 2 2  107 N A2
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