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# R15

2. Explain the potential energy formulation for element equations in finite element method.

OR

3. For the spring system shown in figure below. Find the reactions and displacements at nodes.

## 4. Define Beam. Obtain Hermite shape functions for beam element.

OR

5. Derive the strain displacement relationship matrix for constant strain triangle element.

6. Determine the stiffness matrix for the axi-symmetric element shown in figure below. Take E = 2.1
×106 N/mm2 and Poisson’s ratio as 0.3. All the dimensions are in mm.

7. Explain in detail the applications of iso-parametric elements in two and three dimensional stress
analysis.

8. Evaluate the integral by two and three point gauss quadrature rule. 𝐼=􀶱𝑥3−2𝑥2+5𝑥−7 𝑑𝑥+1−1.

OR

9. Derive the strain displacement matrix for two dimensional four noded isoparametric elements.

10. For the composite wall as shown in figure below, determine the interface temperatures
considering three elements.

OR
11. Derive stiffness matrix for 1-D heat conduction problem.

2. Discuss about different weighted residual methods with the help of an example.

OR

3. Derive the expression for plane stress and plane strain from 3-D elasticity relations.

4. Consider a bar as shown in figure below, young’s modulus 𝐸=2×105 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2, 𝐴1=5 𝑐𝑚2, 𝐴2=2
𝑐𝑚2 and force of 100 N is applied. Determine the nodal displacement.

5. For the plane truss shown in figure below, determine the horizontal and vertical displacements
of node 1 and the stresses in each element. All the elements have E = 210 GPa and 𝐴=2.8×10−4
𝑚𝑚2.

6. Derive the strain displacement matrix for two dimensional 8-noded quadrilateral element.

OR

7. Obtain the interpolation functions for a two noded axial element using local coordinate system,
global and natural coordinate system.

8. Using the Gauss quadrature method evaluate the following integral and compare the results with
exact solution. ∫(6𝑥+𝑥2)+1−1

OR

9. Develop strain displacement relations in case of axi-symmetrical elastic body in 𝑟−𝜃 coordinate
system

10. Determine the temperature distribution through the composite wall shown in figure below,
when the convective heat loss occurs on the left surface. Assume unit area. Thickness 𝑡1=6 𝑐𝑚,
𝑡2=3.5 𝑐𝑚, 𝐾1=0.7 𝑊/𝑐𝑚𝐾,𝐾2=0.09𝑊/𝑐𝑚𝐾, 𝑇∝=−63℃, ℎ=0.18 𝑊/𝑐𝑚2𝐾.
OR

11. Derive finite element equation for one dimensional heat conduction with free end convection.

2. An axial bar of length L and uniform cross section A is fixed at one end and free at the other end.
It is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of intensity over the entire length. Making use of
Galerkin’s method, solve for axial displacement and stress developed. Take young’s modulus as E.

OR

3. With the help of principle of minimum potential energy, derive stiffness matrix and load vector
for a tapered axial bar element subjected to a uniform distributed axial load. Use appropriate
symbols.

4. Compute the transformation matrix and stiffness matrix for truss element whose cross section is
1 cm2 young’s modulus 210 GPa and coordinates are (1, 2) and (4, 4) cm. If the axial nodal loads are
1 kN and 1.5 kN, find the load vector and nodal displacement vector.

OR

5. Determine the displacement at the midpoint of a fixed beam of length 1 m with uniformly
distributed load of 6 kN/m through the span. Use two beam elements. Take E = 200 GPa and El = 2 X
104 N.m2.

6. Consider a nine node quadrilateral element in natural square coordinate system. Develop
expressions for shape functions and transformation relation between CCS and NCS.

OR

7. Sketch an iso-parametric hexahedral element and derive its shape functions in natural coordinate
system.

8. The coordinates of triangular element are 1(4.3), 2(8, 6) and 3(6, 9) cm. Its load vector is [-2, 3, 1,
-4, 5, 3]T kN , modulus of elasticity is 200 GPa and Poisson’s ratio is 0.25. Compute nodal
displacement vector and stress vector.

OR

## 9. Develop strain displacement relations in case of axi-symmetrical elastic body in coordinate

system.

10. Compute the nodal temperatures across the thickness of a slab of thickness 15 cm and thermal
conductivity 1.5 Watt/cm-. The temperature on left surface is 150°C and right surface is exposed to
air flow with h = 10 W/m2- and temperature 45°C. Assume the slab has square cross section area as
104cm2. Discretize the slab in to two linear elements.

OR

11. Write down the governing partial differential equation for a two dimensional potential flow and
evaluate element matrices with the help of triangular element. Use usual notations.

2. An axial bar of length L and uniform cross section A is fixed at one end and free at the other end.
It is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of intensity q over the entire length. Making use of
Rayleigh Ritz method, solve for axial displacement and stress developed. Take young’s modulus as E.

OR

3. The displacement field in a 2D elastic plate is given by u=x2+xy+y3 and v=2x2y+xy. Take Young’s
modulus is 210 GPa and Poisson ratio is 0.25. Find stress field at a point (1,1)

4. Compute the stresses developed in the members of the truss shown below.

5. Determine the displacement at the free end of cantilever beam shown below: Use single beam
element. A linearly varying vertical down load is acting on the beam. E = 200 GPa.

6. Consider a quadrilateral element in the XY coordinate system with four nodes located at the
corners and sketch it in natural square coordinate system. Develop transformation relation between
these coordinate systems.

7. A tetrahedron element has coordinated 1(4, 8, 5), 2(2, 4, 5), 3(5, 4, 8) and 4(8, 4, 5). Compute
strain displacement matrix [B].

8. The coordinates of triangular element are 1(4, 3), 2(8, 6) and 3(6, 9) cm. Its nodal displacement
vector: [-0.002, 0.003, 0.001, -0.004, 0.005, 0.003]T. Modulus of elasticity is 200 GPa and Poisson
ratio is 0.25. Compute normal and shear stresses developed.

## 9. Evaluate the following integral with Gauss quadrature with n = 2.

10. Compute the temperature distribution across the thickness of a slab of thickness 15cm and
thermal conductivity 1.5 Watt/cm-℃. The temperature on left and right surfaces are 150℃. Assume
the slab has cross section area as 104 cm2. The internal heat generation inside the slab is 1.5
Watt/cm3. Discretize the slab into three linear elements.

11. Evaluate convective matrix and thermal load vector for triangular thin plate element when it is
exposed to a fluid of temperature T0 = 20oC. Take convective heat transfer coefficient: h = 10
Watt/cm2-oC. The coordinates of the triangle is (0, 0), (2, 0) and (0, 3).

R13

2 (a) Write a detailed note on the importance of variational methods and residual methods in finite
element modelling and explain where exactly these methods are useful in finite element
formulation.

(b) A steel rod is fixed at both ends and is subjected to a distributed load as shown in figure
below. Using Rayleigh Ritz method find the displacement at mid-point and stress in the beam.

3 (a) Express the relationship between stress-strain, strain-displacement and also write equilibrium
equations for 3-D element problem.

## (b) At a point P in a body, 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥=10000𝑁𝑁𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑚2,𝜎𝑦𝑦=−5000𝑁𝑁𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑚2,𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧=−5000

𝑁𝑁/𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑚2 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥 =𝜏𝜏𝑦𝑦𝑦 =𝜏𝜏𝑧𝑧𝑧 =10000 𝑁𝑁/𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑚2. Determine the normal and
shearing stresses on a plane that is equally inclined to all the three axes.

4 (a) Derive the expressions for nodal load vector in a two noded bar element due to; (i) body force;
(ii) surface load using minimum potential energy.

## (b) Derive the transformation matrix for truss element.

5. Determine the nodal displacement at node 2, stresses in each material and support reactions in
the bar shown in figure below, due to applied force P = 400 x 103 N and temperature rise of 30℃.

6 (a) The linear variation of the cross-sectional area of the element can be expressed as
𝐴(𝑥𝑥)=𝛽𝛽1+𝛽𝛽2𝑥𝑥, using shape functions find Ai and Aj.
(b) Using Lagrangian polynomial approach, derive shape function for 2D rectangular element.

7 (a) Derive the shape functions for eight nodded quadrilateral element.

(b) A column, subjected to an axial load, is modeled with quadratic elements. The nodes 1, 2 and 3
of one of the elements are located at x = 5 cm, 8 cm, and 11 cm. If the axial displacements of nodes
1, 2 and 3 are 0.005 cm, 0.009 cm, and 0.016 cm, respectively, determine the shape functions of the
element, strain in the element, and the stress in the element. Assume the Young’s modulus of the
material as 207 GPa.

8 (a) Using one point and two point Guass quadrature, evaluate the integral.

𝐼𝐼=∫∫(𝑟𝑟2𝑠𝑠3+𝑟𝑟𝑠𝑠4)𝑑 1−11−1

(b) The open ended steel cylinder shown in figure below, is subjected to an internal pressure of 1
MPa. Find the deformed shape and the distribution of principal stresses.

Derive the strain-displacement matrix, stiffness and load vector for an axisymmetric triangular
element.

10 (a) Using one finite element, find the temperature distribution in one-dimensional fin shown in
figure below.

(b) In the heat transfer analysis of a one-dimensional fin, the fin is modeled with quadratic finite
elements. For an interior element, the nodes 1, 2 and 3 are located at x = 12 cm, 15 cm and 18 cm
with the nodal temperatures as 80℃,75℃ and 68℃, respectively. Determine the shape functions of
the element and the temperature gradient (dT/dx) in the element.

11 (a) A cast iron casting of dimensions 10 cm x 15 cm x 25 cm, is at a temperature of 500℃. Cold air
at a temperature of 20℃ is blown around and on the top of the casting. The convention coefficient
between the casting and air is h = 120 W/m2-℃. Determine the rate of heat transfer from the
casting to the air.
(b) Derive the finite element equations for solving inviscid and incompressible flow problems in
terms of the steam function using a variational approach.

2(a) Write short notes on the following: (i) Weighted residual method. (ii) Initial and boundary value
problems.

(b) Determine the circumference of a circle of radius ‘r’ using basic principles of FEM.

3 A beam AB of span ‘’ simply supported at the ends and carrying a concentrated loads ‘w’ at the
centre ‘c’ as shown in figure below. Determine the deflection at the mid-span by using Rayleigh-Ritz
method. Use a suitable trigonometric trail function.

4 For a cantilever beam of length of ‘’ subjected to free end load P. Determine the maximum
deflection and reactions using FEM. Let ‘EI’ be the constant value throughout the beam.

5 For the three bar truss shown in figure below, determine the displacements in node 1 and the
stress in element 3. Take A = 250 mm2, E = 200 GPa.

6 The nodal coordinates of the triangular element are shown in figure below. At the interior point
P. The coordinate is 3.3 and shape function at nod 1 is N1 is 0.3. Determine shape functions at nodes
2 & 3 and also coordinate of the point P.

7 Derive the strain displacement matrix for a Tetrahedron element. List some disadvantages of
using 3D isoparametric elements.

## (b) Using 3 point Gaussian quadrature, evaluate the following integral:

9 An axisymmetric element is shown in figure below. Derive the matrices [B] and [D].

## Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2,

10 A metallic fin, with thermal conductivity of 360 W/mK, 0.1 cm thick and 10 cm long extends from
a plane wall whose temperature is 235°C Determine temperature distribution and amount of heat
transfer from the air at 20 with a heat transfer coefficient of 9 W/m2K. Take width of the fin is 1 m.

2 (a) Give the strain displacement relations for a 3-D continuum and write the stress strain relations for
3-D, for plane stress and plane strain.

(b) A beam of uniform rectangular cross-section with width 1 cm and depth 2 cm and length 60 cm is
subjected to axial load of 1000 N at mid-point. If the beam is fixed at both the ends, using Rayleigh Ritz
method find the displacement at mid-point and stress in the beam. Take E = 107 N/cm2.

4 (a) Using variational approach derive element stiffness matrix of: (i) Bar element. (ii) Plane truss
element.

(b) Derive the expression for stress developed due to change in temperature using direct approach.

5 Use finite element method; obtain the forces in the plane truss shown in figure below. Also determine
the support reactions. Take E = 200 GPa and A = 2000 mm2.
(b) Using Lagrange functions determine the shape function for 9 nodded rectangular element. Plot
the variation of shape function of a typical corner node, a typical mid side node and the central node.

7 Derive the strain displacement matrix for a Tetrahedron element. List some disadvantages of using 3D
isoparametric elements.

8 Explain the terms isoparametric, subparametric and superparametric elements with neat sketches.

9 Find the displacements at inner radius for a long cylinder shown in figure below. Using two elements
on the 10mm length.

10 (a) Find the temperature distribution in the tapered fin shown in figure below. Using one finite
element.
(b) Derive the finite element equations for solving inviscid and incompressible flow problems in terms
of the potential function using a variational approach.

11 (a)For the two dimensional fluid flow as shown in the figure, determine the potentials at the center
and right edge. Take k = 2 x 10-5 m/s.

2 A beam AB of span ‘’ simply supported at the ends and carrying a concentrated load ‘w’ at the centre
‘c’. Determine the deflection at the mid span by using Rayleigh-Ritz method.

3 Determine displacements of node 1 and 2 in the spring system shown in figure below. Use minimum
potential energy to assemble equations of equilibrium.

Determine nodal displacements, element stresses for stepped bar as shown in figure below

5
Find vertical deflection and slope at the nodes for the beam shown in figure below. Take E = 100 GPa, I
= 5 X 107 mm4.

## Derive strain displacement [B] matrix for a 3 noded triangular element.

OR

The quadrilateral element shown in figure below is 20 mm thick and is subjected to surface forces Tx
and Ty. Determine expressions for its nodal forces. If Tx = 10 N/mm2 & Ty = 15 N/mm2, determine the
numerical values of the nodal forces.

(a)

Explain in detail about consistent and lumped mass matrices and load vectors.

(b)

## Using 3 point Gauss quadrature method, evaluate the following integral.

9 The nodal co-ordinates for an axisymmetrical element are given below. Evaluate matrix for the
element. The coordinates are in centimeters.

Ri = 10.0, Rj = 14.0, Rk = 14.0, Zi = 2.0, Zj = 2.0, Zk = 4.0 A body force of 20 N/cm3 acts on the above
element in the negative R direction. Evaluate body force vector.
10 A long bar of rectangular cross section, having the thermal conductivity of 1.5 W/moC is
subjected to the boundary conditions shown in figure below. Determine temperature distribution in
the bar.

11 Derive the element conductivity matrix and load vector for solving 1D heat conduction problems,
if one of the surfaces is exposed to heat transfer coefficient of h and ambient temperature of Tα.

2 Explain the potential energy approach taking the example of deformation of a system of springs.

3 Outline the equilibrium equations in elasticity subjected to various forces and loads.

4 Determine the nodal displacement, element stresses for the axially loaded bar as shown in figure
below. Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2.

5 For the plane truss shown in figure below find: (i) The displacements at node 2. (ii) The strains and
stresses in members. (iii) The reaction forces.

## Take 𝐸=200 𝐺𝑃𝑎,=0.01𝑚2,𝛼=6×10−6/℃,Δ𝑡=±50℃ for all members.

6 Derive the expressions for polynomial form of interpolation functions for linear, quadratic and
cubic models in one dimensional, two dimensional and three dimensional cases.
7 Discuss about the three categories simplex, complex and multiplex elements of finite elements
used in interpolation functions.

## 9 Derive the stiffness matrix for 2-noded bar element.

10 For the composite wall shown in figure below determine the temperature variation of:

K1=2K2=K32=50 W/m℃.

## 11 Obtain the temperature distribution in a Pin Fin of 1 mm diameter, 50 mm long, made of

aluminium, the surface of the wall is maintained at 300℃. The surrounding air temperature is 30℃.
Use 𝐾=200 𝑊/𝑚℃ for aluminium, ℎ=20 𝑊/𝑚2℃ for the surface. Assume the top is insulated.

## 2 The following differential equation in available for physical phenomenon

Trial function

Boundary conditions

## Find the values of a1 for the following methods.

(a) Point collocation. (b) Subdomincollacation. (c) Least square method. (d) Galerkin method.

3 A simply supported beam is subjected to uniformly distributed load over entire span. Determine the
bending moment and deflection at mid span by using Rayleigh Ritz method.

4 Derive the stiffness matrix for a one dimensional axial bar element.

5 Consider a beam as shown below with area of cross section 6000 mm2, depth 300 mm, moment of
inertia I = 120 x 10-6 mm4. The beam is subjected to uniformly distributed load of 20,000 N/m.
Calculate:
(a) Rotation at node 2 and 3.

## (b) Displacement at node 3. Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2.

6 Determine the stiffness matrix for the constant strain triangular (CST) element shown in figure. The
coordinates are given in units of millimeters. Assume plane stress conditions. Take E = 210 GPa;
Poisson’s ratio (v) = 0.25; Thickness (t) = 10 mm.

7 What are Lagrangian interpolations functions? Using Lagrangianpolynomial derive the shape
functions for ID quadratic element/cubic element.

## (c) Super parametric element.

10 A wall of 0.6 m thickness having a thermal conductivity of 1.2 W/mK. The wall is to be insulated
with a material of thickness 0.06 m having an average thermal conductivity of 0.3 W/mK. The inner
surface temperature is 1000 and outside of the insulation is exposed to atmospheric air at 30 with
heat transfer coefficient of 35 W/m2K. Calculate the nodal temperature.

11 For the two dimensional fluid flow as shown in the figure, determine the potentials at the center
and right edge. Take k = 2 x 10-5 m/s.
2 (a) Solve the simultaneous equations:

x1 + 5x2 + 12x3 = 47

x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 14

## 3 (a) Write the steps involved in Galerkins weighted residual method.

(b) Derive the equilibrium equations in elasticity subjected to body force, traction forces and point

4 For the truss shown in the figure below, a horizontal load of P = 4000 lb is applied in the direction of
x at node 2.

## (iii) Using elimination approach solve for the displacements.

(iv) Evaluate the stress in all the elements and determine the reaction force at node 2 in the y-
direction.

5 (a) Consider the bar shown in the figure below. Determine the global stiffness matrix, nodal
displacements, element stresses and support reactions.
(b) Write a short note on multipoint constrains.

(a)

(b)

OR

## 7 (a) Write the convergence and compatibility requirements.

(b) Derive the shape functions of 4 node 2D quadrilateral element. Plot the shape functions.

8 (a) For the axi-symmetric elements shown in figure below, determine the element stresses. Let E =
210 GPa, ν = 0:25. The coordinates (in millimeters) are shown in the figures, and the nodal
displacements for each element are:

## (b) Write the advantages of isoparametric formulation.

9 (a)Derive the weights and gauss points for two point gauss quadrature method and evaluate the
integral 𝑥2+𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑥/2) between the limits -1 and +1 by the above method.

## (b)Derive the strain displacement matrix of CST element.

10 For the one-dimensional composite bar shown in figure, determine the interface temperatures.
For element 1, Kxx = 150 W/m0C, for element 2, Kxx = 100 W/m0C; and for element 3, Kxx = 50
W/m0C. Let A = 0.1 m2.The left end has a constant temperature of 1000C and the right end has a
constant temperature of 3000C.

11 Explain in detail the step by step finite element solution using the Galerkin approach for boundary
value problem for potential flows (potential function formulation).

R09

1 The spring assemblage shown in figure, obtain (a) the global stiffness matrix, (b) the displacements
of nodes 2-4, (c) the global nodal forces, and (d) the local element forces. Node 1 is fixed while node 5
is given a fixed, known displacement mm. The spring constants are all equal to k = 200 kN/m.

## Spring assemblage for solution.

2 Calculate the nodal displacements and forces for the bar loaded as shown in figure below.

3 The cantilever beam subjected to the free-end load P shown in figure below. Determine the
maximum deflection and the reactions. Let EI be constant throughout the beam.

4 Calculate the element stiffness matrix and thermal force vector for the plane stress element shown
in figure below. The element experiences a rise of 10.
5 Write short notes on:

## (c) Gaussian quadrature integration technique.

6 Express the stiffness matrix and the force matrix for convection from the left end of a bar, as shown
in figure below. Let the cross-sectional area of the bar be A, the convection coefficient be h and the
free stream temperature be .

7 The one-dimensional fluid flows through the stepped porous medium shown in figure below.
Determine the potentials at the junction of each area. Also determine the velocities in each element.
Let Kxx = 1 in./s

8 Determine the consistent-mass matrix for the one-dimensional bar discretized into two elements
as shown in figure below. Let the bar have modulus of elasticity E, mass density r, and cross-sectional
area A.

## 1 Explain the general procedure of solving field problems using FEM.

2 Find the deflection at the free end for the member shown in figure under its own weight. Take
Young’s modulus as 200 GPa and density as 7700 kg/m3.

## 3 Derive the shape functions for a 1D beam element.

5 Establish the stiffness matrix for the axisymmetric element with nodes 1, 2 and 3 shown in figure.
6 A composite slab consists of three materials of thermal conductivities 12 W/mK, 20 W/mK, 40 W/mK
and lengths 0.15 m, 0.3 m, and 0.2 m respectively. The composite slab has a uniform cross section of
0.05 m2. The left end of the slab is at 500 and the right end is exposed to the convective heat transfer
coefficient of 12 W/m2K at 25. Determine the temperature distribution within the wall.

7 Discuss the general methodology of solving 1D fluid flow problems mentioning the stiffness matrix

8 A vertical plate of thickness 15 mm is tapered with widths of 120 mm and 60 mm at top and bottom
ends respectively. The plate is fixed at the top end. The length of the plate is 350 mm. Take Young’s
modulus as 200 GPa and density as 7800 kg/m3. Determine the natural frequencies of longitudinal
vibration and the mode shapes.
1 What is the basic idea of finite element method? Discuss the various engineering applications of this
method.

2 Consider a 2 m long aluminium bar of 50 mm2 cross-section area as shown in figure below. Take
Young’s modulus,E=7×104 N/mm2, P = 100 N and use two element mesh to model this problem. Using
finite element method, find nodal displacements, element stresses and reaction.

3 With an example, illustrate the use of Galerkin’s method for deriving beam element equations.

4 Explain the basic concepts of plane stress and plane strain with examples for a triangular element.

5 (a)What are axisymmetric elements? Explain their applications in engineering with at least two
specific examples.

(b)For a given number of nodes, generally which type of element is a better representation of true
stress and displacement why?
7 For a smooth pipe of variable cross section shown in figure below, determine the potential at the
junctions, the velocities in each section of pipe and the volumetric flow rate using finite element method.
Take the potential at the left end as 10 m2/s and that at the right end as 1 m2/s. Make suitable
assumptions.

8 Determine the consistent – mass matrix for the one – dimensional bar discretized into two elements
as shown in figure below.

Let the bar have modulus of elasticity E, mass density and cross – sectional area A.