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Journal of Orthopaedic Science xxx (2015) 1e4

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Journal of Orthopaedic Science


journal homepage: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jos

Case report

The Asian size Exeter femoral stem fracture


Kwong-Yin Chung a, *, Kin-Wing Cheung a, Kwok-Hing Chiu a, Wan-Yiu Shen b
a
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong
b
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history: performed at the age of 70 and the left total hip arthroplasty was
Received 29 July 2014 performed at the age of 72. She weighed 71 kg at the time of right
Received in revised form total hip arthroplasty and weighed 78 kg at the time of left total hip
30 January 2015 arthroplasty. The fixations of both hip arthroplasty were in hybrid
Accepted 15 February 2015
Available online xxx
form, using 52 mm Trident PSL HA coated cementless acetabular
shell (Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, Allendale, NJ) reinforced with
one screw and 33 mm offset Exeter femoral stem (Stryker Inc,
Warsaw, IN). Metal on polyethylene articulation with 28 mm
femoral head were used in both hips. Femoral heads with addi-
tional 5 mm length were used in both hips. Simplex P bone cement
(Stryker) and modern cementation technique using pulsatile
lavage, cement restrictor, stem centralizer, vaccum mixing, retro-
1. Introduction
grade filling and pressurization was used in both hips. Intra-
operatively, the femoral stems were well supported by cement
The Exeter femoral stem was in clinical use since 1970 with good
mantle proximal medially. Post-operatively, there was no pain over
result [1]. The collarless, double tapered, polished design allows
both hips. She lived a sedentary lifestyle and could walk with one
controlled subsidence of the femoral stem within the cement
cane for 20 min. The Harris hip score for the right hip improved
mantle. Adequate thickness of cement mantle is critical for the
from 26 to 81 after the operation [5]. The Harris hip score for the
long-term success of Exeter femoral stem. However, the original
left hip improved from 26 to 83 after the operation. Early post-
design was aimed for Western population and stem oversizing was
operative plain radiograph revealed the cement mantle was
common in Asian population with small body build [2e4]. Smaller
Barrack grade B in both hips [6]. The right femoral stem was in 3
Asian size Exeter femoral stem was introduced to fit the Asian
varus alignment and the left femoral stem was in neutral alignment
population. Smaller Asian size stems with 30 mm and 33 mm offset
(Fig. 1). The right acetabular cup was in relatively lateralized posi-
have been made available since 1998. In view of the small size of
tion. Lateral plain radiograph of the right hip showed adequate
the Asian stem, stem fracture is of concern.
cement mantle of more than 2 mm in all zones (Fig. 2).
Here we report a case of Asian size Exeter femoral stem fracture.
She experienced sudden onset of right proximal thigh pain six
Factors contributed to the stem fracture were discussed. Careful
years after the index operation. There was no history of trauma. The
pre-operative planning and meticulous surgical technique should
pain was mechanical, and affected her ambulatory ability. She could
be employed when use of small stem. Biomechanical studies to
only walk with frame for five minutes since she experienced the
define the weight limitation for the smaller Asian size Exeter
symptom. Physical examination revealed her body weight was
femoral stem was recommended. The patient was informed that
78 kg with body mass index of 31.6. There was diffuse focal
data concerning the case would be submitted for publication, and
tenderness over right proximal thigh. There was no sign of focal
she consented.
infection. Pain over right proximal thigh was elicited upon flexion
and rotation of right hip. Plasma white cell count and C-reactive
2. Case report
protein were normal. Bone mineral density was not measured.
Plain radiograph revealed fracture at the junction of proximal one-
A lady suffered from bilateral hip dysplasia underwent bilateral
third and distal two-third of the Exeter stem and there was fracture
total hip arthroplasties. The right total hip arthroplasty was
of proximal medial cement mantle (Fig. 3). The Harris hip score for
the right hip was 23. Revision femoral stem was performed. Intra-
operatively, cement mantle fracture over proximal medial femur
* Corresponding author. Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Prince
of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong. Tel.: þ852 2632 2901; fax: þ852 2637 7889. was noted. The medial calcar bone was intact. The proximal part of
E-mail address: kychung@ort.cuhk.edu.hk (K.-Y. Chung). the fractured stem was easily retrieved, but the distal part was well

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2015.06.016
0949-2658/© 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: Chung K-Y, et al., The Asian size Exeter femoral stem fracture, Journal of Orthopaedic Science (2015), http://
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2015.06.016
2 K.-Y. Chung et al. / Journal of Orthopaedic Science xxx (2015) 1e4

Fig. 1. Radiograph showing bilateral total hip arthroplasties.

Fig. 3. Radiograph showing right femoral stem fracture.

fixed within the cement mantle. Extended trochanteric osteotomy


was required to retrieve the distal part of the fractured stem. partial weight bear walking exercise for six weeks, followed by
Femoral stem was revised using long stemmed extensively coated weight bearing as tolerated. She recovered well after the revision
cementless Solution stem (DePuy, Warsaw, IN). The extended surgery. The Harris hip score for the right hip was 81 at 3.5 years
trochanteric osteotomy was repaired with cable wires (Fig. 4). She after the revision surgery. The left total hip arthroplasty was
was put on touchdown walking exercise for six weeks, followed by asymptomatic. The Harris hip score for the left hip was 83 at 8 years
after the index operation.

3. Discussion

Exeter femoral stem was in clinical use since 1970 [1]. The initial
design was a collarless, double tapered, polished stem made of 316L
stainless steel. This design was based on the rationale that minimal
load transfer was observed at collar-calcar junction in the cemen-
ted Thompson hemiarthroplasty prosthesis and the McKee-Farrar
total hip arthroplasty, and the double taper geometry increased
the capacity to extrude cement into endosteal bone surface of the
femur. Stem subsidence was not intended in this initial design. It
was only observed during subsequent follow up that distal move-
ment of the stem within cement mantle without disruption of the
cement-bone interface. However, high prosthesis failure rate was

Fig. 2. Lateral radiograph showing the right total hip arthroplasty. Fig. 4. Radiograph showing revision right total hip arthroplasty.

Please cite this article in press as: Chung K-Y, et al., The Asian size Exeter femoral stem fracture, Journal of Orthopaedic Science (2015), http://
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2015.06.016
K.-Y. Chung et al. / Journal of Orthopaedic Science xxx (2015) 1e4 3

noted in this initial design. Eight of 426 (1.87%) Exeter stems chrome stem with the above mentioned risk factors, both of which
implanted from 1970 to 1976 fractured at an average follow up of 13 are revision arthroplasties [15]. Though other authors experienced
years [1], which increased to 3% of the original cohort with a cobalt chrome stem fracture with a different design and fixation
minimum follow up of 20 years [7]. Due to this unexpected high principle [18,19].
failure rate, the stem was modified to matte surface and stronger Chiu published the result of Exeter total hip arthroplasty in
stem with larger anteroposterior diameter in 1976. Stem fracture Chinese patients [2e4]. Small body build, and thus small size femur
dramatically dropped to 0.03% (one in 2968 stems) with this with stem oversizing were common with the Exeter stem originally
modified stem [1], and reported to be 0.22% in the latest available designed for Western population. Oversizing of the stem and
report [7]. Though, in contrary, a high fracture rate of 11% (three in incomplete or inadequate cement mantle might account for the
27 stems) with this modified stem was reported by Røkkum [8]. early loosening. Among 27 stems considered oversized with inad-
However, extensive burnishing on the matte surface due to metal equate or incomplete cement mantle, the failure rate was 22.2%,
and cement debris production by fretting during stem subsidence, while none of those with adequate cement mantle failed [3]. In
leading to increased osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening. those 27 oversized stem, smallest size stem in the study period
As a result, polished surface was reintroduced in 1986 and a high were used in 18 hips. 35.5 mm offset Exeter stem have been in use
strength, low corrosion stainless steel (Orthinox) with fatigue since 1997 and two smaller stems with 30 mm and 33 mm offset
properties similar to forged high strength vitallium was used as the (Fig. 5) have been made available to this population since 1998. In
material of the stem. The stem fracture rate of this new design was the subsequent 5 years following its availability, CDH or smaller
extremely low [9e11]. stems were used in 73.2% of Exeter total hip arthroplasties [3]. No
The use of aforementioned high nitrogen stainless steel in the stem failure was observed at the time of Chiu's reporting [3,4].
modern cemented femoral stem aimed at elimination of stem Fujita [20], Sivananthan [21], and Tai [22] from different Asian
failure. However, cases of stem fracture were still observed. Yates centers also reported their results of small Exeter stem implanted
reported 14 cases of fracture with stem made of high nitrogen for primary and revision total hip arthroplasties, with no stem
stainless steel by three different manufacturers, of which 12 were fracture observed. Choy compared the results of Exeter short stems
fractured within the cement mantle [12]. Fractures of the femoral with the standard length Exeter stems from the national joint
stem have been studied and contributing factors were identified replacement registry [23]. One small stem fracture was mentioned,
[12e15], including (1) high stress in stem due to overweight, un- but detail on the cause of failure was not available. Stem fracture is
dersized prosthesis or high level of activity; (2) poor proximal bone a rare event. The rate of small stem fracture in this large series was
support or fixation, which may be due to absence of calcar; (3) 0.066%, and the rate of standard stem fracture was 0.029% [23]. To
varus orientation of the stem; (4) cantilever bending of the stem our knowledge, this is the first report of fracture of Asian size Exeter
resulting from good distal fixation but inadequate proximal cement stem with detail discussion.
mantle; and (5) material defects in the stem itself. One or a com- In the present report, the acetabular cup was in relatively lat-
bination of the above contributing factors leads to the catastrophic eralized position. The proximal cement mantle in the failed stem
failure of the stem in both the early generation, and the newer was noted to be more than 2 mm during the revision surgery. The
implant as reported by Yates [12]. Apart from Yates' report, Raj and stem was placed in 3 varus, which increased the bending moment
van Doorn also reported their isolated case of modern cemented and tensile stress on the implant, might contribute to the fracture.
stem fracture in primary and revision total hip arthroplasty with More meticulous removal of cancellous bone over proximal lateral
impaction allografting respectively [16,17]. femur would allow insertion of stem in neutral alignment and
Stem with similar design and subsidence principle made of co- possibly larger 35.5 mm offset stem. Moreover, the stem was
balt chrome were manufactured. They are stronger, but are not inserted to the distal reference marking and femoral head with
immune from fracture. Jazrawi published the only report of two additional 5 mm length was implanted. Though within the
cases fracture of collarless, tapered, polished cemented cobalt recommendation of the manufacturer, both contributed to the

Fig. 5. (From left to right) Asian size small Exeter stems with 30 mm, 33 mm offset compared to 35.5 mm offset stem and standard 37.5 mm offset stem.

Please cite this article in press as: Chung K-Y, et al., The Asian size Exeter femoral stem fracture, Journal of Orthopaedic Science (2015), http://
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2015.06.016
4 K.-Y. Chung et al. / Journal of Orthopaedic Science xxx (2015) 1e4

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Please cite this article in press as: Chung K-Y, et al., The Asian size Exeter femoral stem fracture, Journal of Orthopaedic Science (2015), http://
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2015.06.016