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Naming Chemicals

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Nomenclature

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Year:
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Name:
NOMENCLATURE – NAMING COMPOUNDS
(Based on Prentice Hall Chemistry Willibram etal. Chapter 9)

1. IONS

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To find the name of an atom, use the periodic table. If the atom gains or loses an electron it is no longer an atom
but an ion. Positive ions are called cations. Negative ions are called anions. Atoms form ions in the following
pattern:

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For the monoatomic anions, you must change the name to end in –ide.
Eg. O2- is called oxide, not oxygen.
Add –ide to the stem of the name. eg. Oxygen O = Oxide O2-
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For the transition metals you must write the charge with a Roman numeral eg. Lead Pb(IV)

The following must be memorized. They are ions that contain several atoms (covalently joined) called
polyatomic ions:

1+ 3- 2- 1-
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Ammonium NH4+ Phosphite PO3


3-
Sulfite SO3
2-
Nitrite NO2
-

3- 2- -
Ammonia (NH3) Phosphate PO4 Sulfate SO4 Nitrate NO3
2- -
Carbonate CO3 Hydroxide OH

Note: -ite has one less oxygen eg. NO2- nitrite, -ate has one more oxygen eg. NO3- nitrate
2. IONIC COMPOUNDS

You will need to name 2 types of compounds – ionic and covalent.

Ionic compounds are formed from the attraction of positive ions (cations) and negative ions (anions). To name

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these compounds, find the charges and balance the charges. You know it is ionic because it will be metal
combined with a non-metal.

The cation comes first the anion comes second.


+ -
Eg. NaCl sodium chloride Charges are already balanced (1 + 1 = 0)

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Write subscripts to balance the charges
Eg. Magnesium phosphate

Mg2+ PO43- + -
(2 + 3 = 1 )
-

= (Mg2+)3 (PO43-)2 Cross over the numbers to balance the charges


+ -
(2 x 3 + 3 x 2 = 0)
= Mg3(PO4)2 Don’t write the charges

Acids and bases are types of ionic compounds.


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Acids release hydrogen ions (H+) in water. Bases release hydroxide ions (OH-) in water.

Name bases as per above eg. NaOH = sodium hydroxide. Use the table below to name acids:
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Anion Name Example formula Example Anion Example name
-ide Hydro- -ic acid HCl Chloride Hydrochloric acid
H3PO3 Phosphite Phosphorous acid
-ite -ous acid H2SO3 Sulfite Sulfurous acid
HNO2 Nitrite Nitrous acid
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H3PO4 Phosphate Phosphoric acid


H2SO4 Sulfate Sulfuric acid
-ate -ic acid
H2CO3 Carbonate Carbonic acid
HNO3 Nitrate Nitric acid

Memorize the acids in the table above.


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3. COVALENT COMPOUNDS

Covalent compounds are formed by sharing electrons. To name these compounds you must add prefixes to
show how many atoms are in the formula. You know it is covalent because it will be a non-metal combined with
a non-metal.

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These prefixes must also be memorized.
Prefix Mono- Di- Tri- Tetra- Penta- Hexa- Hepta- Octa- Nona- Deca-
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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Add prefixes to all atoms, but omit mono- for the first element. Add –ide to the last element.
Eg. CO = carbon + oxygen = carbon monoxide
CO2 = carbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide
H2O = hydrogen + oxygen = dihydrogen monoxide

4. SUMMARY

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Charges of Ions Worksheet
Name _________________
1. What is an ion?
2. How does an atom become an ion?
3. What is the charge on a cation? (circle one) positive or negative

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a. What type of elements become cations? (circle one) metals or nonmetals
4. What is the charge on an anion? (circle one) positive or negative
a. What type of elements become anions? (circle one) metals or nonmetals
5. What does a roman numeral tell you when it is written after an element?

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6. Write the symbols and charges for the atoms given below and then identify it as anion/cation and
metal/nonmetal…
element symbol metal or anion or name
and nonmetal cation
charge
calcium Ca+2 metal cation
-1
bromine Br nonmetal anion
nitrogen
iron (III)
tin (II)
fluorine
cesium
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iodine
phosphorus
copper (I)
lithium
aluminum
sulfur
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manganese(IV)
chlorine
oxygen
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Naming Ionic Compounds Practice Worksheet
Name the following ionic compounds:

1) NH4Cl _______________________ammonium chloride________

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2) Fe(NO3)3 ________________iron(III) nitrate___________________
3) TiBr3 __________________________________
4) Cu3P ________________________________
5) SnSe2 _____________________________________
6) GaAs _____________________________________

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7) Pb(SO4)2 _____________________________________
8) BeCO3 _____________________________________
9) Mn2(SO3)3 _____________________________________
10) Al(OH)3 ____________________

Write the formulas for the following compounds:

11) chromium (VI) phosphate _____________________________________

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12) vanadium (IV) carbonate _____________________________________
13) tin (II) nitrite _____________________________________
14) cobalt (III) oxide _____________________________________
15) titanium (II) acetate __________________________ acetate = C2H3O2-
16) vanadium (V) sulfide _____________________________________
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17) chromium (III) hydroxide _____________________________________
18) lithium iodide_____________________________________
19) lead (II) nitride _____________________________________
20 silver(I) bromide _____________________________________
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COVALENT COMPOUNDS WORKSHEET
Write the names for each of the following covalent compounds.

(1) NO (9) HCl

(2) N2O3 (10) NH3

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(3) SiO2 (11) Cl2O5

(4) N2 O5 (12) PCl3

(5) CCl4 (13) H2CO3

(6) H2SO4 (14) SF4

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(7) H2S (15) P2S3

(8) Cl2O7 (16) F2O5

Write the formula for each of the following covalent compounds.

(1) Diphosphorus pentoxide (22) Dinitrogen monoxide

(2) Phosphorus trihydride (23) Sulfur dioxide

(3) Dichlorine heptoxide

(4) Boron trifluoride

(5) Silicon dioxide

(6) Hydrochloric acid


sc (24) Tetracarbon decahydride

(25) Dicarbon hexafluoride_

(26) Chlorine trifluoride


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(7) Silicon tetrafluoride

(8) Carbonic acid

(9) Carbon monoxide

(10) Dihydrogen monoxide


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(11) Dihydrogen dioxide

(12) Nitrogen trihydride

(13) Dicarbon dihydride

(14) Dinitrogen tetrahydride

(15) Sulfur trioxide

(16) Sulfuric acid


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(17) Sulfurous acid

(18) Dichlorine monoxide

(19) Silicon monocarbide

(20) Sulfur tetrabromide

(21) Carbon tetrahydride


Balancing Equations Practice Worksheet

Balance the following equations:

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1) ___ NaNO3 + ___ PbO  ___ Pb(NO3)2 + ___ Na2O

2) ___ AgI + ___ Fe2(CO3)3  ___ FeI3 + ___ Ag2CO3

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3) ___ C2H4O2 + ___ O2  ___ CO2 + ___ H2O

4) ___ ZnSO4 + ___ Li2CO3  ___ ZnCO3 + ___ Li2SO4

5) ___ V2O5 + ___ CaS  ___ CaO + ___ V2S5

6) ___ Mn(NO2)2 + ___ BeCl2  ___ Be(NO2)2 + ___ MnCl2

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7) ___ AgBr + ___ GaPO4  ___ Ag3PO4 + ___ GaBr3

8) ___ H2SO4 + ___ B(OH)3  __ B2(SO4)3 + ___ H2O

9) ___ S8 + ___ O2  ___ SO2


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10) ___ Fe + ___ AgNO3  ___ Fe(NO3)2 + ___ Ag
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Word Equations Worksheet

Write the word equations for each of the following chemical reactions:

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1) When dissolved beryllium chloride reacts with dissolved silver nitrate in water, aqueous beryllium
nitrate and silver chloride powder are made.

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2) When isopropanol (C3H8O) burns in oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and heat are produced.

3)
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When dissolved sodium hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid (H2SO4), aqueous sodium sulfate, water, and
heat are formed.
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4) When fluorine gas is put into contact with calcium metal at high temperatures, calcium fluoride powder
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is created in an exothermic reaction.


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5) When sodium metal reacts with iron (II) chloride, iron metal and sodium chloride are formed.
END OF UNIT TEST

Either write the name or write the formula of the following:

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1) NaCl __________________________________

2) gallium(III) oxide __________________________________

3) CaSO4 __________________________________

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4) disilicon hexabromide ____________________________________

5) NiPO4 __________________________________

6) NH4F __________________________________

7) CoCO3 ______________________________________

8)
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copper (I) phosphate __________________________________

Write in chemical form, balance and state the type of reaction.


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9)

10)
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---END---
ANSWERS TO EXTENSION NOMENCLATURE UNIT IN CHEMISTRY

Charges of Ions Worksheet

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Name _________________
1. What is an ion? An ion is an atom with a positive or negative charge
2. How does an atom become an ion? An atom becomes an ion by gaining or losing
electrons
3. What is the charge on a cation? (circle one) positive or negative

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a. What type of elements become cations? (circle one) metals or nonmetals
4. What is the charge on an anion? (circle one) positive or negative
a. What type of elements become anions? (circle one) metals or nonmetals
5. What does a roman numeral tell you when it is written after an element? The
positive value the cation has
6. Write the symbols and charges for the atoms given below and then identify it as
anion/cation and
metal/nonmetal…
element

calcium
symbol
and
charge
Ca+2
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metal or
nonmetal

metal
anion or
cation

cation
name

calcium ion
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-1
bromine Br nonmetal anion bromide
nitrogen N-3 nonmetal anion nitride
+3
iron (III) Fe metal cation iron(III) ion
+2
tin (II) Sn metal cation tin (II) ion
-1
fluorine F nonmetal anion fluoride
+1
cesium Cs metal cation cesium ion
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-1
iodine I nonmetal anion iodide
-3
phosphorus P nonmetal anion phosphide
+1
copper (I) Cu metal cation copper (I) ion
+1
lithium Li metal cation lithium ion
+3
aluminum Al metal cation aluminum ion
-2
sulfur S nonmetal anion sulfide
+4
manganese(IV) Mn metal cation manganese (IV) ion
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-1
chlorine Cl nonmetal anion chloride
-2
oxygen O nonmetal anion oxide
Solutions for the Naming Ionic Compounds Practice Worksheet
1) ammonium chloride

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2) iron (III) nitrate

3) titanium (III) bromide


4) copper (I) phosphide

5) tin (IV) selenide

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6) gallium (III) arsenide
7) lead (IV) sulfate
8) beryllium carbonate

9) manganese (III) sulfite


10) aluminum hydroxide

11) Cr(PO4)2
12) V(CO3)2
13) Sn(NO2)2

14) Co2O3
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15) Ti(C2H3O2)2 special hard question acetate is a polyatomic ion

16) V2S5
17) Cr(OH)3

18) LiI

19) Pb3N2
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20) AgBr
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COVALENT COMPOUNDS WORKSHEET

(1) NO - nitrogen monoxide

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(2) N2O3 __dinitrogen trioxide_______
(3) SiO2 ___silicon dioxide___________
(4) N2 O5 ______dinitrogen pentoxide___
(5) CCl4 ____carbon tetrachloride
(6) H2SO4 _______sulfuric acid______

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(7) H2 S (di)hydrogen sulfide__________
(8) Cl2O7 _dichlorine heptoxide_________
(9) HCl hydrochloric acid_______
(10) NH3____ammonia___________
(11) Cl2O5 ___dichlorine pentoxide____
(12) PCl3 _phosphorus trichloride______
(13) H2CO3 __carbonic acid_________
(14)
(15)
SF4 ____sulfur tetrafluoride___
P2S3 __dipotassium trisulfide___
(16) F2O5____difluoride pentoxide_

Write the formula


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for each of the following covalent compounds.
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(14) Dinitrogen tetrahydride__N2H4______
(1) Diphosphorus pentoxide P2O5 (15) Sulfur trioxide _____SO3___
(2) Phosphorus trihydride____PH3______ (16) Sulfuric acid_______HSO4__________
(3) Dichlorine heptoxide _____Cl2O7___ (17) Sulfurous acid ____HSO3______
(4) Boron trifluoride______BF3_______ (18) Dichlorine monoxide_____Cl2O_____
(5) Silicon dioxide __________SiO2__ (19) Silicon monocarbide___SiC____
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(6) Hydrochloric acid___HCl________ (20) Sulfur tetrabromide___SBr4___


(7) Silicon tetrafluoride___SiF4______ (21) Carbon tetrahydride CH4 (or methane)
(8) Carbonic acid_________H2CO3__ (22) Dinitrogen monoxide_____N2O___
(9) Carbon monoxide_____CO_____ (23) Sulfur dioxide __________SO2____
(10) Dihydrogen monoxide____H2O_____ (24) Tetracarbon decahydride C4H10 (or
(11) Dihydrogen dioxide____H2O2____ butane)
(12) Nitrogen trihydride _____NH3_______ (25) Dicarbon hexafluoride____C2F8__
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(13) Dicarbon dihydride____C2H2_____ (26) Chlorine trifluoride ____ClF3____


Solutions for the Balancing Equations Practice Worksheet

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1) 2 NaNO3 + PbO  Pb(NO3)2 + Na2O
2) 6 AgI + Fe2(CO3)3  2 FeI3 + 3 Ag2CO3
3) C2H4O2 + 2 O2  2 CO2 + 2 H2O
4) ZnSO4 + Li2CO3  ZnCO3 + Li2SO4

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5) V2O5 + 5 CaS  5 CaO + V2S5
6) Mn(NO2)2 + BeCl2  Be(NO2)2 + MnCl2
7) 3 AgBr + GaPO4  Ag3PO4 + GaBr3
8) 3 H2SO4 + 2 B(OH)3  B2(SO4)3 + 6 H2O
9) S8 + 8 O2  8 SO2
10) Fe + 2 AgNO3  Fe(NO3)2 + 2 Ag

3H2SO4 +
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2B(OH)3  B2(SO4)3 + 6H2O
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H S O B H S O B
5 1 7 1 2 3 13 2
8 1 10 2 12 3 18 2
12 3 18 2
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Word Equations Worksheet - Solutions

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Write the word equations for each of the following chemical reactions:

1) When dissolved beryllium chloride reacts with dissolved silver nitrate in water,
aqueous beryllium nitrate and silver chloride powder are made.

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BeCl2(aq) + 2 AgNO3(aq)  Be(NO3)2(aq) + 2 AgCl(s)

2) When isopropanol (C3H8O) burns in oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and heat are
produced.

2 C3H8O(l) + 9 O2(g)  6 CO2(g) + 8 H2O(g) ∆H = negative

3)
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When dissolved sodium hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid, aqueous sodium sulfate,
water, and heat are formed.
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2 NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(l)  Na2SO4 + 2 H2O(l) ∆H = negative

4) When fluorine gas is put into contact with calcium metal at high temperatures,
calcium fluoride powder is created in an exothermic reaction.
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F2(g) + Ca(s)  CaF2(s) ∆H = negative

5) When sodium metal reacts with iron (II) chloride, iron metal and sodium chloride are
formed.
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2 Na(s) + FeCl2(s)  2 NaCl(s) + Fe(s)


END OF UNIT TEST

ANSWERS

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1) NaCl sodium chloride

2) gallium (III) oxide Ga2O3

3) CaSO4 calcium sulfate

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4) disilicon hexabromide Si2Br6

5) NiPO4 nickel (III) phosphate

6) NH4F ammonium fluoride

7)

8)

9)
CoCO3 cobalt (II) carbonate

copper (I) phosphate


scCu3PO4
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2NaCl + Pb(NO3)2 →PbCl2 + 2NaNO3
Double displacement
1 mark for each chemical, 1 for balancing, 1 for type of reaction
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10)
I2 + 3Cl2 → 2ICl3
Synthesis
1 mark for each chemical, 1 for balancing, 1 for type of reaction
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