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Plumbing

By.
Irene Hill
Andrew Pagar
Charles Pinlac
Jahyar Fulido
I.Introduction

1.History

The history of plumbing begins with the early flourishing civilizations like Rome and
China. They had the same needs as we do today: drinkable water and a way to drain
waste and dirty water. These needs grew very important as public baths and drinkable
water became available to more and more people. For centuries, the most advanced
plumbing included Rome’s lead water pipes and aqueduct system. The aqueducts were
sophisticated when they appeared in the late B.C. and early A.D. centuries. They
brought water to city latrines, public baths, and homes.One way the aqueducts were
less advanced than plumbing today is that there was no water pressure to make the
water move or to regulate the flow. Instead, they relied on gravity and descending
channels of concrete, stone, and brick to bring water to the cities.Impressively enough,
the lead pipes that received water from the aqueducts were pressurized.
Lead pipes were how aqueduct water traveled over bridges. Rome’s sewage system
also played a part in the history of plumbing services.Eventually their system connected
directly to wealthier homes to drain wastewater from the latrines. The sewage traveled
away from homes and emptied into a river.It wasn’t until centuries later, as cities
became more modernized, that plumbing started to improve again. Sewage and
drainage systems were moved underground, and cities found a way to partially purify
the sewage water before dumping it into a river. The materials for piping also improved
to bring safer drinkable water to homes.

2. Timeline

2500 B.C.

Egyptians developed copper pipes in order to build sophisticated bathrooms with


irrigation and sewage systems inside pyramids. Believing the dead required food,
clothing and other such essentials in the afterlife, Egyptians installed bathrooms in
tombs as well. Around this time, sitting toilets appear in the Harappa civilization (now
India), although it is not known exactly who invented the toilet.

4000 - 3000 B.C.

Archaeologists discovered the first water pipes in the Indus River in India, dating back
to 4000-3000 B.C. Egyptian ruler Menes also supported a thriving civilization by
constructing canals, irrigation ditches, and basins.
1500 - 1000 B.C.

Under the reign of King Minos, the people of Crete created elaborate sewage disposal
and drainage systems with underground channels. During the same period, the first
flushing toilet was invented, complete with a wooden seat. Archeologists have also
discovered a bathtub resembling cast-iron ones from the late 19th century in America.

710 B.C.

Sargon the Great, Assyrian king, invented the first shower by having slaves on ladders
pour water over him while he bathed.

500 B.C. - 455 A.D.

The Roman Empire developed complex ancient plumbing systems along with
aqueducts, underground sewers, public baths, bronze and lead piping systems, and
even marble fixtures. Around 52 A.D. Rome boasted an estimated 220 miles of
aqueducts, pipes and water channels used to supply baths, homes and public wells.
The water channels were powered by gravity and carried 300 gallons of fresh water for
Rome's citizens.

1596 A.D.

Sir John Harrington, godson of Queen Elizabeth I, designed the first flushing toilet for
his godmother -- first used in the Richmond Palace.He also created a flushing water
closet for himself at his home. The contraption included a seat, a bowl, and a water
cistern behind the seat.

1644 A.D.

King Louis XIV of France ordered the construction of a cast-iron main plumbing line.

The line carried water approximately 15 miles from a plumbing station to the palace
fountains as well as surrounding areas.

1775 A.D.

The prototype for the modern toilet was first developed by Scottish inventor Alexander
Cummings. Sir John Harrington’s water closet was able to flush, but it did not have a
water trap.

Cummings’ prototype included an S trap (which was a sliding valve between the bowl
and the trap) that allowed some water every use.to stay in the bowl. As a result, the
water no longer smelled like sewage, and the bowl could be easily cleaned after
1804 A.D.

Philadelphia was the first city that switched entirely to cast iron pipes to create their new
system of water delivery.

1810 A.D.

The English Regency shower was first introduced in 1810 A.D. The water is plumbed
through a nozzle and then sprayed at shoulder level.

1829 A.D.

Tremont Hotel of Boston was the first hotel of its kind to feature indoor plumbing for
guests. Eight water closets were built by Isaiah Rogers. Until 1840, indoor water closets
were commonly found in the homes of the rich and luxury hotels. Soon, soap was
introduced during bathing and catches on for hygiene purposes.

1833 A.D.

The White House was first plumbed with running water on the main floor. Upstairs
plumbing was later introduced when President Franklin Pierce was in office.

1885 A.D.

Chicago was the first city in the country to have a comprehensive sewer system.

1891 A.D. Thomas Crapper patented his valve-and-siphon design, updating the modern
toilet in the processHis work revolutionized the modern concept of plumbing

1904 A.D.

John C. Flood was first founded in Washington, D.C. in 1904. The company started
serving Northern Virginia and Maryland as it grew.

1910 A.D.

The elevated water tank became the most contemporary closed toilet water tank and
bowl that most people have in their bathrooms today.

1966 A.D.

Due to a shortage of copper after wartime requirements, non-metallic, and plastic


piping systems were first introduced for toilets.

1986 A.D.

The first sensor-flushing toilets were introduced in Japan.


3. Terminologies

“Agreement”

the contract between the Service Provider and the Client for the provision of the
Services and/or Products incorporated in the quotation.

“Client”

the owner, or occupier of the property at which the work is to be performed,


alternatively the owner’s agent who warrants that he is duly authorized to bind the
owner.

“Commencement date”

The date agreed by both service provider and the client as mutually suitable for the
work to begin.

“Equipment”

The tools and machinery as may be necessary to execute the work.

“Materials”

all materials, appliances and apparatuses to be installed, or used in the execution of the
work.

“Order”

The formal acceptance by the Customer of a quoted work proposal.

“Practical Completion”

the date on which the work has been completed and handed over to the Client together
with the final invoice in respect of the completed work.

“Product”

In general, a single item or unit, a group of equivalent products, a grouping of goods or


services, or an industrial classification for the goods or services which are to be used or
installed in terms of this agreement.

“Property”

the Client’s property at which the work is to be effected and shall be deemed to be at
the address reflected on the accepted signed quotation, unless the contrary is stated.
“Service Provider”

an entity that provides professional services to other businesses or individuals .

“Services”

the work that is to be performed by the Service Provider including, but not limited to, the
services described in clause 6 hereof.

“Technical Drawings”

architectural drawings prepared in respect of the work, if the work

requires such drawings, which shall be supplied by the Client, unless VENTER
PLUMBERS is specifically instructed to have the drawings prepared by an architect, at
additional fees as agreed upon.

4.Major Components

In order to understand the overall workings of a plumbing system, you must first explore
and understand the three basic components that make up basic plumbing system By
gaining a knowledge of how the three basic components work together, you not only
gain a better insight of the entire system but also make future diagnostics much easier.

A basic plumbing system consists of three parts: pipes and fittings, fixtures, and
drainage. Together, they combine to create a functional plumbing system that serves a
variety of uses in the home. Bathrooms, kitchens and even garages are all common
places where you can find complete plumbing systems

Pipes and fittings are the backbone on which all plumbing systems are built. This
component of the plumbing system consists of all the pipes that connect the home to
the main water supply lines. It also includes any fittings required to connect the various
plumbing pipes at various intersections and to create varying angles for the pipes when
needed.

Most plumbing systems will have a combination of both hot water and cold water pipes,
each designed to withstand either high or low temperatures with ease. Pipes can also
be made from a variety of materials including copper, brass, lead, PVC or CPVC.

The pipes in a basic plumbing system will connect to a variety of plumbing


fixtures.Plumbing fixtures can include sinks, bathtubs, hot water heaters, toilets,
washing machines and dish washers. Each fixture serves a specific need in the house
and is typically designed for inclusion in specific rooms.
A bathroom sink, for example, would not be suited for installation in a kitchen. Each
fixture will also have a specific set of maintenance needs that should be carried out on a
regular basis to keep the fixture in top working order.

Just as pipes connect the fixtures to the main water supplies, drainage systems are the
components of basic plumbing systems that connect the various fixtures to the waste
removal lines and eventually, the sewage system.

The drainage system is also the component of a basic plumbing system that often
requires the most attention as clogged drains are common household occurrences.
Because of this, special care should always be taken to ensure no materials are being
allowed to enter into the drainage system that are too large or bulky for the particular
drain to handle and pass freely.

If a blockage does occur, plungers, augers and various household chemical drain
cleaners can be used to help break up the clog and restore proper drainage to the
individual fixture.

5. Tools

An ADJUSTABLE PIPWRENCH is the iconic tool for a plumber. It has


loads of leverage

to turn pipes and fittings with a rounded surface.

Mole grips

(or Locking Pliers) are excellent for gripping and holding


workpieces. Invaluable for turning nuts and bolts that have
become "rounded
Hacksaw

Plumbing and pipes do not always come apart easily so


investing in a good quality Hacksaw will be extremely useful
when cutting any type of pipe, nut, bolt, or screw

Saber saw

An extremely useful power tool with interchangeable toothed


blades used to cut a variety of materials, including wood, plastic
and metal.

Long phillips head screwdriver

This screwdriver is ideal for fitting washhand basins where the


extra length keeps your knuckles out of the way of the basin.

claw hammer

This is a standard piece of equipment for any worker. A claw


hammer has a blunt end for striking and a claw end for lifting
nails and prying.

Pipe cutters

also known as an Automatic Pipe Cutter, Pipe Slice and Single


Handed Pipe Cutter)can cut through most piping with ease, they
produce a cleaner cut than using a hacksaw.
Adjustable Spanner

hey are easily adjusted with a flick of the thumb and once set,
the jaws will remain at their set width

Pressure Tester

As a plumber you will need to check the pressure in pipes. A


simple pressure tester tool will allow you to do this.

Bucket

Excellent for catching the drip when you have a joint leak.
Lightweight and durable if you buy a good quality one.

Stop cock key

is essential for turning off mains water supply.

Tape measure

is essentially a flexible ruler which can extend up to 25, 50, or


even 100 feet depending on the model.
Plunger

are inexpensive and is possibly the first tool you grab when a
sink, toilet, drain or bath needs unblocking.

Radiator key

A universal key that opens the bleed screw on a radiator so you


can allow unwanted air to escape from the unit.

Radiator spanner

is a simple tool is for tightening and loosening radiator valves.

Jigsaw

it allows the user to cut arbitrary patterns and irregular shapes.

Pipe freezer spray

It will allow you to conduct plumbing work without having to


turn off the main supply of water or drain down.
Immersion heater spanner

is a simple tool for fitting and extracting immersion heater


elements.

Basin Spanner

allows you to tighten or loosen under-sink tap fittings. It is ideal


for those tight spaced plumbing jobs.