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The interaction between industry 4.0 and smart logistics: concepts and

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11th International Colloquium of Logistics and Supply Chain Management LOGISTIQUA 2018
April, 26-27
FST, Tangier, Morocco

The interaction between industry 4.0 and smart

logistics: concepts and perspectives
(*) Laboratoire d’Ingénierie Management Industriel et Innovation (LIMII),
(*) Faculté des Sciences et Techniques – Université Hassan I. Settat, Maroc.,,,

vehicles. Researchers expected that the full realization of the

Abstract — This work generally deals with the state of art of vision of Industry 4.0 would take years [2] the fourth revolution
the three industrial revolutions that formed the basis of the
current fourth industrial revolution. Thus, it deals in particular relies on the use of digital product models, which must meet the
with the context and the characteristics of the fourth industrial requirements of customers and manufactured in smart factories
revolution. This revolution consists of four elements that are "smart factory" [3].
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Internet of Things IOT,
New technological solutions such as the Internet of Things,
Internet Services (IOS) and Smart Factory. The appearance of
Industry 4.0 prompted researchers to develop a new logistic Big Data, are creating opportunities not only for the industry, but
concept called "smart logistics" to accompany the progress of also for developing logistics and supply chain management [4]
Industry 4.0, which motivated us to look for the stages of Since logistics meets the requirements of industry, it must
development of logistics, through the four industrial revolutions
up to "smart logistics" and define this new concept of logistics
support industrial development, according to [5], the success of
to facilitate its implementation in practice. This article also industry 4.0 is directly linked to a logistics able to support the
discusses the prospects for future researches in the field of progress of new industrial revolution, hence the emergence of
smart. smart logistics.
Keywords— Industry 4.0, smart logistics, Systèmes Current sensory technologies that provide real-time data on
cyber physiques, Internet of things, Internet of services Object Logistics and updates to environmental change reports
are innovative solutions that can revolutionize logistics processes
I. INTRODUCTION [6]. These solutions make logistics processes flexible, scalable
In recent years, globalization and the release of and intelligent, hence the name "smart logistics". Smart logistics
international trade have multiplied logistical flows between is able to increase logistics visibility and master the entire supply
different countries and organizations, which has increased the chain. Smart Logistics provides intuitive monitoring information
level of complexity of the logistics chain. This complexity and visibility across the entire supply chain and across resources
presents many challenges for companies, namely: the growth such as products, people and vehicles in the chain. This
of international competition, the permanent volatility of the intelligent monitoring environment provided by new
market, the demand for personalized products and the technologies, insists contractors to make their logistics
shortening of product life cycles [1]. To face these environment smarter to respond quickly to the increasing
challenges, the Germans laid the foundation for a new demands of global supply chains and current transportation
industrial revolution in 2011 called "Industry 4.0" which is systems by providing cost-effective services and safe, durable
the result of the development of the Internet of Things and and timely products to the customer anytime and anywhere [7].
Big Data. This work consists of four sections; the first aims to define
The first industrial revolution was linked to the the four industrial revolutions. The second section aims to define
mechanization of production by steam engines, the second and treat the characteristics of industry 4.0. The third aims to
was related to the introduction of mass production through establish the relationship between the appearance of industry 4.0
electricity which was based on the computerization of and smart logistics. The fourth aims to define smart logistics and
business processes and new information technologies serving finally we present the perspectives and conclusion of this work.
the industry. Today the fourth revolution is under the II. THE FOUR INDUSTRIAL RÉVOLUTIONS
domination of smart products, 3D printers and autonomous
The world has experienced four industrial revolutions (Figure
1), the first industrial revolution, appeared in the second half of
the 18th century. It corresponds to the transition from manual

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LOGISTIQUA 2018 y April, 26-27 y FST, Tangier, Morocco
production to mechanized production. The massive digital revolution that has occurred since the middle of the last
extraction of coal coupled with the invention of the steam century. A fourth revolution in the exponential development of
engine provides a new energy that has given the first impetus several initiatives launched in this direction, including the
to the entire industrial process through the development of Internet and the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership in the
rail networks and the acceleration of economic, human and United States, Industry 4.0 in German [9], New Industrial
material exchanges. France, etc. This development is characterized by a fusion of
Fig. 1. The four stages of the industrial revolutions technologies that blurs the lines between the physical, digital and
biological spheres and that disrupts the industries of all countries.
The breadth and depth of these changes signal the transformation
of whole systems of production, management and governance.
Industry 4.0 appeared for the first time in 2011, thanks to a
German effort. The term 'Industry 4.0' evokes a fourth industrial
revolution and brings together a set of technologies and concepts
related to the reorganization of the value chain [10]. Thus, the
Industry 4.0 vision is based on real-time communication to
monitor and act on physical systems. Systems communicate and
cooperate with each other, and also communicate with humans
to decentralize decision-making. Industry 4.0 therefore focuses
on connectivity, promoting the development of new processes,
products and services.
At the end of the 19th century, he second industrial
revolution was characterized by It is through the The fourth industrial revolution takes different names
electrification of production systems and mass production. depending on contributors and geographical areas. We find terms
The emergence of energy sources and the invention of the such as : Industry 4.0, Smart Factory, Smart Industry, Factory of
combustion engine set out to reap the full potential. In the Future, Industry of the Future, Digital Factory, etc. These
addition, the steel industry is developing based on steel as efforts address different perspectives on the emergence of new
exponential demands it arouses. Synthetic chemistry processes, products and services. Indeed, Industry 4.0 is not just
develops, producing artificial textiles, dyes and fertilizers. about production processes - operational excellence, but also
The means of communication are revolutionized by the revolutionizes the horizon of products and services.
successive inventions of the telegraph and the telephone, as According to Hermann et al. [10] Industry 4.0 consists of four
well as the means of transport with the appearance of the key elements namely:
automobile then the plane at the beginning of the 20th
A. Cyber-physical system (CPS) :
century. These many innovations were allowed by the
centralization of researches and structured capitals around an Cyber-physical system is mechanisms capable of exchanging
economy and an industry, based on productive models information autonomously, triggering actions and controlling
imagined by Taylor and Ford. each other [11]. CPSs integrate sensors, software and
communication elements, as well as actuators, to monitor and act
The third is characterized by The advent of a new energy in real time on the physical world. CPSs have two parallel
with a potential outperforming its predecessors, the nuclear networks to control, namely a physical network of
begins a third industrial revolution. the automation of interconnected components of the infrastructure and a cybernetic
production through electronics and information technology in network of intelligent controllers and communication links
the 20th century. The advent of electronics, the transistor, the between them. "[12] CPSs achieve the integration of these
microprocessor, telecommunications and also computer networks through the use of multiple sensors, actuators,
science as new technologies have allowed the production of processing and control units and communication devices.
miniaturized materials, which themselves will open research
and development doors, including those of space.and B. Internet of things, IOT) :
biotechnology. For the industry, this revolution marks the The term "Internet of Things" became popular in the first
first step in the automation of production, enabled by two decade of the 21st century and is considered an initiator of
major inventions: programmable logic controller and the Industry 4.0 [11]. The Internet of Things is defined by ISO / IEC
robot. 30141 as an interconnection infrastructure for physical entities,
systems, information sources and intelligent services capable of
In short, the first industrial revolution used water and
processing information from the physical and the virtual world,
steam to mechanize production, the second used electricity to
and to influence the activities of the physical world. According
create mass production, and the third used electronics and
to Porter and Heppelmann, smart, connected products offer
information technology to automate production [8]. Today, a
exponential expansion possibilities for new features, much
fourth industrial revolution is based on the third and the
greater reliability, much higher product utilization and

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LOGISTIQUA 2018 y April, 26-27 y FST, Tangier, Morocco
capabilities that transcend traditional product boundaries and in the right place [19]. So putting an industry 4.0 into practice
[13]. Also Nolin and Olson [14] note that the IOT envisions can not succeed without an adaptive logistics system. The
a society where all members have access to an Internet logistics must be as flexible and agile as the production systems,
environment populated by self-configuration, self- industry 4.0 that it supports. With the fourth industrial
management, intelligent technology anytime and anywhere revolution, logistics has also made a leap towards "intelligent
(e.g. 361). The IOT is expected to present many economic logistics,” which is committed to ensure real-time monitoring of
opportunities and can be considered one of the most material flows, better transport management and precise
promising technologies for revolutionary development. management risks. This evolution of logistics is also due to the
integration of cyber-physical systems and Internet of Things in
C. Internet of services (IOS):
logistics systems.
Today the world has become like a "service society" [15].
As a result, there are strong indicators such as IOT, which On the path of industry progress, logistics has taken the same
introduce the Internet of services (IOS), based on the idea that stages of development as production, which starts from
services are easily accessible through Web technologies. This Taylorism through lean, to reach today the ideal that is smart
allows businesses and private users to combine, create and logistics (see Table 1).
deliver new types of value-added services. [16] It can be As a starting point for logistics, the introduction of
assumed that Internet-based market shares will play a key standardized pallets can be considered a universal transport aid
role in future industries. in the 1950s. This created the prerequisite for standardizing
D. SMART FACTORY: components and systems for material flow and logistics. The first
devices for internal transport and the transfer of load carriers
Until now, the Cyber-Physical System, the Internet of
(forklift trucks) as well as for their storage (stacking crane) were
Things and the Internet of Services have been introduced as
developed later. As a result, load transport could be efficiently
the main components of Industry 4.0. It should be noted that
managed in large quantities and huge increases in productivity
these "concepts" are closely related to one another, since CPS
could be achieved [21].
communicates on IOT and IOS, thus allowing the so-called
"smart factory,” which is based on the idea of a decentralized Over the next decades, an understanding of logistics as a
production system, in which "Human beings, machines and discipline is developed to become the management of the entire
resources communicate with each other as naturally as in a flow starting with materials to the finished product. As the focus
social network" [11]. Close liaison and communication of industrial concentration shifts to customers, the logistics
between products, machines, transport systems and humans requirements have also changed: goods must now be provided to
should change the existing production logic. As a result, the customer just in time and as individually as possible and also
smart factories can be considered another key feature of reduce costs.
Industry 4.0. In the smart factory, products are independently With the fourth industrial revolution, logistics will also take
found in production processes and are easily identifiable and the next step towards "smart logistics", which adapts flexibly and
localizable at any time, pursuing the idea of cost-effective, quickly to a volatile environment based on increased availability
highly flexible and individualized mass production. [11] of information to all. logistics systems and also able to draw
notes that smart factories will make the increasing complexity conclusions from the recorded data. In times of decentralization
of manufacturing processes manageable for the people who and individualization of production, logistics tasks become more
work in them, and ensure that production can be flexible and intelligent to better optimize costs, time and
simultaneously attractive, sustainable in urban areas, and resources. Only in this way can logistics also generate value for
profitable. Therefore, the potentials that could come with the customer in the future by providing the right product, at the
smart factories should be huge. It is important to understand right time, in the right place and with the right quantity and
that not only the production processes, but also the roles of quality.
the employees should change radically. Spath [17] expect
employees to have greater responsibility, to act as decision TABLE I. INDUSTRIAL AND LOGISTICS DEVELOPMENTS OVER
TIME [22]
makers and to undertake supervisory tasks instead of driving
forklifts, for example. In the same context, some critics have Industry 1.0 and Industry 3.0 Industry 4.0
recently pointed out that the automated and autonomous 2.0
nature of the smart factory could lead to serious destruction ˜ Analog ˜ Internet and ˜ Internet of Things

communication Intranet ˜ Localized markets

of the work. ˜ National markets ˜ Export markets ˜ Mobile & Cloud
IV. INDUSTRY 4.0 AND LOGISTICS ˜ Great calculators ˜ PC Computing

The production and the logistics are entangled, logistics is

an appropriate area of application for Industry 4.0 [18].
Moreover, Industry 4.0 in its pure vision can only become a
reality if logistics is able to provide production systems with
the input factors needed at the right time, in the right quality

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LOGISTIQUA 2018 y April, 26-27 y FST, Tangier, Morocco
Industry 1.0 and Industry 3.0 Industry 4.0 smart service, Uckelmann [26] gave a definition of smart
2.0 logistics that is based on the use of technology to obtain
˜ Neo-Taylorism ˜ Lean Production ˜ Smart Factory information on the flow of material then the treat for monitoring,
˜ Production with ˜ Just in time ˜ Individualized
production control and other purposes.
stocks. production
˜ Resilient

˜ Execution task. ˜ Process In fact, smart logistics focuses on technology development in

˜ Organization with orientation four main areas [7], namely the effectiveness of schedules and
foreman. ˜ Team ˜ Augmented reality
for the operator schedules, the use of information and communication
˜ Organization technologies (ICT), the involvement and training of staff and
˜ Mechanization ˜ Automation ˜ virtualization ultimately the government policy of the country. In fact,
Conventional ˜ Machine tool to ˜ Social Machine information and communication technologies support
machines numerical control ˜ Virtual Production
Under system

scheduling and scheduling by reporting resource information at

˜ Work plans ˜ ERP / MES ˜ Smart products
˜ Drawing boards
the right time and in the right place. Planning processes are
˜ 3D ˜ Mobile implemented by trained and qualified employees to handle
˜ Steering wheels ˜ CAD / CAD-CAM communication
˜ Control panel system
complex situations. On the other hand, government policy
influences smart logistics since it is the main cause of the
variation in logistics prices.
V. DEFINITION OF SMART LOGISTICS: This article discusses the three industrial revolutions that
Mark Weiser [23] in 1991 put the first step for formed the basis of the current fourth industrial revolution
"intelligence" in the industry by the invention of "Ubiquitous "Industry 4.0". The fourth industrial revolution can be described
Computing". Weiser predicted that future computer as a shift in manufacturing logic towards an increasingly
technology would become "invisible," "calm," and decentralized and self-regulating approach to value creation,
"connected." In fact, the Fourth Industrial Revolution proves through concepts and technologies such as Cyber-Physical
that Weiser is always right. Systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IOT), Internet Services (IOS)
and smart factory. These new techniques help companies meet
Since the term "Smart" associated with products and future production requirements. The global nature of this
services can be inferred from technological innovations, the revolution forces companies to individually define what Industry
definition of Smart Logistics will be tied to change according 4.0 means to them. As a result, there is not one truth and reality
to current technological developments. Weiser even thinks behind "Industry 4.0".
that the term "Smart" is misleading and critical given its
dependence on time: the "Smart House" of 1935 had an The increased importance of a new logistics that can
electric light in every room. The "Smart House" of 1955 accompany and support the progress of industry 4.0 has led
dared to put a television and a telephone in every room. And researchers to develop a new, "Smart Logistics". This new
the "Smart House" of 2005 will have computers in every concept of logistics aims to facilitate real-time information
room [23]. These examples show that "Smart" is defined by exchange, increase visibility and improve supply chain
the deployment of innovative and commercially available flexibility.
state-of-the-art technology. A definition of "smart logistics" In fact, the existing academic literature lacks a clear and
is reasonable to group together the corresponding research common definition of the Industry 4.0 concept. As a result, the
and to arrive at a common understanding. The definition must image of Industry 4.0 is still rather blurred, among researchers
be flexible and adaptive to integrate future technological and also among practitioners. In this context, future researches
developments. should establish a more accurate understanding of the
Currently, smart logistics is at the center of many research (constitutive) characteristics of Industry 4.0, particularly for
and development projects that aim to track, monitor and different business sectors or application domains. In addition, we
predict the progress of logistics solutions [21]. Smart suggest that businesses should be supported on the way to
Logistics has proved its effectiveness in supply chain Industry 4.0 in a practical way. This could be achieved through
management in distributed, uncertain and dynamic concepts and frameworks, which present different building
environments [24]. But, until today, there is not a single blocks and dimensions of Industry 4.0 and can therefore serve as
definition of smart logistics in the literature[24]. According guidance. An applied SWOT framework, for example, could
to [25] "Smart Logistics" is related to planning and control by support companies by analyzing Industry 4.0 opportunities in the
tools, means and intelligent methods, he adds that the degree context of a company's strengths, weaknesses and environment.
of intelligence depends on the applications and methods used Moreover, a "Readiness Framework" or an Industry 4.0
since the traceability of products and the identification of the Readiness Framework could help identify potential barriers to
elements of its environment until the detection of the implement by listing critical success factors, such as the
problem, the choice and the automatic execution of the availability of technology, the degree of digitization , staff
solution. Based on the concept of the smart product and the capabilities and knowledge and training. The enormous digital
development in the industry 4.0 or in the smart logistics is also

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LOGISTIQUA 2018 y April, 26-27 y FST, Tangier, Morocco
accompanied by numerical threats considering the huge [13] M.E. Porter, J.E. Heppelmann, How smart connected products are
transformingcompetition, Harv. Bus. Rev. 11 (2014) 1–23.
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