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Farrow Structure Interpolators Based on Even Order Shaped Lagrange


Ali Shahed hagh ghadam Markku Renfors

Institute of Communications Engineering Institute of Communications Engineering
Tampere University of Technology Tampere University of Technology
P. O.Box 553, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland P.O.Box 553, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland
E-mail: shahedha@cs.tut:jl E-mail: mr@cs.tut.$

Abstract rational sampling rate conversion cannot be directly

used. An efficient way to reduce the implementation
Traditionally, the polynomial based interpolation complexity i s to use a polynomial-based interpolation
filters have been implemented b)’ using Furrow filter [2]. For these filters, the underlying continuous-
structure with FIR subfilters of even length. Defining a time impulse response h,(t) is expressed in each interval
modification of the traditional Farrow structure, it is of length Tin by means of a polynomials. These filters
possible to implement Farrow sfrncture with FIR are efficiently implemented by using the Farrow
subfilters of odd length. This recently introduced structure and its modifications [ 2 ] , [3] and [4]. The
.structure is U natural implementation form f o r even main advantage of the Farrow structure is that the filter
order Lagrange and spline based interpolators. But coefficients are fixed, and there is only one changeable
especially in case of even order Lagrange polynomials parameter, the fractional interval y [2]. The Farrow
the resultedfilter doesn’t behave satisfactorily compare structure contains M+1 F1R subfilters of length N . Here,
to its odd order counterpart. This paper states the M is an order of the polynomials, and N is the number
problem concerning even order Lagrange based of polynomial segments in piecewise polynomial
Farrow, structure. Then a solution to this problem is impulse response h,(t) .
also presented in this paper. The designed filter applied Traditionally, odd order Lagrange and spline
to a 16-QAM model, shows the validity of suggested
interpolators have been used [2], but by applying a
modification on the Farrow structure the resulting novel
1. Introduction structure is a suitable implementation form for the even
order Lagrange and spline based interpolators [l].
Sampling rate conversion is needed whenever two
However in case of even order Lagrange polynomial,
systems working at different sampling rates are to be
the resulting filter doesn’t perform satisfactorily,
interconnected. The sampling rate conversion factor in
comparing to its odd order counterparts. In the
general can be an integer, rational, or irrational number.
following sections, the reason behind the mentioned
One example application is multistandard radio receiver
problem is described and after solving the stated
where different system standards may have
problem it is seen that the even order Lagrange
incommensurate symbol and clock rates, and if the
interpolator perform in a consistent way to their odd
same ADC with the same sampling clock is used for
order counterparts. Thus they provide feasible solution
several standards, then sampling rate factor may be a
to many practical applications with essential lower
very difficult non-integer number. The sampling rate
complexity than what is possible when considering odd-
conversion factor R is determined by
order case only.
2. Farrow structure with subfilters of odd
where F,= l/T,n is the original input sampling rate and length
F,,,,,= UT,,,, is the sampling rate afier conversion. When
R is an irrational number, or ratio of two large relatively Farrow structure is an efficient way of
prime integers, the methods intended for integer and implementing the polynomial filters. As it is illustrated

145 Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis (2003)
in Figure I this structure has time invariant coefficients-
main advantage of this structure compare to other
implementation methods of polynomial filters-and the
only time variant parameters isp(l) [2] .
r ( n ( l ) + NI21

Figure 2. 2"d order spline interpolator

polynomial borders (dashed lines)
The interpolated output sample is obtained by
sampling y h ( f ) at the time instants t - ( C ( / ) + P ( l ) ) TjP
Here, i ( / )
determines the time instant of the input
Figure 1. Farrow structure sample closest to the desired output sample. It can be
Traditionally, odd order polynomials have been computed as follows:
implemented with Farrow structure' [2] but with a n(l) = round(lTou, l T n )= L/Tou,/Tn+ 1/21. (4)
modification on Farrow structure it is possible also to
use even order polynomials equally 'well [ I ] . In this The fractional interval P(1) can he computed in a
section, the above mentioned modification of Farrow very similar manner as for odd order case [I]:
structure is described briefly.
Let us consider, a piecewise polynomial impulse P ( / )= lTou,/Tn+ 112 -llTo,,, / 4, + 1 /2]. (5)
response h,(t) that contains odd number-of polynomial We conclude that the processing of the output in the
pieces. Thus N is odd number, expressed as N=2L+I. case of odd number of polynomial segments has to be
The continuous-time piecewise polynomial impulse delayed for %T,n. The relation between fractional
response h,(f) i n each interval of length- Tin can be interval in Farrow structure with even length subfilter
expressed as~follows[l]: and Farrow structure with odd length subfilter can be
M concluded by following equation [I]:
h < < ( ( P ( / ) ~ i=) L ) c,(k)(i(l)):
P ( / )= , ~ ( 1 ) 8 0 . 5 , (6)
for k=-L,-L+I,..:,Land for p(l) E [O,l). .The . Here 8 stands for addition in module one. The
fractional interval P ( l ) here represents the relative.time derived modification of the Farrow structure is a
distance between the desired output sample and suitable implementation form for the even order
beginning of corresponding polyn,omial segment. polynomial-based interpolators, for example even order
Considering the relation between ; continuous-time Lagrange and spline interpolators.
piecewise polyhomial impulse response and the 3. Even order Lagrange polynomial
interpolation filter we will have [2]: i
3.1.Statement of the problem
h(k,P(o)=h a ( w ) + % , , ) 13)
The Impulse response of even order Lagrange
According to Eq (3) the c,(k) and M can be denoted interpolator implemented by Farrow structure,
the coefficients and the degree o f . the polynomial h ( k , j ( / ) ) ,can he written as:
segments of h ( k , P ( l ) ) respectively., It assumed that
the non-causal anti-imaging filter h,(f) is zero outside W > P ( [ )=) P k ( P ( / ) ) (7)
the interval -LT~~,-%T;~~~<LT,~+%Ti*. .One can notice where
that the borders of polynomial segments are shifted in
2 I.
time by %Ti, comparing to the position o f t h e input
samples as shown Figure 2. - Pk(PU)) = 1c , ( k ) P ( V -
. .(8)
The coefficients of the Lagrange interpolator can be
computed similarly as for odd order case [2], using:

Proc. ISPAO3 746


The impulse response of the Farrow based filter

using even order Lagrange polynomial is depicted
Figure 3. One can see that even order Lagrange
polynomials suffer from discontinuities at the border of
its polynomials, which, as we will see in following
sections, causes poor performance specially in sampling
rate conversion application.

Figure 4. Impulse responses of the 2"dorder

shaped Lagrange (dashed line) and 2"dorder
ordinary Lagrange (solid line)

Figure 3. Impulse response of even order

' -60
Lagrange polynomial 2"dorder(so1id line) 4th
4 0
order(dashed line)
3.2. Proposed solution
Considering Eqs (7), (8) and (9) it will he known Figure 5. Frequency response of the2ndorder
that the only conditions which are implied by Lagrange shaped Lagrange (dashed line) and 2"dorder
formula on polynomial pieces are: ordinary Lagrange (solid line)
4. Design example
The used system model in this experiment is
By substituting Eq (10) in Eq (7) we will get a illustrated in Figure 6. The employed channel is a
system of equations with L+2 equations and (L+2)' simple Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). In
unknowns. Therefore, we are free to add (L+2)'-(L+2) this experiment the effect of non-ideal channel is
additional conditions to achieve desired performance neglected in order to see the effect of the interpolator on
from the filter .The proposed conditions are: the output. The transmitter and receiver filters are root
a) The impulse response should he connected on raised cosine filters and the receiver contains a simple
the polynomial borders slicer [5] step as a detector, The Symbol Error Rate
b) First Derivative of the impulse response (SER) is considered as a measure for the performance
polynomial pieces should be existed at the of the interpolators. The number of samples are 2 per
borders of the polynomials symbol at the input and 3 samples per symbol at the out
c) The two remain conditions are due to both end put of Farrow interpolator (R-213).
of impulse response.
Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the resulted impulse and
frequency responses of the ordinary 2nd order and Znd
order shaped Lagrange interpolator respectively. In the
presented case the tail value is set to he zero which
proved to give the hest performance among the other
tail values in experiments.
Figure 6. 16-QAM model

747 Proc. ISPAO3

The simulation results, depicted in Figure 7, show receivers," in proc. 1996 IEEE 1nt.Symp.Circuits
that by applying the mentioned conditions, The even Syst. ISCAS '96, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 568-571,
order Lagrange polynomial filters can be significantly May 1996.
improved and the performance is consistent with odd [5] J. G. Proakis, Digital Communication,
order case . McGrawHill, 1989.


Figure 7. Symbol Error. Rate (SER) for 1" order

Lagrange (star), 2"dorder Lagrange (diamond),
2"d order shaped Lagrange (square) and 3rd
order Lagrange (circle) interpolators
5. Conclusion
In this paper we have reviewed briefly the
modifications o f the Farrow structure needed for the
implementation of the polynomial based filters having
odd number of polynomial segments :in their impulse
response based mostly on [I]. The resulting strwcture
has FIR subfilters of odd length. The presented
structure is suitable implementation form for even.order
polynomial interpolators, then the prohlem due to even
order Lagrange polynomials was stated. in section 3 the
proposed solution to the stated problem was introduced.
The results showed. significant improvement in
performance of even order Lagrange interpolator
implemented with Farrow structure, as a result of
applying the proposal of this paper.
6. References
[ I ] A.Shahed hagh ghadam,D.Babic,V.Lehtinen and
M. renfors, "Implementation of Farrow structure
based filters with subfilters of odd length" accepted
in Finnish Signal Processing Symp. FINSIG 2003
,Tamj'ere, Finland.
[ 2 ] J. Vesma, Optimization and applications of
polynomial-Based interpolation filters, Doctoral
Thesis, Tampere- University of Technology,
Publications 254, 1999.
[3] C.W. Farrow, "A continuously Variable digital
delay element," in proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits
Sysi. ISCAS '88, Espoo, Finland, pp. 2641-2645,
June 1988.
[4] J. Vesma and T. Saramaki, "Interpolation filters
with arbitrary frequency response for all-digital

Proc. ISPAO3 748