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Objective: Georeferencing of an image with the help of ARCGIS.

Introduction: The objective of georeferencing is to establish a relationship

between image pixel coordinates and a corresponding geographic coordinate system.
Source image pixels are arranged exactly as they were initially digitized (or captured
during a scanning/collection process.

Map Used:

Steps to be followed:
The general steps for georeferencing a raster dataset are:

1. Add the raster dataset that aligns with the projected data.
2. Add control points that link known raster dataset positions to known positions in
map coordinates.
3. For most rasters, the georeferencing information is stored in a separate file with
the same name as the raster but with an .aux file extension. Permanently
transform the raster by using the Rectify command on the georeferencing toolbar.
The coordinate system assigned to the raster is the same as the coordinate
system defined on the data frame the raster is part of.

4. Add the layers residing in the map coordinates and the raster dataset to be
5. Right-click the Table of Contents, a target layer (the referenced dataset) and click
Zoom to Layer.
6. On the Georeferencing toolbar, click the Layer drop-down arrow and click the
raster layer to be georeferenced.
7. Click Georeferencing > Fit To Display. This displays the raster dataset in the
same area as the reference layer.
8. Click the Control Points tool to add control points.
9. To add a link, click on a known location on the raster dataset, then click on a
known location on the referenced data.

10. Click Georeferencing > Update Georeferencing to save the transformation

information with the raster dataset. This creates a new file with the same name
as the raster dataset, but with an .aux file extension. It also creates a world file
for .tif and .img files.
11. Permanently transform the raster dataset after georeferencing by using the Rectify
command. Click Georeferencing > Rectify.

The first-order polynomial transformation is commonly used to georeference an image.

Below is the equation to transform a raster dataset using the affine (first order)
polynomial transformation. You can see how six parameters define how a raster's rows
and columns transform into map coordinates.
A zero-order polynomial is used to shift your data. This is commonly used when your
data is already georeferenced, but a small shift will better line up your data. Only one
link is required to perform a zero-order polynomial shift. It may be a good idea to create
a few links and then choose the one that looks the most accurate.

Use a first-order or affine transformation to shift, scale, and rotate a raster dataset. This
generally results in straight lines on the raster dataset mapped as straight lines in the
warped raster dataset. Thus, squares and rectangles on the raster dataset are commonly
changed into parallelograms of arbitrary scaling and angle orientation.

With a minimum of three links, the mathematical equation used with a first-order
transformation can exactly map each raster point to the target location. Any more than
three links introduces errors, or residuals, that are distributed throughout all the links.
However, you should add more than three links, because if one link is inaccurate, it has a
much greater impact on the transformation. Thus, even though the mathematical
transformation error may increase as you create more links, the overall accuracy of the
transformation will increase as well.

The higher the transformation order, the more complex the distortion that can be
corrected. However, transformations higher than third order are rarely needed. Higher-
order transformations require more links and, thus, will involve progressively more
processing time. In general, if your raster dataset needs to be stretched, scaled, and
rotated, use a first-order transformation. If, however, the raster dataset must be bent or
curved, use a second- or third-order transformation.

The spline transformation is a true rubber sheeting method and optimizes for local
accuracy but not global accuracy. It is based on a spline function—a piecewise
polynomial that maintains continuity and smoothness between adjacent polynomials.
Spline transforms the source control points exactly to target control points; the pixels
that are a distance from the control points are not guaranteed to be accurate