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The contents of the book revolve around the aspect of how urbanization has a relative and
immediate impact over the transport module within a country/city. The readings help to
draw an understanding of how an effective transport planning can be beneficial to the
subjects and act as an element of significant growth.
We all are aware that our India is fast pacing country rapidly accelerating towards urban
growth by the significant performance from respective secondary and tertiary sectors. Now
in order to be capable of facilitating this form of development there arises the need of
mobility of such a massive urban agglomeration. Just to meet this grave need the (GOI) has
come up with the (NURM) National Urban Renewal Mission that has a framework set up in
such a way that it works upon radically changing/rather developing the urban infrastructure.
It is a well-known fact that for growth in any economy generating activity a smooth network
between goods and people must be in place.
Disconnected cities: Is it a big deal?
Of course, it is! They possibly disturb/hamper the entire hierarchical chain of activities
they’re interconnected amidst. Everyone in today’s world is working for their bread and
butter and family needs. This brings about the need to step out of the four walls be it for
jobs, seeking education engage in some recreational activities etc. There arises the need for
mobility and in a world where time is money people are doing everything to chase their
dreams, ambitions, needs and right just between all of this half of them are spending man
hours stuck within a traffic gridlock!! Now the answer to this is simple the mouths to feed
are more while the food remains less. Here the mouths are referred to onboard vehicles
whereas food is the roads.
The ones who are affected the most in terms of livelihood is the common man because non-
motorized transport stands risk prone amongst the era of automobile growth because the
same lanes are designated for both the modes. Vehicles plying through the road are more
than people walking due to which number of road accidents have exponentially increased
over the past few years. Pollution amongst all of this is a set of talk having its own
Visions and Objectives of the (NURM)
This policy ticks the objective of ensuring safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable
means of transport to meet the mobility needs within the cities.
Highlights of the mission
Improving accessibility and inter-connectivity between business to markets and various
factors of production.
Encouraging use of public transport and non-motorized nodes.
Intelligent transport systems for traffic management
Addressing concerns of road safety and trauma response
Reducing pollution levels through changes in travelling practices
Approach to the execution of the mission
1. Integrating land use and transport planning
Each city or region has a set of different topography, urban form, population, income
sources and levels and the transport system will entirely depend on all these factors.
It is after all the transport planning that molds or shapes the urban form of the city.
During master planning quite less, efforts are poured into the sensitive approach of
the topic transport ultimately leading to neglect amongst these factors.
2. Prioritization of road space
This is the scenario where 4 member of a family each having their own rides want
different set of open spaces for parking. On the other hand, if those 4 members try
to use the bus to commute end up using that similar space with a sum up of another
10-15 grouped family members. Amidst all of this where do the non-motorized
transport commuters go? We are in an era where sum of populations exponentially
growing and providing each person a separate parking space is totally out of the
question. Therefore, smart proposals and policies must be introduced to effectively
deal with space allocation issues.
3. Maximizing usage of public transport
Benefits of using public transport is quite familiar amongst us, but something
peculiar about it is it causing less pollution per passenger-km than personal vehicles.
Its sustainable what else!! I think as per the current initiatives seen on the South
Bombay side of introducing the all-electric buses is a really good step towards
greener Mumbai also inclusion of small best buses has significantly improved the
public reliability factor on the best transport network.
4. Quality and pricing of public transport
5. Smarter technologies for Public transport
There is a wide array of smarter public transport systems. Smarter systems don’t
mean they should cost more. High end metro systems don’t need to be implemented
everywhere. Sometimes we can draw inferences from other countries and systems
used by them such as elevated sky bus and monorail systems, electric trolley buses
etc. Waterways must be maximized for substitutes of high-end public transport.
6. Integrated public transport
This solely depends on managing a single network for all transport and commuting
needs. This eliminates the hassle of managing several agencies for transport and
implementing a single corridor network.
7. Priority to non-motorized transport
Increase in urban sprawl has slowened the use of non-motorized modes of transit.
Bicycles earlier which were the common mean of transport have relatively declined
over the years with statistical figures. This has happened because of promoting more
of motorized vehicle which have grown excessively in the few years leading to a
steep inclination towards the road accidents. This has made people to resort to
much safer alternatives i.e. either buying their own vehicle or using the bus to go for
work. Rather this scenario could have been completely eliminated by introducing
separate bicycle corridors for non-motorized transit giving people much freedom
and above all safety.
8. Freight traffic
60% of the traffic menace is usually caused by freight container vehicles blocking a
prime junction, either flipping of vehicles on highways etc all of this happens during
the busy times of the day creating a loss to time and money. This can simply be
prevented by regulating a specific time for the passage of these freight containers
i.e. the night time. If no space constraints maybe proposing a freight corridor would
simply be an effective solution to solve this menace for good.
9. Capacity building
As cities become the engines of economic growth, they are becoming major
contributors to GHG emissions. They are also faced with severe congestion,
deteriorating air quality and an increasing incidence of road accidents. This is
adversely impacting the health of the people and constraining economic growth.
Building flyovers and road widening has often led to long run increases in road traffic
and congestion. Others have built rail mass transit systems, but high costs have
limited their extent and coverage.
So, what is the way out – what is the right direction to take?

It seems that a piecemeal approach to deal with urban mobility is not the way to go.
The approach has to be more comprehensive, and multimodal, encompassing both
supply side and demand side measures. It has to go beyond a mere building of
facilities to understanding linkages with land use planning, human behavior,
affordability, environment, etc. It needs to incorporate institutional arrangements
and also ensure financial sustainability. Thus, a comprehensive or integrated
approach is called for. This terminology aims at developing leadership capabilities in
urban mobility planning. It seeks to create awareness of what integrated mobility
planning involves, what are its different components and how it needs to be
undertaken. It will use a “hands on” learning approach, making extensive use of case
studies, group exercises and site visits – all aimed at highlighting linkages between
the different components of the urban transport system.
Basic objectives it primarily focusses to tick in the checklist:
 Diagnosing the key problems being faced by a city
 Systematic approach to Integrated Mobility Planning
 Corridor Management
 Public Transport Planning and Evaluating Alternatives
 Role of Government
 Financing and PPP
10. Green transport
Current transportation systems come along with a wide range of problems including
global warming, environmental degradation, health implications (physical,
emotional, mental, spiritual), and emission of greenhouse gases. Transportation is
the sector being targeted since it is the major contributor to greenhouse gas
emission. The immediate and obvious solution to this wanton environmental
pollution is greening of the transport sector. Thus Green Transportation is being
developed to promote transportation practice or vehicle that is eco-friendly and
does not have any negative impact on the immediate environment.
Future modes of transportation
 Electric bikes
E-Bikes are great modes of green transportation because they don’t release
any harmful emission into the environment. A special registration, license,
and insurance are required in some countries to be able to ride an electric
bike. The speed of electric bikes is greatly regulated by law.
 Electric cars
Battery powered cars have been circling around the streets for quite a few
years now. They are smaller, lighter and comparatively much slower than the
conventional fuel powered cars. Many private and government companies in
India have invested and rolled out various models of electric cars including
Reva by Mahindra Electric Mobility Limited and the Tata Tigor Electric.
However, the concept of electric cars has failed to expand in India due to
several traffic and management issues. The successful functioning of such
vehicles requires smoother roads and evenly placed charging stations.
 Hybrid cars
Hybrid cars also rely on electricity. Most of the modern hybrid cars are
designed to automatically and efficiently recharge their batteries by
converting energy in the course of braking. Greenhouse emissions in hybrid
cars are extremely low. Emissions can range from 26% – 90% lower compared
to a standard fuel consuming car. According to experts, hybrid cars cut down
health-threatening emissions by over 90%.
 Hybrid plane
Major airplane manufacturers are now planning to design and develop the
concept of electric planes and personal flying vehicles to take the future of
eco-friendly flights to another level. Boeing and Airbus, two of the largest
aircraft manufacturing companies in the world recently invested in working
to build electric aircraft for commercial flights to revolutionize air travel by
cutting flight times, reducing costs and amount of pollutants released into
the air as well.
 Hyperloop
An Hyperloop is the most advanced proposed future mode of passenger
transportation that works as a sealed tube or system of tubes through which
a pod may travel free of air resistance or friction. The concept of Hyperloop
transportation was introduced and named by Elon Musk in August 2013.

It uses a linear electric motor to accelerate and decelerate an

electromagnetically levitated pod through a low-pressure tube. The vehicle
will glide silently for miles at speeds up to 670 mph (1080 km/h) with no
turbulence. This would help facilitate transportation at high speed while
being very efficient. The concept is being thoroughly processed and studied
to be installed in countries like USA and India, where the proposals have
reached the Memorandum and Understanding (MOU) stage with various
state governments.

Benefits of Green transport

 Fewer to no environmental pollution
 Saves you money
 Contribute to the building of a sustainable economy
 Improved health

Importance of Public awareness on the above topic

For any Government policies to attain its success people’s cooperation and
involvement must be maximized. The best way to achieve this is driving
awareness campaigns on the issue of urban transport problems and ways to
combat it. By promoting use of public transport and non-motorized modes
such issues can be resolved primarily. Providing discounts on public transport
means can be another take on promoting its use quite similar to the JIO
effect it had initially declining sales of other telco operators.

By resorting to all the above-mentioned policies and ways Urban transport

can be reformed and developed as per the current growing needs of the
economy. It will not completely eradicate this menace but will somehow act
as a slow working antidote to this scenario.