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Effect of Applying Therapeutic Architecture on the

healing of drug addicts


[Mona AbdelHay1 and Khaled Dewidar2]
Abstract- There is a problem present recently that importance
is no longer given to the therapeutic architecture standards From these ways are the meetings and sessions that are
when coming to applying a project in the health care industry, held to enhance the social and the communication skills
despite of the evidences and researches present that imply that of the patient or the addict and also to reform their
the atmosphere and design of a place can affect the psychology
behavior.
and the mood of humans, psychiatric clinics and rehab centers
in Egypt are seeing this as incremental. After introducing the II. Research Methodology
topic and having a brief about it, this research is aiming to test For the purpose of answering the research questions a
the relation between the two variables; therapeutic
architecture and the healing of psychiatric patients (addicts) to
comparative analysis will be done to know the effect of
know whether the relation between the application of the application of therapeutic architecture in psychiatric
therapeutic architecture and the healing of psychiatric patients centers and clinics on the healing of Addicts. The
is positive, negative, or irrelevant. psychiatric Clinics and Rehab Centers in Egypt and the
addicts specifically have been chosen as an area of
Keywords — Therapeutic Architecture, Drug Addicts, application for the sake of minimizing the population of
Rehabilitation center. the study and thus the sample to ensure effective and
efficient results and finding. Also it was chosen because
I. Introduction psychiatric clinics and centers are present in Egypt and
thus the sample can be reached easily. To answer the
In the recent years despite of the evidences and questions and reach the research objectives some data
researches present that imply that the atmosphere and will be collected. It will be collected through interviews
design of a place can affect the psychology and the mood with therapists and doctors specializing in psychiatric
of humans, psychiatric centers and clinics in Egypt has illness and addiction in which the questions that will be
disregarded or did not give a value for the design and the used in the interviews will be partially dependent on
spaces of the place; seeing it as an incremental condition. opinions of experts in their formulation to insure the
Mainly this condition, that the design is not important is optimum result out of the interviews. Moreover, data
present in the public centers, for instance Abbasiya will be collected through previous literature from books,
Center which is a famous center in Egypt had suffered academic journals, periodicals, and reports.
merely from the wrecked walls and the weak structure, Consequently, qualitative data is going to be used.
even the design that used to be one of the greatest in the Finally at the end the results that will emerge will be
world had diminished due to the negligence. Also some analyzed through comparative analysis between local
private centers that are newly established thought the including public and private rehab centers, and
design and spaces and incremental and focusing mainly international rehab center.
on the capacity that the center can bear. (Fathi, 2012)
And as this research is considered mainly with the
III. Drug addiction
addicts (as a type of psychiatric patients) it is important Definition
to note that in the recent years addiction has been one of Drug addiction is the extensive use of drugs
the rising problems in Egypt. According to (Abdoh, continuously that leads to negative social and health
2015) stated "Major Gen Ahmad Al-Khuli, head of the consequences. People, who became drug addicts, are
general administration for fighting drugs, said the described as those who are no longer controlling their
number of Hashish and Tramadol abusers in Egypt is use of drugs. Drug addicts exhibit various abnormal
extremely big while number of addicts reached 1 behaviors such as being isolated from people
million". Thus it is seen nowadays that there are many surrounding them as friends and family, being crime
initiatives that were taken in order to help eliminate this committers, and facing difficulties when working in their
phenomenon. And there are many ways of treatments jobs or at schools. A drug addict individual lives with the
that has evolved recently to help on the enhancement and main focus of continuing to use those drugs. (National
development of the curing process. For instance, the Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009).Drug addiction is treated
current moves have focused on some treatments that as a brain disease due to the changes in cause in the brain
gives the behavior and attitude of the patient the same of the addict individual that can last for long time or
importance and care that are given to the body itself, even be permanent, which is thus associated with
shortly the focus now is on the psychology not only the harmful behaviors for the addicts; as the changes take
biology. the form of changes in the structure of the brain and the
way it works.

MonaAbdelHay Khaled Dewidar


Architecture Engineering /British University in Egypt British University in Egypt
Egypt Egypt
Mona.fouad93@hotmail.com Khaled.dewidar@bue.edu.eg

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Such as the case in any other disease such as for example Hamilton and Watkins (2009) suggest that evidence based
heart diseases, drug addiction damage the underlying organ design is the process of the accurate, astute and careful use
and severely affect its functioning to be unhealthy and of present best evidence from practice and research in
abnormal functioning; where the organ in case of addiction making vital decisions about the design of a building. This
is the brain. Also as many diseases, addiction is associated approach arises from the fact that the traditional
with negative consequences, can be prevented, can be unstructured approach to creating designs is dissatisfactory
treated, and when being untreated it can have long lasting for the challenges facing architects presently. Evidence
consequences for the rest of the addict’s life. (National based design have become prominent in health care design
Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010). because most hospitals aim to construct ‘healing setting’ for
IV. Role of Architecture in their patients (Hamilton & Watkins, 2009). Consequently,
architects who adhere to evidence based design approach
Therapy when designing health care facilities utilize knowledge on
This section begins by determining what architecture is. the therapeutic impact of certain physical attributes of
Architecture is generally regarded as the art of designing designed spaces on patients, practitioners and visitors as
buildings (Unwin, 2003).The field contains theoretical guiding basis of their designs. (D. Kirk Hamilton, 2009).
frameworks that explain various concepts some of which Beside describing the role of evidence based design on
will discuss in this paper. Presently, the concept of modern rehabilitation centres, this paper will analyse significant
architecture has become prevalent. This concept is generally aspects of therapeutic architectural properties namely
viewed as a shift from conventional aesthetics, which seeks environment modification, social environment, structural
to go beyond standard practice by focusing on location, space, colour, and landscape. (D. Kirk Hamilton, 2009).
layout, and function. The idea about therapeutic architecture is grounded on the
According to Morgenthaler, the term ‘modern’ is more than conviction that the setting in which people live, especially
simply dissatisfaction with what has previously been the the design, has far-reaching effect on people’s emotional
case (Morgenthaler, 2015). This paper focuses mostly on well-being. As this is true for any patient, it is truer for drug
the function of architecture in aiding therapy for drug addicts who are experiencing mental anguish to do with
addicts. The debate about this topic is whether architecture denial, deteriorating mental capacity, and withdrawal
performs any therapeutic function. This paper intends to symptoms. Studies on substance use continuously state that
show that this is the case when you consider both aesthetics, this addiction is similar to chronic illnesses, and treatment
designs, color, layout and spaces (Huisman, et al. 2012). programs are beginning to use approaches that have been
Most studies that have been done on this debate were used to treat chronic diseases. (Laudet, 2011). These
conducted on patients occupying one bedroom and two approaches consider the impact of the illness and services
bedrooms with access to light and those without access to on the drug addict’s overall health. From this viewpoint,
light. The findings shows that structural environment can substance-use treatment aim for more than just monitoring
help boost emotional wellbeing, decrease infections, and and coaching addicts to recovery, it includes ensuring
even prevent falls, while rooms with ample light are shown suitable facilities for rehabilitation programs. This is
to have positive effects on patients than those without especially true for inpatient rehabilitation centers that cater
(Huisman, et al. 2012). This study shows that it is not just a to drug patients for an extensive period.
matter of architectural design, but its functions as well. For Drug addicts are going to rehabilitation centers for healing
instance, architectural designs that incorporate natural process. The setting they are about to occupy for that period
aspects such as in-built and exterior landscape have has to be conducive. There are numerous cases of drug-
significant therapeutic effects on humans. abuse patients running away from rehabilitation centers, and
Presently, health care facilities are compelled to meet this is blamed on the fact that drug patients do experience
certain intricate combination of aesthetics, physical, social, withdrawal symptoms or sometimes it could be because
environmental and symbolic requirements (Morgenthaler, they are in denial. (Laudet, 2011). However, the question is
2015). The issue for modern architecture is how to drug patients running from uncomely facilities? This has
maximize on these functions. For instance, before an everything to do with the structural design of the building,
architect even decides how a building will look like, he or whether it is attractive, comfortable and functional. For
she has to determine the intended purpose of the building instance, situations whereby, two patients are sharing the
and how to maximize on its features. Performing this same room may be uncomfortable for some individuals
function is not only a requirement in the field, but its core depending on their personalities. It is also worth noting that
essence. It indicates the most important role of the architect drug addicts are susceptible to high stress levels and low
in the whole building design process. On the issue of moods. According to Sinha, stress is a common factor that
therapeutic architecture, the term ‘therapeutic’ is linked to leads to substance use and addiction relapse while patients
psychiatric hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Hospitals are rehabilitating (Sinha, 2008). Seaward notes that there are
that have been designed to perform therapeutic functions several factors that have been linked to increasing levels
contain therapeutic properties. These therapeutic properties stress of rehabilitating drug patients some of which include
have influenced a new architectural approach that is negative emotions, people, setting, and sensing the object of
commonly known as evidence based design. addiction. However, stress triggers are viewed as the most
common cause of relapse and the facility could be one of it.

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(Seaward, 2011). Now the question concerns how to that helped reduce medical errors, and improved acoustics
eliminate stress triggers through architectural design; are considered as proof. (D. Kirk Hamilton, 2009).This
emphasis being on stress regulation and impulse control. assumption can be used to argue that drug patients prefer a
(Seaward, 2011). more comfortable place to occupy than a less comfortable
one. Although evidence based research targets individual’s
reaction, it is not interested in their perspectives.
V. Designs Based on Evidence Morgenthaler notes that rather than mapping individual’s
opinions, it focuses on their innate reactions. These innate
According to Gupta and Kant, it was not until the start of reactions are considered objective evidence, which are not
the twentieth century that health facility designs were partly clouted by social or cultural bias. (Morgenthaler, 2015).
influenced by the ideals of enlightment age. (Jos P. van The scope of therapeutic architecture assessment has been
Leeuwen, 2006) This shows that each century has been closely linked to traditional interpretation of the idea of
coupled with its own distinct design and this is why we are health, architecture and therapeutic environment. A study
talking of modern architecture (Gupta & Kant, 2006). The conducted by Chandra, et al. focuses on four fundamental
two scholars further add that the most important issue today aspects of hospital structures that have been deemed to be
to hospitals in relation to modern architecture is having a components of therapeutic environment namely natural
natural setting and good ventilation. Traditional medical light, fresh air and quiet environment. (Jyotsna Chandra,
practices changed when medicine underwent technological 2001) Unfortunately, this study was limited to psychological
revolution, together with the emergence of modern style to and medical effects. A study that analysed the emotional
transform health care facilities into effective structures. It is outcomes would have been adequate to reveal the outcomes
safe to note that until recently, the physical properties of because rising stress levels are linked to run-away drug
hospitals were normally overlooked. One of the successes of patients. The findings of the study provide adequate proof
evidence based design is that it has revived some of the lost that presence of natural physical properties such as trees in
qualities of structure layout such as ‘nature feel’ in or out of the facility has positive influence of an individual’s
hospitals. (Morgenthaler, 2015) health and wellbeing. More precisely, it has been showcased
Hamilton and Watkins note that most tests on evidence that viewing the environment through the window or from a
based designs that center on nature’s aspects are screen can decrease stress levels and pain. (Jyotsna
comparative. For instance, several patients who are in Chandra, 2001)Also, the presence of plants inside a
multiple bedrooms are compared to patients with the same rehabilitation facility can lift individuals’ mood and
conditions, but who occupy single bedrooms. Also, the decrease symptoms of physical ache. (Jyotsna Chandra,
outcome of rooms with a view of nature and those without 2001).
are contrasted. Studies have also been done to show the
effect of colour used on rehabilitation centre on drug Yet, there are less well-established evidence concerning the
patients. According to the University of North Carolina health advantages of direct connection with nature for
report on inpatient rehabilitation facilities, a carefully instance a visit to the garden or a park. (Jyotsna Chandra,
selected colour scheme with ample lighting and art work 2001) The findings also show strong evidence that proper
helped improve the mood of drug patients. (D. Kirk ventilation can help boost the mental state of patients.
Hamilton, 2009) Edge analysis supports this idea and she Nontheless, the evidence for health advantages of natural
further states that colour has been thought to influence light was deemed as weak and ambitous, while the evidence
people’s wellbeing throughout history as observed on for health advantages of a quiet and serene environemnt
Egyptians, Assyrians and Persians. For instance, in the case were deemed as indirect . (Jyotsna Chandra, 2001) Though
of Persians, they are believed to have practiced colour there is enough evidence on the negativity of noise, the
therapy based on emission of light. (Edge, 2003) Colour function of the physical setting in generating or reducing
brings out a positive reaction from a social and emotional health effects of noise has only been explained in a few
perspective, and various colours are known to have specific studies.
emotional outcomes on individuals. Hence, the colour
aspect is considered when painting walls since it also has to
have interaction with background colour and natural light.
VI. Therapeutic Architecture
(Edge, 2003). Influences Healing Process
Most studies conducted on inpatient drug patients focus on
stress results for instance do certain environmental attributes The phrase ‘therapeutic architecture’ has developed and
increase or reduce stress levels or do some settings cause been accepted as part of the solution against the austerity of
patients to be calm? According to Hamilton and Watkins, health care facilities. This idea embodies the dream and
when evidence based design became more acceptable to prospect of designing superb architectural spaces that
people, all facets that could be linked to the environment promote healing. According to Morgenthaler, the concept of
were accepted as proof. (D. Kirk Hamilton, 2009) This went therapeutic architecture does not suggest that the
beyond patient’s emotional wellbeing, but it also included architecture by itself has the capacity to heal patients, but
their physical wellbeing such as living in spaces that were rather, architectural manipulation of structures and space
less prone to causing physical injuries, fresh air, technology

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can allow for other environmental factors such as sound, of everyday life, and it has the power to influence how we
colour, views, smell and light all of which contribute to a relate with our surrounding. Colour is the component
therapeutic environment to be prominent for healing occupied by an object, which produces various effects on
purpose. (Morgenthaler, 2015) For instance, drug patients the sense of sight as a result of the manner in which the
who are suffering from mental stress and fatigue can feel object reflects light. (Jos P. van Leeuwen, 2006). The effect
better if they occupy spaces that have favourable colours, of colour scheme is not only a subject of study in
wide windows that allow them to view outside, and spaces architecture, but a study in other fields such as psychology
that restrict noise that would be considered loud. In other and colour therapy. According to Leeuwen and
words, architectural designs that inclined towards serene Timmermans, colour study in architectural designs revolves
spaces would be good designs for constructing rehabilitation around aesthetics on surface finishing. (Jos P. van Leeuwen,
centres. On the contrary, some studies confirm that the 2006) However, studies are now widening to consider
traditional way in which some rehabilitation centres are therapeutic architecture not only along colour scheme, but
designed contribute to increasing stress and pose a danger to also change of impression of space, interaction with sense of
the well-being of both patients and staff such as exceeding sight, arousal of feelings, and the quality of colour used.
noise due to high population of patients and staff, small Chrysikou (Chrysikou, 2014) notes that colour therapy have
rooms especially for inpatient facilities, poor lighting, and been determined as an approach capable of elevating mood
small spaces (Edge, 2003) (Unwin, 2003) (Seaward, 2011). and reducing stress. This concept can be applied to
According to Seaward, general health care facilities that rehabilitation centres where drug patients seem to suffer
deal with multiple patients suffering from multiple from high stress levels and mood changes. Leeuwen and
conditions take into consideration structural designs that Timmermans discovered that both colour and structural
promote the well-being of patients. (Seaward, 2011) This designs have the capacity visually stimulate individuals, and
can be argued at least since the beginning of the twenty first this can be manipulated to promote positive or negative
century. However, this cannot be said of rehabilitation mood. (Jos P. van Leeuwen, 2006). They further state that a
centres meant for drug addicts. Seaward further argues that patient’s response to colour depends on his or her
the reason could be that most rehabilitation centres are psychological association of specific emotions to specific
opened or run by communities or well-wishers compared to colours. (Jos P. van Leeuwen, 2006). Therefore, architecture
hospitals run by the government or established private utilizes the power of colour in therapeutic settings to
entities. (Seaward, 2011). Hence, rehabilitation centres fall stimulate specific emotional response.
short of resources when constructing their facilities.
However, drug patients would surely benefit from A study conducted by the Institute of Colour Research as
therapeutic architecture. In most cases, hospitals and cited by (Ravinkanti Gopikrishna, 2015) divulges that
rehabilitation centres that ignore the role of therapeutic individuals make a subconscious decision about a place,
architecture especially in Egypt either have no idea about person or item within 90 seconds of first sight, and that
the implications of such designs, or claim that the cost of approximately 80% of that analysis in based solely on
building such projects is high. (Seaward, 2011). colour. (Ravinkanti Gopikrishna, 2015). Thus, the colour
used on building designs matters especialy is the building is
A study conducted by James Luderg as cited by (E.R.C.M. a hospital facility. Ulrich conducted a study that was
Huisman, 2012)notes that modern hospital facilities produce reported in his book about the ole of physcal environmnt in
better patient results. (E.R.C.M. Huisman, 2012)While health care facilities where he explains that there more
considering drug rehabilitation facilities, the length of stay hospitals prsently that associate hospital design to medical
of drug addicts was lessened by upgrading the physical outcome (Stephen R. Kellert, 2011). When it comes to drug
properties. Usually, high-end drug rehabilitation centres in rehabilitation centers, it is obvious that colour can be
Egypt contain therapeutic features such as transitional living applied as a strong tool for promoting better medical
spaces, in-door and out-door swimming pools, therapy outcomes.
gyms, natural landscape, and a mobility court since the
facility’s main aim is to make the stay of the drug patient as According to Chrysikou, the effects of colour go beyond its
comfortable as possible. These facilities rely not only on the aesthetic properties, and it affects people both emotionally
architectural design, but other physical properties that would and psychologically because it stimulates the nervous
make such facilities comfortable. Hence, I pose the question system (2014). In other words, colour can influence mood or
how much more would buildings that consider both provoke a response from an individual. Consequently, the
architectural designs and therapeutic aspects such as the manner in which colour is applied in a setting can make
swimming pool have on a patient’s treatment outcome? It is provoke feelings of either serenity of anxiety. This translates
at this point that I analyse the role of architecture in modern into a good mood, which in turn promotes healing.
buildings especially when it comes to modifying the Chrysikou studies on various colours divulge that bright
environment for the purpose of creating a comfortable and colours increase blood pressure, autonomic functions and
conducive environment for treating drug patients. (E.R.C.M. pulse rate directing outward attention. In contrast, dark and
Huisman, 2012). softer colours create calm effect directing inward attention.
Therapeutic Architectural De (Chrysikou, 2014).
sign that considers Colour Scheme: Colour is a crucial part

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In the past, many cultures used colour for its therapeutic A study conducted by the Institute of Colour Research as
powers. In Egypt for instance, chambers were designed to cited by (Ravinkanti Gopikrishna, 2015) divulges that
create a ray of prism to heal those who were sick, while in individuals make a subconscious decision about a place,
India different colours are linked to various energy centres person or item within 90 seconds of first sight, and that
in the human body. (Jos P. van Leeuwen, 2006). Hence, approximately 80% of that analysis in based solely on
what is happening in the contemporary world is a concept colour. (Ravinkanti Gopikrishna, 2015). Thus, the colour
that is believed to promote healing based on traditional used on building designs matters especialy is the building is
practices and beliefs. It is also worth noting that colour and a hospital facility. Ulrich conducted a study that was
light are linked, but are different and when applying colour reported in his book about the ole of physcal environmnt in
in treatment facilities, the purpose should mostly be for health care facilities where he explains that there more
healing purpose. While architects, scientists, and physicians hospitals prsently that associate hospital design to medical
concur that colour can help in the healing process, it should outcome (Stephen R. Kellert, 2011).
not be considered as a simplistic countermeasure. (Jos P. When it comes to drug rehabilitation centers, it is obvious
van Leeuwen, 2006). There several other factors that should that colour can be applied as a strong tool for promoting
be considered when deciding hospital colours for instance better medical outcomes. According to Chrysikou, the
type of hospital whether for children or drug addicts and effects of colour go beyond its aesthetic properties, and it
perception of sight depending on age. (Jos P. van Leeuwen, affects people both emotionally and psychologically
2006). Colours that would impress children are not the same because it stimulates the nervous system (2014). In other
ones that would impress adults. In any case, various colours words, colour can influence mood or provoke a response
have different accepted meanings. Also, specific colours from an individual. Consequently, the manner in which
have specific meanings to an individual based on his or her colour is applied in a setting can make provoke feelings of
culture and belief. either serenity or anxiety. This translates into a good mood,
which in turn promotes healing. Chrysikou studies on
various colours divulge that bright colours increase blood
VII. Therapeutic Architectural pressure, autonomic functions and pulse rate directing
outward attention. In contrast, dark and softer colours create
Design that considers Colour calm effect directing inward attention. (Chrysikou, 2014)

Scheme
Colour is a crucial part of everyday life, and it has
the power to influence how we relate with our surrounding.
Colour is the component occupied by an object, which
produces various effects on the sense of sight as a result of
the manner in which the object reflects light. (Jos P. van
Leeuwen, 2006). The effect of colour scheme is not only a
subject of study in architecture, but a study in other fields
such as psychology and colour therapy. According to
Leeuwen and Timmermans, colour study in architectural
designs revolves around aesthetics on surface finishing. (Jos
P. van Leeuwen, 2006) However, studies are now widening
to consider therapeutic architecture not only along colour
scheme, but also change of impression of space, interaction
with sense of sight, arousal of feelings, and the quality of
colour used. Chrysikou (Chrysikou, 2014) notes that colour
therapy have been determined as an approach capable of Figure 1, 2, and 3: Rehabilitation Centre Groot
elevating mood and reducing stress. This concept can be Klimmendaal interior bright colours. (ArchDaily, 2011)
applied to rehabilitation centres where drug patients seem to
suffer from high stress levels and mood changes. Leeuwen
and Timmermans discovered that both colour and structural VIII.CaseStudies
designs have the capacity visually stimulate individuals, and Rehabilitation Centre Groot Klimmendaal
this can be manipulated to promote positive or negative -Project’sAbstract:
mood. (Jos P. van Leeuwen, 2006). They further state that a Architect: KoenvanVelsen
patient’s response to colour depends on his or her Location: TheNetherlands
psychological association of specific emotions to specific Area: 14000.0sqm
colours. (Jos P. van Leeuwen, 2006). Therefore, architecture ProjectYear: 2011
utilizes the power of colour in therapeutic settings to The self-control and self-confidence is radiated by the
stimulate specific emotional response. revalidation center “ Groot Klimmendaal” There are
several opportunities available for several activities a due to

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the pleasant, welcoming and open environment that offers a It is quite complicated in the connections of its floors,
natural habitat as well. As a result of a serious collaboration spaces and rooms; however it is also simple when it comes
among Koen van Velsen and the users of the building, the to the desire for unity and the encouragement that is
building was formed. For example, for the new integral way supplied to the residents to use the whole area and thus
of working a shallow timber staircase runs the full internal making it practical. There is a continuity and variety of use,
height of the building. A direct route is facilitated among the in which atmosphere, nature, colors, light and kinesthetic
different floors levels and a variety of substituting routes is are utilized. It is also important to mention that it won the
available in the building in order to form a place that invites architecture festival (health field) in 2011. At the entrance
the residents to undertake their physical exercises. The level the common use places that include the swimming
"therapeutic" glass is great as it allows the sunlight to be pool, restaurant, gym and the theatre are placed. Members
present and thereby the resident will be exposed and closes from the local community and the families of the residents
to the nature as they hope to be attached to the nature of the are allowed to use the facilities. In order for the resident to
sun. One of the major characteristics of this two-storey glass feel re-integrated the locals are allowed to use the facilities
rehabilitation is the straightforward attachment and contact which are placed at the center of the community. The design
to the nature and real life. This building is placed in an is done for the residents with a prime and first concept
idyllic forest environment due to the decision of which is to care about the residents and to avoid them from
landscaping, but the distance between this building and the being isolated or not involved with the community,
city of Arnhem is not long, for addicts to be encouraged and accordingly the building and the spaces included in the
motivated the sports facilities are used by the community. building is a part of the community surroundings. The main
(Rehabilitation Centre Groot Klimmendaal / Koen van goals behind the design of the center are to make the
Velsen, 2011) residents more responsible in solving their problems and to
have a degree of self-awareness about their problems which
is done through personal involvement and direct interaction
with the group. The self-confidence and awareness are
promoted by the open environment of the interior design
that places more importance on the activities of recreation
and the therapy that is done through arts expression. By
creating a direct and straight route between the different
floors and alternative routes to reach various areas the
architect Koen van Vaelsen made sure that no part of the
building is isolated. Community spirit and a positive sense
of physical movement are achieved through this.

Figure 4: Rehabilitation Centre Groot Klimmendaal.


(ArchDaily, 2011)

-Concept
It guides the continuity between the interior and exterior is
through the improvement of positive kinesthesis. The subtle
and the practical design ensures that the residents of the Figure 5 and 6: Rehabilitation Centre Groot
building are not feeling enclosed. Warm emotions during Klimmendaal shows the connection between interior and
the day meals are applied with the hall window that touches exterior. (ArchDaily, 2011)
virtually the surrounding forest in a pleasant environment
and this is done through the brightly lit facade of the
restaurant. When addressing the issue practically, it’s found Figures and Tables
that the installations' design whether mechanical or Figure 1 (ArchDaily, 2011) 5
electrical are considered to be energy saving mainly through Figure 2 (ArchDaily, 2011) 5
the thermal storage. It is designed specifically to be Figure 3 (ArchDaily, 2011) 5
maintained easily this rehab center "forms a sustainable Figure 4 (ArchDaily, 2011) 6
multiuse, closely knit building exuding stimulating Figure 5 (ArchDaily, 2011) 6
therapeutic components" (Stephanidou, 2011). The building Figure 6 (ArchDaily, 2011) 6
arrangement is not only for the sake of to be used by
residents but also to provide the feeling of social belonging.

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born in sep. 1993, applied for the British university
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Graduated from the Architectural Engineering
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http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-acoustic- followed by ‎M. Arch. in 1988 from the same
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ide/pdfs/lesson4.pdf the dialectics between Materials, Structures, Space
and Architectural Style.

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