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Peer Pressure and Academic Performance of Senior High School Students in

National High School

Division of Tagum City

Tagum City National High School

In partial fulfillment of the requirements

For Grade 12 -HUMSS Students

Members:

Pepino, Azeth

Valles, Verzon

Cemine, Joan

Dayanan, Lady Anne

Mahilum, Princess Joy

Submitted to:

Alona E. Flores
Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

In general teenagers spend more time with peers. Peer pressure is described to

have a positive and negative impact among individuals and even without effect to a

person because peer pressure is a continuous learning (Gulati, 2017). Peer pressure

often seems to have various effects toward the student academic performance in

school. It is how their peers affect them whether in a positive or negative way.

Teenagers need to seek comfort from others that they found in the presence of their

peers, and they are not even aware on how their peers influence them academically.

Eventually this study aimed to know the relationship of peer pressure the Senior High

School Students and their academic performance

Peer pressure is often seen during the adolescence stage of a teenagers because

they often seek comfort among their peers and intend to do what their peers does

without knowing if it is good or bad for them. Adolescence is a period of an individual

that is transitory when a child reaches the point in changing its childhood to adulthood

(Adeniyi & Kolawole, 2015). Thus individuals are prone temptations in the social

contextualization concepts, for example, socializing with others tend to do some

activities such as napping and drinking during classes or work day ( Bonein & Denont-

Boemont, 2013). Adolescence social environment could affect teenagers in their

adolescence, because mostly in this period teenagers tend to communicate more by

their peers. As children grow and reach adolescence, teenagers become more
dependent with their peers than their family especially in making choices and enhancing

their moral values in life (Uslu, 2013). Human development is affected by its

socialization with other people in the environment. Specifically the academic

achievements of students are conjectured to be correlational by the support given by

the parents, the teachers and the peer of teenagers that affect their level of academic

performance (Chen, 2008).

This study was also carried out to get the peer pressure of study habits on the

academic performance of students using some of academic skills to those selected

Senior High School Students in Tagum City National High School.

Statement of the Problem

This study generally aims to determine if peer pressure possess significant

relationship with academic performance of Senior High School Students.

Specifically, this study aims to seek answers to the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of SHS Students in terms of :

1.1. sex;

2. What is the level of peer pressure of Senior High School students in Tagum City

National High School?

3. What is the level of academic performance of Senior High School students in Tagum

City National High School?

4. Is there a significant relationship between peer pressure and academic performance

of the Senior High School of Tagum City National High School?


Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between Peer Pressure and Academic

Performance of Senior High School Students in Tagum City National High School.

Theoretical Framework and Conceptual Framework

Teenagers are involved by peer pressure at least once in their life. It is commonly

thought to be an issue related being a teenager but pressure from society and peers

starts at a very young age can continue into late adulthood. Peer pressure can range

from encouragement to indirectly pressure to intense bullying. This study anchored on

Erickson’s Theory on Social Development.

Erickson’s theory states that peer pressure is needed for a person to develop,

learn and grow and to form into an individuals, it is through both positive and negative

peer pressure that people form and develop their individuality and social status, this

often starts in adolescence. The impact of exerted by a peer group on it’s separate

members to fit in with or conform to group expectations by thinking, feeling and acting in

a like or approved way. Commonly refers to peer pressure.

Both positive and negative social influences are used to form an individual.

People learn and develop personalities and traits from their social influence such as

friends and family. Adolescence is the time where people develop traits and caricatures

that will from the way act and are perceived, these characteristics can be influenced by

peers. To deal with peer pressure we should take note that, we should be prepared to

deal with peer pressure by having a response ready. Avoid places where people do
illegal activities or other things you feel uncomfortable around. Lean on people for

support, like your friends, family or a therapist.

Conceptual Framework

Peer Pressure Academic Performance

Figure 1: “The Conceptual Paradigm of the Study”

Significance of the Study

This research paper would be able to help teenagers to carefully choose people

to be with. They can be guided in choosing their group to be fit in. They needed to

critically think where they should go and what way they wanted to be. This research

paper aims help most especially teenagers because they are the one who are being

affected with this issue.

This study may also help students in the field of education. It is important for

students, parents, educators and policy makers in understanding the way social

interactions affects academic achievement. In particular academic achievement and the

often corresponding level of the educational attainment tend to predict the average

earnings an individual may secure over a lifetime. For this reason, isolating the peer
affects on academic achievement will make a significant contribution education reform.

Parents can have the idea of the issue that their child was going through. They can be

able to have the idea of the proper way of guiding their child so that teenagers would be

able to take chances of doing right things together with their peers.

Teachers with the result of the study it can help them to identify and assess their selves

if they are an effective teacher. The study will help them to figure out their weaknesses

in some areas in the field. By them, they will be able to change or modify their attitude

towards it or make some appropriate adjustments.

School Administration the study will help the administrators to assess and make same

observations of how the teaching effectiveness affect the student’s performance. By the

observation it can also determine if the methodologies and strategies is also effective or

not. By then, they can do recommendations and suggestions for the teachers that will

help them to the competent.

Future Researchers this study can be a source of information for the future

researchers especially this study is widely discuss yet, society is not really aware and

conscious about this issue. Researchers can be a way to let people know the

importance of having knowledge about peer pressure.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The scope of the study is based on the influence of peer group on the academic

performance of senior high school students of Tagum City National High School under

the Humanities and Social Sciences strand in the first term of the academic year, 2019-

2020.
Furthermore, this study delimits only to peers pressure and academic

performance in senior high school students under the strand of Humanities and Social

Science and will not attempt to measure this variable in other environment. The

researcher work will be limited to the analysis based on the questionnaire administered.

Other limitation of the study is inability of the researcher to cover the entire population of

the study, money, time and distance.

Definition of Terms

(https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/peer ). Peers is a person

of the same age, the same social position, or having the same abilities as other people

in a group. In this study, peer are person or a people who has the same social group

especially based on age, and social status of an specific person in a group.

(https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/pressure). Pressure it is

the burden of physical or mental distress. It is the feeling that you are being pushed

toward making a certain choice either good or bad. In this study, pressure it is a problem

of an physical or even mental. In this study, pressure it is a problem of an physical or

even mental distress of person. It is also a feeling that you are being pushed towards

deciding a certain situation or choice either it is good to you or bad.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer_pressure ). Peers Pressure is the way that

people of the same social group can influence on another individual to take a certain

action, adopt certain values, or otherwise conform in order to be accepted. In this study,

peer pressure it is a way that agroup of people that has the same social group which

can influence towards another individuals.


(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_achievement). Academic Performance or

"academic achievement" is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has

attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational

benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent

academic achievement. In this study, is a knowledge and skills that students have

mastered in a subject or a source. It is a measure of how well student performed in the

various assessment and academic achievement.


Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter reviewed the literature related to the study on the topic discussed

under the various study objectives, how peer pressure prior achievements in the

academic performance in senior high school student performance in academic, how

peer pressure composition influence student performance in academic performance,

how peer learning environment influence student performance. A theoretical and

conceptual framework was used to operationalize the variables and lastly the gaps in

literature were summarized.

Studies show that the influence of peer pressure among student can boost their

anxiety especially pertaining to their education (Kadir, Atmowasdoyo & Salija 2014). The

relationship within the academic with its peers are co-related with each other, hence the

direction of this particular relationship should be monitored were these relationships

should go considering all possible factors correlated within the academic outcome

(Wilson, 2016). Peer pressure faced by many teenagers of the society, professionals

understood the concept of peer influence that could affect teenagers in a negative way

which can be prevented by educating and preparing teenagers to face the negative

aspects caused by peer pressure (Temitope & Ogonsakin, 2015). Similarly peer

pressure among teenagers does not directly affect them in a negative way but it varies

in how much and how the students receive the climate of the peers coming from the

pressure in academic performance (Mosha, 2017). When a student is influenced and

motivated by peers he will perform excellent at school and got good grades (Boechnke,

2014). Getting the support needed coming from the peer pressure, student tend to excel
and exceed its capability and concentrate more pertaining to his studies and do good in

the academic tasks in school (Olalekan, 2016).

Pressure gaining social support from its peers is an important factor to cope with

different problems and illnesses by letting go of emotions by talking someone. Social

support plays an important role for teenagers to lessen the effects of stressful situations

and stressors through the support of the peers in the group (Esen & Gundogdu 2015).

Despite the various studies conducted for understanding the effects of peer group in

student’s academic performance, no one has yet understood the nature of peer effects

among students (Zhang, 2014). Knowing how the teenagers interact with their peers

and how they interact with each other and how presence of peer pressure affect

student’s academic achievement in school plays an important role for various categories

and even the whole educational system (Leka, 2015). Peer pressure is commonly

described as peers encouraging other teenagers to do things (Santor, Messervey &

Kusumakar, 2016). Peer pressure is also caused by parent’s lack of supervision

towards their children during academic performance, children tend to enjoy their peers

company and spend with their peers more during her performance (Puligni, 2017).

There are different factors that could affects student’s academic performance in school

whether it’s their family is giving proper guidance and motivation to their children with

the healthy and harmonies interaction with their surroundings (Ezzarrooki, 2016).

Students interactions with its peers could help enhance their capability and increase

their academic performance in school because they could seek help from their peers

that could serve as a motivation than working alone (Sotinis, Mirco & Michael, 2014).

Student peer group in school plays as an in socializing teenager with the peers to
socialize with each other that should help the students’ academic performance in school

(Uzezi & Deya, 2017). Interaction of students between its peer are likely to influence the

students and can be crucial for the student to determine their choice and could affect

student performance (De Giorgi, n.d.).

Understanding peer pressure towards teenagers is important for developing and

understanding how to improve socioeconomic policies (Carman & Zhang, 2015). Peer

among youth plays a vital role during the adolescence of a teenager. This is the time

when teenagers develop deep friendship among their peers and become permanent

during their adolescence (Guzman, 2017). Peer pressure towards persons behavior is

said to be a social phenomenon where the members of a particular society may not be

influence negatively but majority are affected by the undesirable behavior of those

people who resist what others do (Gulati, 2017). Looking to the different group of factors

that influence adolescence in their completion of their academic excellence it is further

hindered by developmental challenges (Chen, 2016). An individual seek emotional

support towards communicating publicly and showing his private objectives or goals.

Indeed through showing your emotions to others individual can get emotional benefits

from it because it could help them to overcome temptation and could give them

emotional benefits (Borein & Boemont, 2017). Also, peer groups answer questions from

teenager different concern from adolescence stage including physical appearance or

changing bodies (Ademiyi & Kolawole, 2015).

Peer pressure could easily affect the self-esteem of students that an important

factors adolescence. Individual adapt attitudes towards a certain aspect that they

encountered or they are aware of (Uslu, 2014). In many events student fantasizing and
visualizing what they dreamed to became through with their colleagues atmosphere.

Eventually, they pursue their choices through with the influence of peer pressure

(Owoyele & Toyobo, 2017). The pressure among peer group among its member may

engage to do undesired things or negative behavior with the presence of a particular

peer group leader who engage its member to do deviant acts or promote undesirable

things to the group (Dumas, Ellis, & Wolfe, 2016).

Peer pressure is important in the social context that plays a vital role in society

and to determine the academic achievement that affect during development relatively

with each other (Chen, 2014). Adaptive behavior of the development increases become

broader and complex and as the age increases (Yonus, Mushtaq & Qaiser n.d.). School

that the students attend to serves an institution among students that determine their

learning capacity based on the school environment that gives the learning experience

toward students (Korir, 2014). Thus choosing major courses within an institution are

major choices a student intends to make but it is affected by their interactions among

other students (Porter & Umbach, 2016). Hence, the behavior of an individual have

seen similarities among the group due to the effect of their peers, it is still difficult to

relate the consequences that the individual within the group are similar with each other

or social to be pursuing their intentions together to have similar outcomes (Kremer &

Levy, 2017). Interactions between students with their age-mates appeal to enhance

their learning capacity under the guidance of an adult educator (Kinderman, 2016). The

impact of peer pressure, both negative and positive, has a lasting effect; not only

throughout students’ school experience, but for a lifetime. Students engaged in help-

seeking strategies run the risk of academic difficulty if not properly applied, and
teachers who employ performance task goal methods create (in students) near-indelible

behavior strategies that could have a negative impact for future decision-making and

coping skills.

Teenagers learn about what is acceptable in their social group by “reading” their

friends’ reactions to how they act, what they wear, and what they say. The peer

pressure gives this potent feedback by their words and actions, which either

encourages or discourages certain behaviors and attitudes. Anxiety can arise when

teens try to predict how peers will react, and this anxiety plays a large role in peer

influence. In fact, Burns and Darling (2015) stated that self-conscious worrying about

how others will react to future actions is the most common way to learn the lesson and

study the lesson giving the teacher. When a teen who takes an unpopular stand and

goes against the expectations or norms of the peer group, he or she is at risk for being

ridiculed. Ridicule is not an easy thing to accept at any age, let alone when you are

twelve or thirteen years old. This leads to the topic of peer pressure he impact of peer

pressure, both negative and positive, has a lasting effect; not only throughout students’

school experience, but for a lifetime. Students engaged in help-seeking strategies run

the risk of academic difficulty if not properly applied, and teachers who employ

performance task goal methods create (in students) near-indelible behavior strategies

that could have a negative impact for future decision-making and coping skills.

The researchers found that peer behaviors are more likely to affect the academic

performance than parental behaviors, whereas parental norms are more likely to affect

the performance of the student than peer norms. Parents have had a longer time to

influence adolescents and retain a responsibility to represent the standards of the adult
world. Peers, in contrast, may be shunned if they attempt to impose standards on their

adolescent friends but are likely to be omnipresent as behavioral models within schools

(Biddle, Bank, & Marlin, 2017). It is unfortunate that many adolescents do not have

parents who are actively involved in their lives, do not provide appropriate supervision,

and are unable to clearly communicate their values. This puts these adolescents in an

even greater danger of giving in to negative peer pressure. Schools seem often to be

judged on the kind of children they enroll, rather than on the quality of their teaching or

the other facilities they offer. This observation has led many to argue that the

background and abilities of a student’s school-mates must have an important influence

on his or her own achievements at school. Motivated by this, a rich international

literature has evolved to try to model and measure the consequences of social

interactions between student’s–so called ‘peer pressure effects’–spanning the

economics, education, sociological and psychological fields. The issue is a critical one

in respect of current educational policy which favors expansion of school choice,

because choice based on peer-group quality can, in theory at least, leads to a high

degree of sorting across schools along lines of prior ability (Epple and Romano, (2016).

This will exacerbate educational inequalities if peer-group quality has real impacts on

personal achievement. An understanding of peer effects is also important because they

can mean that educational interventions that appear beneficial to the individual

student’s may be even more effective when rolled out to the population in school

(Glaeser, Sacerdote, 2014).

Educators and parents should be aware that peer groups provide a variety of

positive experiences for adolescents. Castrogiovanni (2016) cited the following: (1) the
opportunity to learn how to interact with others; (2) support in defining identity, interests,

abilities, and personality; (3) autonomy without control of adults and parents;

(4)opportunities for witnessing the strategies others use to cope with similar problems,

and for observing how effective they are; (5) involved emotional support and; (6)

building and maintaining friendships .According to Black (2015), peer groups provide a

forum where teens construct and reconstruct their identities. Castrogiovanni (2015)

stated that at no other stage of development is one’s sense of identity so unstable. A

peer-labeling process may be contributing to the construction of positive identities for

some adolescents but negative identities for others (Downs & Rose, 2016).

Unfortunately, members of groups may peer pressure Influence accept negative labels,

incorporate them into their identity, and through the process of secondary deviance,

increase levels of deviant behavior.

Therefore, Peer Pressure cannot directly be shown to have negative or positive

impact towards students’ academic performance but one can realize the appropriate

coping mechanism for a problem as a technique to avoid and fight peer pressure

optimistically.

Teenagers are involved by peer pressure at least once in their life. It is commonly

thought to be an issue related being a teenager but pressure from society and peers

starts at a very young age can continue into late adulthood. Peer pressure can range

from encouragement to indirect pressure to intense bullying. This study anchored on

Erikson’s Theory on Social Development.

Erickson's theory states that peer pressure is needed for a person to develop, learn and

grow and to form into an individual, it is through both positive and negative peer
pressure that people form and develop their individuality and social status, this often

starts in adolescence. The impact exerted by a peer group on its separate members to

fit in with or conform to group expectations by thinking, feeling, and acting in a like or

approved way. Commonly referred to as peer- pressure.

Both positive and negative social influences are used to form an individual.

People learn and develop personalities and traits from their social influences such as

friends and family. Adolescence is the time where people develop traits and caricatures

that will from the way the act and are perceived, these characteristics can be influenced

by peers. To deal with peer pressure we should take note that, we should be prepared

to deal with peer pressure by having a response ready. Avoid places where people do

illegal activities or other things you feel uncomfortable around. Lean on people for

support, like your friends, family, or a therapist.


Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

This Chapter presents the research design, research Instrument, population,

sample and statistical treatment.

Research Design

This study is quantitative in nature since the research questions the researchers

seek to answers lead to numerical data.

Specifically, the study is correlational as it aims to determine if there is an association

between Peer Pressure and Academic Performance among the Senior High School

Student and assess whether the degree of association between these variables is

significant.

Koto (2017) states correlational research is a type of non-experimental research

method in which a researcher measures two variables, understand and assess the

statistical relationship between themes with no influence.

Population and Sample

The target population of the study are the Senior High School student during the

second term of the academic performance year 2019-2020 of Tagum City National High

School in Mangga Visayan Village, Tagum City. These students belong to two different

grade levels under Humanities and Social Science (HUMSS).


With a population size of 1,273, the researchers will consider a sample of 303

respondents determined using Slovin’s formula for computing sample size with a five

percent margin of error. These samples are randomly selected through stratified random

sampling with the SHS strand and level of grade to randomly determine the sample.

Instrumentation

In this study, the researcher use the survey questionnaire in gathering of data, this

survey design provides a quantitative description of some fraction of the population that

is sample through the data collection process. A validated questionnaire will be used to

determine the respondents of the academic performance of senior high school students,

the research intend to use a mobile application. These this instruments are further

described in the succeeding paragraphs.

Peer Pressure Questionnaire. The purpose of this questionnaire is to assess the

respondent’s level of peer pressure use in terms of these factors: form of peer pressure

use, negative peer pressure, and positive peer pressure. It was developed and tested

for validity and reliability by Kanhere (2016) for her research on the impact of peer

pressure on the academic performance of senior high school students in Tagum City

National High School. Aside from being it has been constructed with the context of

Filipino students in mind.

Cover letter addressed to the research is attached to the questionnaire explaining

the research, its rationale and purpose, and the general instruments on how to fill out

the form. The questionnaire is composed of 4 parts. Part 1 seeks to gather data

regarding the demographic profile of the respondents which includes their sex, age, and
senior high school students. Part 2 of the questionnaire lists down all the available

forms of peer pressure and to instructs the respondents to check those which they use,

as many as applies. Part 3 seeks to determine how frequent the respondents

experience peer pressure by asking there to rate their level of frequency to 10 students.

Part 4 is a possible respondent’s responses are limited to a five-point Liker scale: (5)

Always; (4) Often; (3) Sometimes; (2) Seldom; and (1) Never.

Table 1. Parameter Limit

Mean Description
0.100 – 0.900 Extremely Low
1.00 – 2.00 Very Low
2.01 – 3.00 Low
3.01 – 4.00 High
4.01 – 5.00 Very High

Data Gathering Procedure

The purpose for gathering the needed data on the study is described in the following

steps.

1. The researcher shall seek the permission of the teachers and the principals of the

instruments that will be adopted or conducted by the researcher to their study.

2. As they distributed the questionnaire to the selected samples doing, before or after

their class time with the permission of their teacher when it comes to conduct a

survey questionnaire to the selected students.


3. As the same day as they distributed the questionnaire was going to ensure the

highest percentage of the possible students who answer really the questionnaire and

then list all down the different responses of the respondents.

Statistical Treatment of Data

To answer the questionnaire presented under the Statement of the Problem, the

following statistical tools will be employed:

1. Percentages will be used to present and analyzed data responding to the

responses of the respondents.

2. Average Weighted Mean. Will be also computed to represent the responses of

our respondents to the questionnaire about peer pressure and academic

Performance while standard deviation will be used to determine the degree of

variability in these values.

3. Person Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. It will be used to determine the

degree of relationships between peer pressure and Academic Performance of

Senior High School students. The correlation coefficient will be Interpreted as

follows (De Guzman & Cruz, 2007).


Chapter 4

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

Starting from this pages comes the results which the researchers are about to

discuss. These show the mean of each division of the survey; peer pressure and

academic performance. These pages show the description of the means of each

question given.

Table2. Level of peer pressure


Statement Mean Description
1. I always do vandalism at the school with my peer group. 1.6656 Very Low
2. I use cigarettes when I’m with my peer group. 1.6523 Very Low

3. Peer pressure boosts my anxiety. 2.7020 Low


4. Attending a concert with peer group instead of studying 1.8808 Very Low

for the test.

5. I skip classes at school to go downtown with my peer 1.8179 Very Low

group.
6. Doing illegal things inside the campus with my peer 1.6722 Very Low

group.
7. After class I always hangout with my friends. 3.1391 High
8. I easily get influenced by my peer group to cheat during 2.1788 Low

exams.
The highest mean in the independent variable, which is students, never lies in

the question about peer group hangout after their class to make have fun regarding to

the topic. The second highest mean is on the question about how academic

performance help students to maintain their grades. The second highest mean is on the
question about how peer pressure can boost the anxiety of the students. The results

base on the parameter of these two questions which indicates the all over-all viewed of

reality, in which during the data collection and also we gathered some opinions of the

respondents.

The results of the study are supported by the of Adeniyi & Kolawole (2005),

which states that peer pressure is often seen during the adolescence stage of a

students because they often seek comfort among their peers and intend to do what their

peers does without knowing if it is good or bad for them. Adolescence is a period of an

individual that is transitory when a child reaches the point in changing its childhood to

adulthood.

Table3. Level of academic performance


Statement Mean Description
1. I belong to a peer group. 4.1126 Very High

2. My peers give me advice in my problems. 3.8212 High

3. My peer group boosted my academic 3.4040 High

performance.
4. I am always focused in class with my peers. 3.6026 High
5. My friends inspire me to work hard in my 3.6755 High

studies.
6. My peers play vital role in developing deep 3.3146 High

friendship
The highest mean in the dependent variable is the question if a student’s belong

to a peer group, in which it helps to know if they are belong or not by that group. This

indicates that individuals are asked if a student belong to a peer group.

The study of Venturina, G., (2016) supported this finding, stated that students

should know if they are belong to an specific group and form good and proper study

habits in order for them to achieve excellence academic performance. However, it has

been observed by teachers and other school personnel that students nowadays do not

even bother to study the notes they have taken down and the books that they have

received. This makes them less attentive and interested in learning and negatively

impacts academic performance thus degrading the excellence of their studies.

Table4. Relationship between Peer Pressure and Academic Performance


R - value P – value Decision Interpretation
Peer Pressure We accept the There is no
and Academic -.105 .068 null hypothesis significant
Performance relationship

An analysis of the Pearson’s correlation on the independent variable which is

peer pressure and the dependent variable which is academic performance that resulted

to a Pearson’s correlation of -.105, shows that there is no relationship between the two

variables. We accept the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of the significance. There is a

sufficient evidence to conclude that there is no signifacant relationship between peer

pressure and academic performance of Senior High School students in Tagum City

National High School.

Dumas, Ellis, & Wolfe, (2012) stated the pressure among peer group among its

member may engage to do undesired things or negative behavior with the presence of a
particular peer group and to their academic performance in class that the leader who

engage its member to do deviant acts or promote undesirable things to the group

whereas showing that there is no significant between the two variables.