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School of Civil, Environmental and Geological




Members: CHE – 1

1. Francisco, Jaydel Marge

2. Lacson, Miguel Joseph
3. Macariola, Janelle T.
4. Manansala, Mark
Anthony M.

GED103 – A16
Prof. Nestor M. Asuncion

Background of the author/creator

Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964)

Emilio Famy Aguinaldo Sr. was born on March 22, 1869 in Kawit,
Cavite. He was seventh of eight children of Carlos Aguinaldo y Jamir
and Trinidad Famy y Valero. He was nicknamed “Miong” by his
siblings. His family was wealthy and influential as his father was the
appointedtown mayor or gobernadorcillo (municipality governor) of
their pueblo (municipality).
He studied at Colegio de San Juan de Letran but wasn't able to finish
his studies due to the death of his father in 1883 which forced him to
drop out of high school. From then onward, he was employed by his
mother in running the family’s farms. Aguinaldo followed his father,
Emilio became the "Cabeza de Barangay" of Binakayan, a chief barrio of Cavite el Viejo, when he was
only 17 years old to avoid conscription(compulsory enrollment of persons for military service). He
entered politics in January 1895 and at the age of 25, Aguinaldo became Cavite el Viejo's(present-day
Kawit) first "gobernadorcillo capitan municipal" (Municipal Governor-Captain). In the same year, he then
became a Freemason joining Pilar Lodge No. 203, Imus, Cavite with the codename “Colon”.
Months later, he joined the Katipunan by choosing the Magdalo. In 1894, Aguinaldo was inducted by
fellow anti-colonialist Andres Bonifacio into the underground Katipunan movement. This organization
was committed to the removal of Spanish colonialism, even if it meant accomplishing that goal by armed
rebellion. They emerged into open rebellion in 1896, following the execution of vocal pro-independence
activist Jose Rizal by the Spanish. Aguinaldo himself met and married Hilaria, his first wife, during this
Emilio Aguinaldo was the first and youngest president in the republic of the Philippines the year of
January 20, 1899-April 1, 1901. He proclaimed Philippine independence at Kawit, Cavite on June 12,
1898. However, his presidency was cut short when he was captured by the American soldiers in Palanan,
Isabela which dissolved the First Republic due to his pledge of loyalty to the American government. In
1935 the commonwealth government of the Philippines was established. Aguinaldo ran for president, but
he was beaten by Manuel L. Quezon that caused him to retire from political/public life. In 1950
Aguinaldo was appointed by President Elpidio Quirino as a member of the Council of State. In his later
years he devoted much attention to veterans’ affairs, the promotion of nationalism and democracy in the

Emilio Aguinaldo was rushed to Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City on October 5,
1962, under the care of Dra. Juana Blanco Fernandez, MD, where he stayed there for 469 days until he
died of coronary thrombosis at age 94 on February 6, 1964.
Historical Background of the article

 For the first volume:

o Produced between 1928 and 1946
o Includes memoirs which accounts from Aguinaldo’s birth and early years until the
signing of the Biak na Bato Treaty in 1897
o Based on various preserved documents such as
 diary Aguinaldo kept
 documents he preserved
 family lore gathered from his elders
o In 1963, Aguinaldo decided to publish his memoirs.
o “Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan” was officially released to the public in 1967.
o “Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan” was translated from the original Tagalog as “Memoirs of
the Revolution”.
 For the second volume:
o Ambeth Ocampo presumed that a second volume was also drafted by Aguinaldo.
o It would cover the resumption of the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the
Philippine-American War.
o Until now, no one knows whether it was actually written.
o These are probably tucked away in some secret compartment or forgotten drawer in the
Aguinaldo Shrine.

Contents of the article

FIRST VOLUME; early birth – signing of treaty ng biak-na-bato

 BATTLE OF IMUS (Sept. 1)

o Jose Tagle asks help from Emilio Aguinaldo to help him in invading the Spaniards in
Imus, Cavite.
o Aguinaldo created his own strategy; his first attempt was to task General Baldomero
Aguinaldo, and Captain Municipal Tagle to invade the North and South sides of the
hacienda of Imus, respectively.
 (Dec. 30)
o Jose Rizal was imprisoned in Puerto Santiago
o Aguinaldo and Bonifacio attempted to save Rizal; however, they didn’t pursue as to
avoid the deaths of many soldiers.
o Katipuneros asked help from Aguinaldo to attack the camp of Cazadores in Tagiik;
however, Frayle Mariano Corcuero sacrificed himself to save others.
o Aguinaldo’s enemies from Pasig retreated after his group gave a few gunshots.


o General Artemio Ricarte and General Mariano Reigo De Dios fused with General
Aguinaldo and established three camps in Escribano.
oThe Cazadores arrived in Escribano, and the Inferteria Filipino group was the first to
fight in Cazadores.
o The Inferteria Filipino group eventually retreated because they were continuously losing
o The group of Commander Julian Montalban continued to fight which decreased the men
of Cazadores.
o Coronel Lucas Camerina was defeated by the group of General Zabala, and they began to
invade Aguinaldo groups which made them retreat; that’s why Aguinaldo asked aid from
the president of Magdalo.
o However, there was also an ongoing battle in Zapote (Zapote bridge).
o Aguinaldo brought infantry to San Nicholas; however, when he arrived, he saw that the
said town was devastated as the enemies have already entered Molino.
o Aguinaldo saw and persuaded General Gregorio Del Pilar to join him in San Nicholas,
and in their journey, they have met and battled with the opponent. In the end, it was
General Del Pilar’s victory.
o Aguinaldo also brought soldiers to Pasong Santol, Dasmariñas wherein the battle of
Perez Dasmariñas took place. As they enter the hardest area of the column,
Coronel Yenko and General Garcia started to conquer; thus, resulting their victory
at Pasong Santol.
 The Spanish were driven away after the battles in Pasong Santol and the contra ataque at Silang
ang Escribano. After two weeks of silence, Captain General Polavieja resigned, and General
Lachambre became the temporary Captain General until Captain General Don Fernando Primo de
Rivera arrived and demanded 15,000 of infantry of Cazadores in Spain.


o The assembly of Magdiwang (Monarchial; Bonifacio) and Magdalo (Republican;
Aguinaldo; led by Baldomero Aguinaldo) was held at the Hacienda of Tejeros, San
Francisco De Malabon (March 22).
o Presidency candidates: Haring Bayan Andres Bonifacio vs General Emilio Aguinaldo.
Aguinaldo won; Bonifacio lost.
o Vice-presidency candidates: Supremo Andres Bonifacio vs The Minister of Grace and
Justice General Mariano Trias. Trias won; Bonifacio lost for the second time.
o Captain General election: Captain Santiago Alvarez vs General Artemio Ricarte. The
latter objected and withdrew from the election which followed his proclamation.
o Secretary of war candidates: Bonifacio vs General Mariano Riego de Dios (Minister of
Development in Magdiwang). Riego de Dios won; Bonifacio lost for the third time.
o Secretary of Interior: Bonifacio vs Severino de Las Alas vs Diego Mojica (both
Magdiwang Ministers).
o Bonifacio won; however, General Daniel Tirona opposed and said that Bonifacio didn’t
suit the position. ("It does not suit Supremo Andres Bonifacio, because he is not a lawyer,
and Attorney Jose del Rosario deserve the position”). This caused the commotion in the
o Bonifacio walked out of the assembly after proclaiming the results null and invalid.
o Aguinaldo was unable to attend at this time since this event coincided with the battle at
Pasong Santol.
o Aguinaldo’s brother, General Crispulo Aguinaldo persuaded him to go to the office and
take his oath of office alongside the newly elected vice-president, General Mariano Trias,
and secretary of war, General Mariano Riego de Dios, despite Bonifacio fleeing from the
 More troops from Magdiwang arrived, but Bonifacio did not let them continue to Pasong Santol;
thus, leading to the arrest of the troops. Spaniards got the position in Pasong Santol; and General
Crispulo died.


o *Bonifacio was said to set fire to a village in Indang, which led to his arrest along with
his brother ordered by Aguinaldo (confirmed in Mabini’s letter later on).
o The Bonifacio brothers, Andres and Procopio, were found guilty of treason.
o They were executed under the command of General Lazaro Macapagal on May 10, 1897.
o * There were accounts wherein Aguinaldo lowered their punishment from execution to
exile; however, Bonifacio supporters General Mariano Noriel and Pio del Pilar persuaded
El Presidente to withdraw the order for the sake of ‘preserving unity’.
o Aguinaldo then had a claim on both factions of the KKK; and garnered the title of
Pangulong Hukbo at Pangulong Pamahalaang Manghihimagsik.

o * After retreating to Montalban, Aguinaldo arrived at Biak-na-bato in San Miguel,
Bulacan and established his own headquarters there.
o * On August 9, Manila lawyer Pedro Paterno met with Aguinaldo at Biak-na-Bato with a
proposal for peace based on reforms and amnesty. In succeeding months, Paterno
conducted shuttle diplomacy, acting as an intermediary between de Rivera and
Aguinaldo. On December 14–15, 1897, Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato,
under which Aguinaldo effectively agreed to end hostilities and dissolve his government
in exchange for amnesty and "₱800,000 (Mexican)" (Aguinaldo's description of the
amount) as an indemnity.
SECOND VOLUME (not officially published) - resumption of the Philippine Revolution against Spain
and the Philippine-American War.

 Aguinaldo joined forces with the US to defeat Spain and drive the Spanish from the islands, only
to be betrayed by the Americans. Notably, Aguinaldo also worked vigorously to remove the US
from the islands and give the Philippines true independence.
Relevance of the article Then and Now
Relevance then (before)
The memoirs of the revelation in the past revealed a lot of untold stories behind the Philippine history.
It provided a prior knowledge on what are the specific events that happened during the colonization of
Americans and Spanish. It also focused on the war strategies that were formed by the Katipunans. In
addition, it explained the difference between the Magdalo faction and Magdiwang faction. Since Emilio
Aguinaldo revealed his own perspective during Philippine revolution, it provided additional basis and
reference to the historians which they used to publish some history books.
Relevance now (after)
The memoirs of the revolution provided us people essential information that we need to know during
the foreign colonization which we could use as an education about the history of our country. It still gives
its readers a brief preview on the important events that happened in the past. Moreover, it also specified
some details that are helpful in understanding the situations of the Filipinos under the Spanish regime in
the past. Additionally, it helps us to appreciate the history and the life of Emilio Aguinaldo that could
inspire all the Filipinos especially the youth. (E., 1964)
Totally History. (2012). Retrieved from
Asuncion, N. M., & Cruz, G. R. (2019). Mga Gunita ng HImagsikan by Emilio Aguinaldo. In Readings in
Philippine History (pp. 106-109). Quezon City: C&E Publishing, Inc,.
Aguinaldo, E. (1964). Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan. Manila, Philippines.