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Technical Textiles

By: Granch Berhe

Technical Textiles

What is Technical Textile?

Textile product manufactured primarily for its

performance and functional properties rather
than aesthetic or decorative characteristics

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Some of the common products of technical textiles are:-
Seat-belts  Bullet-poof jackets
Airbags  Hoses
Nylon tier cord fabrics Ropes
Seat covers Dry belts
Car-body covers  Computer ribbons
Automobile interiors carpets  Battery separators
Helmets  Filters
Insulation felts Decatising cloth
Sanitary napkins Bolting cloth
Diapers Applications in construction industry
Surgical dressings Shoe laces
Healthcare textiles Narrow-width fabrics
Footwear components Hoardings
Sleeping bags  Awnings
Ballooning fabrics Canvas
 Parachute fabrics Tarpaulin
 Fire-retardant fabrics etc…
 Fire-retardant upholstery
Ballistic protective clothing Granch Berhe 2015

Agro – tech GEO – tech

Agriculture, horticulture and forestry Geotextiles, civil engineering

BUILD – tech HOME – tech

Building and construction Components of furniture, household textiles
and floor coverings

CLOTH – tech INDU – tech

Technical components of shoes and clothing Filtration, cleaning and other industrial usage

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MEDI – tech PACK – tech
Hygiene and medical Packaging

MOBIL – tech PRO – tech

Automobiles, shipping, railways and Personal and property protection

OEKO – tech SPORT – tech

Environmental protection Sport and leisure

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1. Regular/Generic fibers
• Natural fibers: Cotton, silk, wool, jute, hamp, ramie, flax
• Regenerated fibers: Viscose, Lyocell.
• Synthetic fibers: Nylon, PET, PP, Acrylic.

2. Specialty variants of
regular/generic fibers
• Flame retardant
• Super absorbent
• Antimicro bacterial
• Ultra fine fibers. etc.

3. High tech/high performance fibers:

• High chemical- and combustion-resistant organic fibres: Nomex, Kevlar
• High performance inorganic fibres: Glass, Asbestos, Carbon

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Generic Fibers

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Specialty variants of regular/generic fibers
Viscose Polyester Other fibres
Basic Specialty Additional
Specialty Variant Basic Characteristic Fibre
Characteristics Variant Characteristic
Very good Viscose for High melting point, High Tenacity Super- High absorbency
softness nonwovens high heat and PET absorbent
chemical resistance fibre (acrylic)
Excellent Viscose with tri- Very low moisture trilobal cross- High Density High tensile strength
absorbency lobal cross-section absorbency section Polyethylene
Added strength Temperature High strength, Hollow fiber High Higher modulus
and moderate regulating Viscose Good abrasion Modulus PE
abrasion (Outlast ) resistance,, Good (HMPE)
resistance resiliency
Relatively poor Short cut Inert, Flame High Tenacity High tenacity and low
strength wet PET/Viscose biocompatible & retardant Nylon shrinkage
Low resiliency Anti-microbial, Anti-microbial, High Tenacity High strength and
Anti-bacterial Anti-fungal, PP stability
viscose fibers. Anti-bacterial
PET fibers.

Natural and pure Fire Retardant (FR) Cationic Anti bacterial Prevents & limits the
Viscose/PET dyeable Acrylic growth of bacteria,
fungi and microbes.
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Fiber Characteristics Applications Key players
Meta Heat Resistance, high Fire retardant apparel, Dupont (USA), Teijin Twaron (Japan), SRO
Aramid strength and high impact bullet proof jackets, Group (China), Yantai Spandex (China),
(Nomex) absorbing capacity helmets, gloves etc. Kermel (France)

Para Aramid High strength to weight Fire retardant apparel, Dupont (USA), Teijin Twaron (Japan), Yantai
(Kevlar) ratio, Excellent thermal & bullet proof jackets, Spandex (China)
chemical stability helmets, gloves etc.

Carbon Low weight and high Air craft body, wind Toray Industries (Japan), Toho Tenax
strength mill wings, racing cars. (Japan), Mitsubishi Rayon (Japan), Zoltek
(USA), Hexcelcorp (USA), SGL Carbon AG
(Germany) , Kemrock (India)

Polyphenyle Highly resistance to heat, Electrical products, Armoco Fabrics & Fibres Co (USA), Toyobo
ne sulfide acid and alkaline liquid filters, dryer (Japan), Toray Industries (Japan), etc
Fibres (PPS) canvas.
Glass fiber Thermal insulation Automotive bodies, Owens-Corning Fibreglas, Nicofiber (USA),
properties with high hockey sticks, boats, Fibreglass (Canada), Asahi Fibre Glass Co
strength and low surfboard etc. (Japan), Chemitex-Anilana (Poland),
elongation. Owens Corning , Goa glass, Twiga (india)

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Fiber Characteristics Applications Key players
Polytetrafluor Excellent dielectric Nonstick coating of DuPont (USA), Newton Filaments, Inc (USA),
oethylene properties, high pans, laboratory Albany Internation Inc. (USA), Toyobo (Japan)
(PTFE) melting point. containers, magnetic
Phenolic fiber High strength Automotive and Phenco (USA), The Vermont Organic Fiber
electrical components. Company (USA)

Conductive Electric conductive Military garments, Shakespeare Conductive Fibres LLC and Bekaert ,
fiber intelligent garments. Bakaert India (India)

PBI High strength and Automotive parts, Celanese Acetate

(Polybenzimid does not burn or aircraft parts,
azole) melt. insulation shield etc.
Alginate fiber Highly absorbent Wound dressing, Speciality Fibres and Materials Ltd (UK), FMC
textile printing etc. Biopolymer (USA), Degussa Texturant Systems
(Germany), Danisco Cultor (Denmark), Kimica
Corporation (Japan), China Seaweed Industrial
Association (China)
PBO fiber- Highest strength Protective clothing
Zylon among fibers. and equipments. Toyobo Co. Ltd. (Japan)

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Clothing Textiles Technical components of shoes and clothing
e.g. linings
All the natural, man made and Synthetic Fibers

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Technical components of furniture, household
Home Textiles textiles & floorcoverings
Acetates, acrylics, polyester, natural

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Geo textiles Geotexiles and civil engineering materials
Jute, coir, Polypropylene, Polyester,
Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Polyamide,

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Filtration, conveying, cleaning etc
Industrial textiles Nylon, polyester, polypropylene, glass

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Medical Textiles
Hygiene and medical products
Polyester, Cotton, polypropylene, silk etc…

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Wound dressing
Chronic wounds: 6.5 million Impaired healing – Inflammation Resistance to
people - $25 billion stage is prolonged antibiotics

Naturally derived Alternative metals, e.g. zinc as

Silver impregnated
compounds? well as non-metal bactericides

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Extracorporeal devices- artificial kidney, liver, heart pacer and

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Implantable materials- sutures, vascular grafts, artificial ligaments, cartilages,
artificial joints, heart valves etc

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Protective TextilesPersonal and property protection
Nomex, kevlar fibers…

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Sport and leisure
Sport Textiles E.g Yatcht, Hot air balloons…
Polyester, nylon, spandex, glass

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Packaging materials
Packaging Textiles Polyethylene, polypropylene, glass

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Automobiles, shipping, railways
Transportation Textiles and aerospace
Polyester, nylon, glass, UHMWPE,
aramids compsites, carbon fibers…

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Agro Textiles Agriculture, horticulture, forestry and
aquaculture textiles
Polypropylene, polyester, polyethylene etc……

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Construction Textiles
Building and construction textiles
Kevlar, nomex, carbon fibers……

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Eco textile Textiles Environmental protection
Carbon fibers…..

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Summary of Segment wise consumption of different fibres

Cotton Jute Viscose PET Nylon PP HDPE Aramid Glass Carbon
Agrotech       
Meditech    
Mobiltech     
Packtech        
Sporttech       
Buildtech     

Clothtech     
Hometech    
Protech    
Geotech     
Oekotech      
Inditech        

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Fiber stage
Yarn stage
Fabric stage
Wet processing stage
Technology at fibre, yarn, fabric
and end conversion stage

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  Egyptians and Chinese used papyrus mats in foundation for

reinforcement of buildings

In recent past, synthetic fibers were used in floods in 1953 in

Netherlands, it could be seen as start of geotextile

Cotton bales in foundation for earthquake protection

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  Wool, a protein fiber, consumption second to cotton

  High extensible, natural waviness, trap air, low thermal

conductivity, high thermal resistance, gives comfort and warmth

  Due to morphology of wool, some technical fibers have been


  Wool is comparatively fire retardant

  Zirconium-and titanium-treated wool has much higher for example

Zirpro (IWS) wool used for fire proof padding in aero planes

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Flax, Jute, Hemp, Ramie
  Not very common under use

  Jute is used in geotextile, where biodegradable fibers

are required

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  Protein-based fiber produced naturally by
the silkworm,

  Structurally similar to wool

  High tenacity, high luster and good

dimensional stability.

  Used as luxury item,

  Biocompatibility and gradual

disintegration an advantage in in medical

Silk used for military clothing, due to light weight and for protection from arrows.
Commonly used by Mongolian armies

Silk as wound dressing was very common by Chinese and Egyptian

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  Viscose rayon was regenerated fibers in the early 1920s. Has inferior physical
properties to cotton

  Improved shape has better tenacity in wet and dry conditions

  Textured and hollow viscose fibers are comparable to cotton

  Fire-retardant (FR) viscose introduced in the 1960s organophosphorous compounds

 Latest addition is Lyocell also known as Tencel (Acordis)
environmentally friendly production method (non-toxic
N-methyl morpholine oxide solvent – recyclable)

• The fibre has relatively high uniformity, tenacity (16 –

30 cN/tex) and modulus, especially if impregnated
with rubber. Its moisture content is about 3 % and 16
– 22 % extension at breake.
• Applications in -automotive industry (timing),
production of hygienic and sanitary products via
nonwoven technology.
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Made from coal or oil

Nylon   Used in carpets, clothing, curtain,

  Nylon 6.6 first fiber in 1939 by

  Many nylon fibers known as

polyamides produced by using melt
extrusion, many cross-sectional shapes
are possible

  High extensibility, significant recovery,

more dimensional stability, low

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• characterized by high tenacity (35 – 90
cN/tex), elasticity (15 – 60 %), resistance to
abrasion and moisture (3 – 5 %).
• Capability of energy resilience is a condition
for an application in manufacturing climbing
ropes and linen for parachutes and sail fabrics.
• The typical application of polyamide is for
reinforcing tires for use at low quality roads
and of road vehicles

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Polyester (PET)
  Introduced as Dacron by DuPont in   Glass transition temperature is
1951. Now second major fiber approximately 70 °C, resistance to
heat and chemical degradation, good
for Technical Textile
  Made by condensation polymerization
of ethylene glycol and terephthalic
acid followed   Flame-retardant Trevira CS and
Trevira high tenacity, developed by
  Durability and compatibility with Trevira GmbH in Germany
cotton in blend, low moisture
absorbency, resilience and good
dimensional stability are additional

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Polyacrylic fibers produced by the
polymerization of acrylonitrile

  Orlon14 was produced by DuPont.

  Acrilan15 produced by Monsanto

and Courtelle, Wool-like

  Chemically modified acrylics has

low burning behavior and having
high absorbency, applicable in
hygiene and medical care

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Polyolefin fibers
 Include both polyethylene and polypropylene made by addition polymerization of
ethylene and propylene

 Polyethylene has moderate physical properties with a low melting temperature of

about 110 °C for its low density form and about 140 °C for its high density form which
severely restricts its application in low temperature applications.
 Polypropylene has better mechanical properties and can withstand temperatures of up to 140 °C
before melting at about 170°C.

 Polyolefine fibres are low price, low specific gravity (0.90 – 0.96 g´cm–3), good abrasion
resistance, and low moisture content (0 %).

 Replaced jute in packing equipment, ropes, base fabric for floor coverings, linings for
upholstery, technical nets etc

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• Low melting temperature of polyolefines is an advantage for
application in manufacturing of nonwoven by thermal bonding.

• Both polymers have a density less than that of water which allows
them to float as ropes, nets and other similar applications.

• The availability, low cost and good resistance to acid and alkaline
environments of polypropylene has greatly influenced its growth
and substantial use in geotextile applications

• High water repellency of PP finds application in manufacturing of

diapers and special thermo-physiological clothing, where two
employed layers are: hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and the wicks
made of PP enable transport of the liquid
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PE and PP

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Spandex Yarn
  Polyurethane structure, can stretch Formation, during knitting, yarn is
more than 8 times also produced by twisting with spandex yarn

  Rubber-like properties,

  Used in combination with other


  Produced by DuPont in 1959


  Expensive fiber, used in fabric

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Functional and High Performance Fibers
Driven by special technical functions
Posses unique properties
Some of the most prominent of these properties
High tensile strength and stiffness
High temperature resistance
High flame retardant ability
High chemical resistance

The latest technologies for spinning of high
performance fibers are
Dry-Jet-Wet Spinning
Gel-Spinning Processes.
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Dry-jet- wet spinning
 Rigid-Rod Polymers are the starting materials
 Often liquid crystalline polymers

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Gel spinning
Special process used to obtain high strength or other
special fiber properties
The polymer is not in a true liquid state during
UHMW and Super drawing

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Aramid Fibers
 Long-chain synthetic polyamide at least 85% amide (-CO-NH-)
linkages are attached directly between two aromatic ring.
 Molecular structure made of linked Benzene rings and amide bonds
 Aromatic Polyamides

Amide Aromatic Aromatic polyamide

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Basically araimd fiber could be classified in two types.
A) Para aramide fiber
B) Meta aramide fiber
They are chemically same but difference is in structure.
A) Para aramide fiber
B) Meta aramide fiber
Nomex or Mylar Nomex
New star
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Dry-jet Wet Spinning
Spinning Solution
10-20 wt% polymer
100% H2SO4 (H2O free)
Liquid crystal in
pure sulphuric Specific points:
acid Solvent: pure H2SO4
at 850C
Polymer concentration 20%
General orientation
Platinum capillary 65µ
n the capillary
Extra orientation in
air gap 10 mm with the air gap
elongational stretch (6x) Coagulation in cooled
coagulation diluted sulfuric acid
bath at 100C

removal of
sulfuric acid

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 High strength
• Sensitive to acids and salts
 Low elongation at break
• Sensitive to ultraviolet radiation
 No melting point, 500°C
• Prone to static build-up unless finished
 Low Electrical Conductivity
 High Chemical Resistance
 Low Thermal Shrinkage Structure dependent
 High Toughness Meta vs. Para linkages
 Excellent Dimensional Stability Structure of aromatic backbone
 Flame Resistant, Self-Extinguishing • Absorbency
• Weight
Compared to meta
Copolymer • Flexibility
(1) Greater tensile strength • Weavablelity
(2) Greater chemical resistance and
(3) Lower moisture regain.
Compared to para
(1) Greater chemical, elongation and abrasion
(2) (2) Lower moisture regain.
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van der Waals forces Order
The source of strength: H-Bond Orientation

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Heat and fire protection ARAMIDS
 Cut-protection products
 Ballistic-protection products
 Civil engineering products
 Elastomer reinforcements
 Engineering plastics
 Friction products
 Optical fiber cables
 Reinforced pipes
 Bullet and explosion protection products
 Ropes and cables
 Adhesives, sealant and coatings
 Specialty paper products
 Composites
 Tires,
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Bullet Proof

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Meta Aramid
Fire Proof

Heat Resistant, Absorbency and Flexibility

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Co Aramid

Low absorbency and Better Strength

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• Gel-spun polyethylene fibres are ultra-strong, high-modulus fibres that are
based on the simple and flexible polyethylene molecule.
• In the mid of 1970's reports of producing strong and stiff PE fibres started
to appear (modification)
• The extension of polymer chains and high longitudinal orientation is a
precondition for accomplishing high mechanical properties.
• The result of this treatment is production of high-performance polyethylene
fibre (HPPE)
• Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres - strongest
fibres known, with tensile moduli in excess of 70GNm-2.
– 15 times stronger than steel and twice as strong as aromatic polyamides
such as Kevlar.
– Low in density,
– Chemically inert
– Abrasion resistant
– Melts at around 150 °C andGranch
thermally degrades at 350 °C which restrict
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its use to low temperature applications
Salient features

Moisture regain Zero

Attacked by water none

Resistance to acids excellent

Resistance to alkalis excellent

Resistance to UV light Very good

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Some Applications
Ballistic protection
Cut and puncture resistant: for example cut
resistant gloves, fencing suits and chains-
saw hoses.
Composites: Twines and nets:
HPPE fibre is an ideal material for use in
marine environment.
Its density is slightly less than 1,
It does not rot and
Not affected by UV light and seawater
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Organic fibers can withstand only up to 500°C
Carbon, glass, asbestos and ceramic inorganic fibers,

can bear high temperature, bitter in nature, under use

centuries, best use is in by mixing with other
materials, plastic sheets one example made by using

glass fiber and polymers

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• Also called graphite fiber.
• It is in the form of several long strands of a material mainly composed by
carbon atoms.
 Carbon fibre variants differ in flexibility, electrical conductivity, thermal and
chemical resistance.

 The primary factors governing the physical properties are degree of carbonization
(carbon content, usually greater than 92% by weight) and orientation of the layered
carbon planes.

 Different precursors and carbonization processes are used

1. Rayon: high thermal resistance but relatively low strength, application in


2. Acrylic fibre : have higher strength than rayon precursors, used as reinforcement
for a wide variety of plastic composites.
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• Spinning: A polyacrylonitrile plastic is spun into fibers
which are then washed and stretched to the desired
• Stabilizing: fibers are heated with O2 to make their
bonding more thermally stable.
• Carbonizing: fibers then are heated without oxygen,
they lose non carbon atoms and bonded carbon
crystals are made.
• Treating surface: the surface is slightly oxidized.
• Sizing: fibers are coated and wounded into bobbins.

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• It has the greatest compressive strength of all
reinforcing materials.
• High strength to weight ratio.
• Low coefficient of thermal
• Its density is much lower
than the density of steel.

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Some applications of carbon fibres:

• Used to reinforce composite materials

• Used structurally in high-temperature applications.
• As an electrode with high surface area and
impeccable corrosion resistance.
• Anti-static component.
 Composites for military aircraft, commercial aircraft
 Sporting goods,
 Medical devices,
 Industrial applications and infrastructure,
 Tennis rackets, golf club shafts, fishing rods, skis
 Aerospace

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The first "synthetic" fibre product of the
human intelligence.
They are brittle, basically used in composites.
High-performance composite materials,
including protective materials, various filters,
protective clothing and packing.
Biggest application is the automotive industry
for large-scale production of fibre reinforced
car parts because of great weight savings.
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• Eglass fibre 90 % of reinforcement.
• R glass fibre is used for special applications, such as,
aviation, space program, and defense due to its
special performances regarding fatigue, temperature
and moisture.
• AR type is used for cement reinforcement, with high
content of zirconium oxide, which gives excellent
resistance to alkaline compounds generated during
drying. The cement reinforced with AR glass fibre has
improved modulus and good durability.
• S type has high stiffness and finds its application
where high mechanical properties are required
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crystalline silicates that occur naturally.

– The fibres that are extracted have all the textile-
like properties of fineness, strength, flexibility and
more importantly, unlike conventional fibres, good
resistance to heat with high decomposition
temperatures of around 550°C.
– They have carcinogenic problem

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– Aluminosilicate compounds are mixtures of
aluminium oxide (Al2O) and silicon oxide (SiO2);
their resistance to temperature depends on the
mixing ratio of the two oxides.
– High aluminium oxide content increases their
temperature tolerance from a low of 1250 °C to a
maximum of 1400°C
• Used for insulation of furnaces and replacement of
asbestos fibres in friction materials, gaskets and

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  Ultra fine fibers have 1.0 dtex or less   Up to 30000 filaments cm-2, highly
dense, water proof but air and
  Linear density of extra-fine and micro moisture vapor can pass
fine is less than 0.1 dtex

  Commonly PET and Nylon are used

  First made in Japan e.g. Mitrelle,

Setila, Micrell, Tactel

  Once in woven fabric form their fine

diameter and tight weave allows

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Specialty Materials has made boron prepreg tape with various
cyanate ester and cyanate siloxane resins for space structure
stabilization applications.

Pure boron fibres are too brittle to handle but they can be
coated on tungsten or carbon cores
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Technical yarns

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• These are yarns for making technical textiles
• They are made through special yarn production
techniques or through the election of special
fibre blends or a combination of both
• Machines for yarn making
– Ring frame
– Rotor
– Friction
– Airjets

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Staple fiber yarns
• Ring spinning – most
– wide ranges of linear
density and twist from a
great variety of fibre
– Prior material preparation
is important

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Ring spinning
• Ring-spun yarns have a regular twist
structure and, because of the good fibre
control during roller drafting, the fibres in
the yarn are well straightened and aligned.
– excellent tensile properties, which are often
important for technical applications.

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• The ring spinning system can be used for
spinning cover yarns - combination of
technical properties.
– high strength yarn with good comfort
characteristics may be spun from a high strength
filament core with natural fibre covering.
– technical yarns, such as flame-retardant and
antistatic yarns can also be made by incorporating
flame-retardant and electricity conductive fibres.

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• Limitations – low production, high drafting
and spinning tension (problem for low tension

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Rotor spinning

Yarns are of lower

strength than ring spurn
Better evenness

Advantage of speed, cost reduction

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Friction spinning

• The main application -

industrial yarns and for
spinning from recycled fibres.
• It can be used to produce
yarns from aramid and glass
fibres and with various core
components including wires.
• Application - tents, protective
fabrics, backing material,
belts, insulation and filter
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Wrap spinning
• Wrap spinning is a yarn formation
process in which a twistless staple
fibre strand is wrapped by a
continuous binder
• Core yarns,mostly filaments, can be
added to the feed.This can be used
to provide extra yarn strength or
other special yarn features
• carbon-coated nylon filament yarn
can be used to produce yarns for
antistatic fabrics.
• Soluble binders can be used for
making yarns for medical
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Ply yarns
• For high strength and modulus yarns for
technical and industrial applications, ply yarns
are often needed.
• These are co-twisted yarns

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Filament yarns
• Aramide filament yarns
– Kevlar and nomex
– Aramid yarns are more flexible and easier to use in subsequent
fabric making processes, be it weaving, knitting, or braiding
• Glass filament yarns
– widely used in the manufacture of reinforcement for
– E-glass has very high resistance to attack by moisture and has
high electrical and heat resistance. It is commonly used in glass-
reinforced plastics in the form of woven fabrics.
– C-glass is known for its chemical resistance to both acids and
alkalis. - chemical filtration.
– S-glass is a high strength glass fibre and is used in composite

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• Carbon filament yarns
– From rayon and arcylic
– Oxidative (200-300oC) – carbonization (1000oC) –
graphitization (3000oC)
– Brittle and conductive
• HDPE filament yarns
– Produced by gel spinning process from
polyethylene with an extra high molecular weight.
– Characterized by high paralyzing and crystalline

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Technical Fabrics

Fabrics manufactured primarily for their

technical performance and functional properties
rather than their aesthetic or decorative

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Methods for producing fabrics
• Weaving
• Knitting
• Lace making
• Net making
A 3-D Fabric
• Felting
• Tufting
• Non-woven processes

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Warp (Ends) & Weft (Picks)

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Woven Fabric Specifications
• Fabric construction
– Warp count x weft count/ ends per inch x picks per
• Fabric area density / GSM
• Cover factor
• Type of weave
• Crimp
• Fabric width
• Thickness

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Fabric area density
• The loom state cloth area density depends on the
weaving specification, that is, yarns, thread spacing and
weave, and on any additives, such as size, which are
used to improve the weaving process.
• Finished cloth area density is frequently altered by
chemical treatments .
• The area density of the fabric can be varied by changing
the linear density or count of the yarns used and by
altering the thread spacing, which affects the area
covered by the yarns in relation to the total area.

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Cloth cover factor
• Cloth cover factor = warp cover factor + weft cover factor
• Cover factor in SI units =

• Cover factor formula by Pierce =

• strength,
Changing the • stiffness,
area density • stability,
and/or the cover • porosity, filtering
factors may quality and
• abrasion resistance of
affect: fabrics
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Area density and cover factor
• Low area density fabrics of open construction
include bandages

• Light area density fabrics high cover factor fabrics

include medical filter fabrics

• Heavy open cloths include Geotextiles fabrics

• Heavy closely woven fabrics include cotton


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Plain weave
• 90% technical fabrics have plain weave

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Other types of weave

Satins and sateen

Twill weave
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Triaxial weave

•Triaxial fabrics are defined as

cloths where the three sets of
threads form a multitude of
equilateral triangles
•Two sets of warp yarns are
generally inserted at 60° to the
•Tetra-axial fabrics where four
sets of yarns are inclined at 45° to
each other
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Triaxial weaves
• The tear resistance, bursting resistance of
Triaxial fabrics is greatly superior to that of
standard fabrics

• They have a wide range of technical

applications including sailcloths, tyre fabrics,
balloon fabrics.

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Classification of Weaving Machines
• Single-phase weaving machines
– Machines with shuttles (looms):
• Hand operated (hand looms)
• Non-automatic power looms (weft supply in shuttle changed
by hand)
• Automatic weaving machines
– Shuttle less weaving machines:
In single phase machines, one weft thread is laid
• Projectile across the full width of the warp sheet followed
• Rapier by the beat-up and the formation of the next shed
in preparation for the insertion of the next pick.
• Jet machines
– air (with or without relay nozzles) In multiphase machines, several
– liquid (generally water) phases of the working cycle take place
at any instant so that several picks are
• Multiphase weaving machines Granch Berhe 2015 being inserted simultaneously.
Projectile looms…
• They are used not only for weaving a vast range of
standard fabrics but also for heavy industrial
fabrics of up to 8m wide, for
– sailcloth,
– conveyor belts,
– tyre cord fabrics,
– awnings,
– Geotextiles,
– airbags and
– a wide range of filter fabrics of varying area density
and porosity.

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L680W series high-efficiency fibre glass rapier
cross weaving machine

Suitable for the weaving of various gridding

cloth used in civil engineering, hydraulic
construction, building materials, chemical
engineering and transportation areas

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OMNI plus 800 air jet weaving
• Gauze
– Gauze is a lightweight, open-texture fabric produced in
plain weave, used for bandages, food wrapping etc.
• Parachute
– Parachute is industrial, heavy-filament, rib stop cloths
made of fine nylon fibre
• Tyre cord
– Tire cord is a fabric used to reinforce the tires of

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OMNI plus 800 air jet weaving
• Umbrella cloth
– Umbrella cloth is usually made with a cotton warp
and rayon or nylon filling, which is then treated to
make it water repellent.
• Camping tent cloth
– Camping tent cloth is a fabric used for the outer
covering of tents for recreational camping.

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OptiMax rapier weaving machine

• Conveyer belt
– Conveyor belt is a continuously moving strip or
surface for transporting a load of objects from one
place to another.

• Filter cloth
– Filter cloths are mainly made up of monofilaments
and/or multifilament's.

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Woven either on
rapier or air-jet technology
• Sail cloth
– Sail cloth is any heavy, plain-weave canvas fabric,
usually made of cotton, linen, polyester, jute, nylon etc.
that is used for sails and apparel.
• Seat fabrics
– Seat fabrics are used to cover seats in the transport
industry (automotive, aviation, etc.)
• Air bags
– Airbag is a heavy denier nylon fabric for personal
protection in various forms of transportation.
– Most airbag fabrics are woven with rapier weaving
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OMNIplus 800 TC
The most advanced tire cord weaving machine

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Knitted technical textiles

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• Warp knitting is a method of making a fabric by normal
knitting means, in which the loops made from each
warp are formed substantially along the length of the
• Weft knitting is a method of making a fabric by normal
knitting means, in which the loops made by each weft
thread are formed substantially across the width of the
• Single-jersey fabric is a weft-knitted fabric made on
one set of needles.
• Double-jersey fabric is a weft-knitted fabric made on
two sets of needles,

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• Basically latch and beard needles used, others
are compound Bearded needles -
expensive to manufacture,
can be produced
in finer gauges and
supposedly knit tighter and
more uniform stitches
with latch needles, but have
limitations with regard to the
types of material that
can be processed as well
as the range of structures
that can be knitted on them.

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End use products
• Flat bar machines: Cleaning clothes, three-
dimensional and fashioned products for
technical applications, multiaxial machines are
under development
• Circular machines: Hose machines: seam free
hose, tights, industrial use dye bags, knit-de-
knit yarns, industrial fabrics

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Warp knitting
• Higher machine speeds, (up to 3500cpm)
• Finer gauges (up to 40 needles per inch)
• Wider machines (up to 260 inches)
• Some speciality raschel machines such as Co-we-nit and Jacquard
• More recently, redesigned full-width weft insertion raschel and
tricot machines
• Stable constructions, such as sharkskins, queenscord, etc.
• Various net constructions utilising synthetic yarns
• Mono-, bi-, tri- and multiaxial structures for technical applications
• Three-dimensional and shaped (fashioned) structures for medical
and other high technology products.

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End use
• Tricot machines: car seats, technical fabrics
• Raschel machines:nets, fishing nets, sports
nets, technical fabrics, curtain lace, power
nets, tablecloths, bed covers, elastic
bandages, cleaning cloths, upholstery, drapes,
velvets, carpets, fruit and vegetable bags,
geotextiles, medical textiles.

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NONWOVEN and their

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Defination of nonwoven
• Structure produced by bonding or interlacement of fiber or
both accomplished by mechanical , chemical ,thermal or
solvent mean and the combination of techniques .
Term does not include paper or fabric that are woven, knitted
or tufted or those made by other felting process.

we can say that nonwoven is direct conversion of fiber
to fabric.

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Why to go for nonwoven????
• Due to high production a versality of use of
different fibres to produce final product
having required properties according to final
product and also elimination of spinning and
weaving process

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Manufacturing Process

Various techniques are used for manufacturing of

nonwovens but some of the techniques that are used
specially for the Medical applications point of view are as
Spun bonding
Needle punching
Wet laid
Dry laid

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Spun bonding
Spun bonding is used when more strong webs are
Webs produced are soft, porous and dimensionally
Spun bonding is mostly used for products like :-
 Face masks
 Head wears
 Shoe covers
 Bed linens and
 Disposable clothing .

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Flow chart of Spun

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Manufacturing Processes

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Wet laid – principle of technology
There are three characteristic stages in the manufacture of nonwoven
bonded fabrics by the wet-laid method .
•Swelling and dispersion of the fiber in water; transport of the suspension
on a continuous traveling screen
•Continuous web formation on the screen as a result of filtration
•Drying and bonding of the web

Fiber swelling and


Suspension transport

Web formation

Water recycling
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Wet laid
Wet-laid nonwovens are nonwoven fabrics made by a
modified papermaking process, that is, the fibers to be
used are suspended in water, and specialized paper
machines separate the water from the fibers to form a
uniform sheet of material which is then bonded and dried
to produce rolls of product.

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Air laid - principle
The fiber material is at first
opened by rotating cylinder
named lickerin. Then single
fibers are dispersed into the
air stream and condensed on
the perforated cylinder or

Air laid fabric compared with carding technology has these features:
• The fibers are oriented randomly on the fabric surface – isotropic structure.
• Voluminious webs can be produced
• Wide variety of processable fibers
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Bonding technologies

The Bonding Process is the essence of Nonwoven Technology.

 Mechanical Bonding
 Needle Punching
 Stitch Bonding
 Hydro-entanglement (Spun-lace)

 Chemical Bonding
 Binder Application – Wet
 Powder Application – Dry

 Thermal Bonding
 Calendar
 Hot Air

 Spun Bonding / Melt Blown

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Thermal bonding
Wet-laid webs may be thermally bonded by
the application of heat providing the web
contains a fiber or an additive that will fuse at
the selected bonding temperature and will
flow between the fiber junctions. On cooling,
the binder material locks the fiber network

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Melt blown

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Application Area
1)Sanitary and Medical 1.Feminine Hygiene
uses 3.Patient Apparel
4.Surgical gown/ mask

2) House hold textiles 1.Floor & wall covering

3.Pillow covers, Bed sheets
5.Luggage & Table cloth
6.House hold wipes

3)Civil Engg. Application 1.Geotextiles water proofing

2.Roofing material

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4)FOOTWEAR 1.Shoe cover

5) APPARELS 1.Interlinings
2.Protective clothing
3.Laboratory aprons

6)OTHER UTILITY 1.Decorative textiles

2.Book covers
MATERIAL 3.Tea bags

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Applications of nonwovens in medical
Simple bandages
Light support bandages
Orthopedic bandages

Cotton pads, wound dressings and adhesive tapes

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Disposable surgical clothing:

Gowns Masks

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Disposable surgical coverings:

• Blankets
• Floor coverings of hospitals (anti-bacterial)
• Cloths/ wipes

Bed coverings
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Nonwovens are used to replace or repair

different organs, bones like artificial kidney,
liver, heart, mechanical lung, ligaments,
vascular grafts, heart valves, blood vessels,
artificial skins, nasal strips etc.

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Properties of the medical nonwoven
The main criteria for determining the suitability
of textile products are :-
• – barrier efficiency toward bacteria, viruses,
liquids and dust particles
• – capacity to absorb and store body fluids
• – resistance to mechanical influences

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Household textiles
• Nonwoven fabrics can be used in the following
household textile applications:
• – floor coverings
• – sub-upholstery materials
• – webbings
Materials for use in the contract sector have to
meet legal specifications regarding their
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Nonwoven wall hanging China nonwoven carpet

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Filter fabrics
• Pulsejet fabric filters are widely used in many
industries like solid, fuel, Fired power generation.
• e.g. for industrial dust removal or for cleaning
atmospheric air.
• Conveyor belts, seal gasket, other industrial
• nonwoven fabrics are to be used as filter media for
both wet and dry filtration.
• The end-use-specific textile physical and general
physical parameters should also be determined:-

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Geo Textiles

Woven geotextiles Nonwoven geotextiles

• Nonwoven geotextiles:-
nonwoven geotextiles are thicker and made either from short
and continuous filaments, carded or laid in even patterns
and then mechanically (needle punched) or thermally

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Benefits of nonwoven geotextiles
• Cheap and easy to manufacture.
• Superior chemical resistance in even the
aggressive environment application.
• Highly porous structure
• Staple fibres needle punched together to form
fabric capable of withstanding construction
installation stresses.

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