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LITERATURE REVIEW

Anish Thomas (2013) made a research on “CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN ONLINE


SHOPPING”. The objective of his research was to study the perception of the consumer
regarding the online shopping as the rapid growth of internet, online shopping has become a
new & widely used medium for retailing, and from his research he found out that the factors
that the retailer needs to know. He used both primary and secondary data to make his
research paper more informative. He choose to go with questionnaire form and presentened
his primary data analyzation through tables, bar graph & pie chart. He also stated that when a
consumer purchase any product from online, he or she is affected by various factors & those
factors which influence the consumers are price, trust & convenience. He stated in his paper
that online purchase can be greatly beneficial for the consumer in terms of convenience and
saving money. Though price factor exists because prices are often lower on internet stores
compared to physical stores due to lower costs with many offers on different sites. Lastly he
concluded that trust is important factor in online shopping from both consumer and retailer
point of view.

Tyagi, Avanish Kumar (2012), have done a research on “AN ANALYTICAL STUDY
ON ONLINE SHOPPING BUYING BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS”. The objective of
this paper is to study the impact of trust on online buying & to study the impact of security &
price on online buying. They found most preferred mode on online payment & e-shopping
website. They collected both primary & secondary data for the verification of their
objectives. Since, their research was of descriptive character their primary intension was to
collect primary data & analyze them. They have collected 1000 of responds from people by
using questionnaire form with close ended question five point likert scale ranging from
strongly agree to strongly disagree whereas they collected secondary data from various
published source i.e. journals, newspapers, national and international publication, internet,
personal books, and libraries. They analyzed the primary data using various tools i.e. average,
correlation, chi square & f test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
(SPSS).
Acilar Ali (2011) in his article “POSITIVE ATTITUDES OF UNDERGRADUATE
STUDENTS TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING” found that internet have become an
important part of modern societies along with the spread of internet, the acceptance of online
shopping has been growing. This study explored that undergraduate students of turkey have
more positive attitude towards online shopping. He used a paper based questionnaire in order
to examine students’ attitudes toward online shopping. Students’ attitudes toward online
shopping were assessed using eleven five-point likert-scale questionnaire items (1 = strongly
disagree, 5 = strongly agree). The questionnaire also includes demographic questions. He
concluded that generally male students have more positive attitude than female students.
There is positive correlation between income level and positive attitude towards online
shopping as monthly family income increases. He noticed participants have more positive
attitude towards online shopping.

Delafrooz Narges, Paim Hj. Laily nad Khatibi Ali (2010) in their paper “STUDENTS’
ONLINE SHOPPING BEHAVIOUR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY” reveals that the ever
increasing use of internet in Malaysia provides a developing prospect for e-marketers. Such
marketer’s awareness of the factors affecting Malaysian buyers’ attitude can further develop
their marketing strategies in converting potential consumer into active ones, while
maintaining their existent online customers. This paper sets out to examine the factors
influencing student’s attitude towards online shopping in Malaysia. The findings suggested
that utilitarian orientation, convenience, price and wider selection are important determinants
of user’s attitude toward online shopping. The findings suggested that online retailers need to
provide more connivance and competitive price and more variety of products in order to
attract more people encouraging them to make a purchase decision.

Bellman, S. Lohse, G.L. & Johnson, E.J. (1999) in their paper “PREDICTORS OF
ONLINE BUYING BEHAVIOUR” explained that consumers can shop online 24*7. Some
market sectors included insurance, financial service, computer hardware and software, travel,
books, music, and automobiles were growing rapidly in online sale. Authors explained that
the web consumers lead a relaxed lifestyle and they shop online to save time. This paper
suggested that the implication of designing for online shopping environment as sites should
make it more convenient to buy or repeat purchase, provides information to make purchase
decision and should make the checkout process easy. They concluded that consumers were
seem to value the web’s time saving over its cost saving. They have noticed that the people
who spend more money online have a more relaxed lifestyle and receive more e-mails
compared to other internet user regarding online websites from where they were purchasing.

Peerzada Farooque Tajudiin (2012) has done a research on “A STUDY ON INTERNET


SHOPPING & ITS IMPACT ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR”. The objective of this
paper was to study the effect of several major factors which are identified by prior studies on
online shopping behaviour. This research attempted to know the demographic profile of the
customer & its impact if anyone the online shopping. Through this study he found out the
latest internet shopping trend & the behavioural characteristics of consumer while shopping
online. He used both primary data & secondary data. The primary data was collected through
personal interviews with 500-600 respondents as a part of data collection whereas secondary
data was collected from various textbook, journals, articles, and websites. Primary data was
collected through questionnaire form and analysed in SPSS20 using average, Chi-square
testing, correlation, factor analysis tools.

Malhotra Meenakshi and Singh Jashandeep (2013) in their article “FACTORS


AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF ONLINE SHOPPING IN YOUNGSTERS”
revealed that increasing use of internet by young generation provides an emerging prospect
for online retailers. If retailers know the factors, they can develop their marketing strategies
to convert potential customers into active ones. In this study it is discovered that perceived
risk, perceived benefits, perceived trust and perceived ease of use are the four factors which
11 influences the young consumers. He concluded that online consumers are still lack
confidence with privacy and trust while using internet for online shopping.

Mitra Abhijit (2013) in his journal paper “E-COMMERCE IN INDIA – A REVIEW”


explained that e - commerce was a paradigm shift from a traditional way of doing business.
Geographical distances in forming business relationships was reduced with the growth of
technologies and internet economy will grow robustly while e-commerce is playing a very
important role as it has accessible to the both large corporations and small companies. He
found out that e-commerce was an integral part of our daily life and it provided number of
services and goods. He concluded that e – shoppers in India will had good time as they get
great deals and services from different online websites. Finally, he concluded that e
commerce became very meaningful to India.

Sharma Vishnoi Nidhi and Khattri Varsha (2013) in their paper study of "ONLINE
SHOPPING BEHAVIOUR AND ITS IMPACT ON ONLINE DEAL WEBSITES”
found out that traditional market place became e-market place rapidly. From needle to ship,
everything being sold and bought on the internet. With the advent of internet and e-
commerce, a variety of new business models were coming into picture with innovative
techniques to sell their goods and services with excited deals and lucrative discounts. Here
authors had tried to find out the factors influencing the purchase deals and discount coupons
from online deal websites and also tried to study the preference towards mode of payment
and consumers’ trust while shopping. A sample of respondent was administered an e-
questionnaire and their responses were evaluated using statistical tool and technique. This
paper, thus, identifies that prospects quiet like to buy deals and discount coupons and
marketers should put their focus on increasing awareness about availability of goods and
services and building a feedback mechanism. Trust on security will lead to repeat purchase.
To study the trust factor, authors further studied the mode of payment preferred by
consumers. The most preferred mode of payment was bank transfer in case they had trust on
site. The next preferred mode is credit/debit card and least preference was cash on delivery
(COD).

Pawar shivaji Sarika, More Khashaba Dinkar and Bhola Shankar Sarang (2014) in
their study “ONLINE BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF COLLEGE STUDENTS” attempted
to find that the factors influencing online buyers as well as these factors which affect non
buyers for that to shop online. The paper segmented the market on the basis of gender and
finds that ease of shopping was the most important factors that influence buyers to shop
online whereas post purchase risk is the factor that influence non buyers not to shop online.
The result they revealed that there is significant association between gender and goods
purchased online and no significant association between gender and spending on online
shopping.

Vijay, Sai. T. & Balaji, M. S. (2009) in their journal paper “IMPACT OF


DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS OF CONSUMERS ON ONLINE SHOPPING
BEHAVIOUR: A STUDY OF CONSUMERS IN INDIA” revealed that Consumers all
over the world were increasingly shifting from the crowded stores to the one-click online
shopping format. However, in spite of the convenience offered, online shopping was far from
being the most preferred form of shopping in India. A survey among 150 internet users,
including both users and non-users of online shopping, was carried out to understand why
some purchase online while others do not. The results suggested that convenience and saving
of time drive Indian consumers to shop online; while security and privacy concerns dissuade
them from doing so.

Archana Shrivastava, Ujwal Lanjewar, (2011) in their paper “BEHAVIOURAL


BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE FRAMEWORK BASED ON ONLINE BUYING
BEHAVIOUR IN INDIAN CONTEXT: A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
APPROACH” noticed that in online buying, the rate of diffusion and adoption of the online
buying amongst consumers is still relatively low in India. In view of above problem an
empirical study of online buying behaviour was undertaken. Based on literature review, four
predominant psychographic parameters namely attitude, motivation, personality and trust
were studied with respect to online buying. The online buying decision process models based
on all the four parameters were designed after statistical analysis. These models were
integrated with business intelligence, knowledge management and data mining to design
behavioural business intelligence framework with a cohesive view of online buyer behaviour.
At last they concluded that as trust is a feeling of mutual acceptance between two
parties; it develops out of continuous physical interaction and leads to long-term
acceptance and commitment. So the important issue that need to be addressed is “trust”,
amongst the seller-buyer, the lack of which often acts as an impediment in the virtual market
concept.

Sridhar Balasubramanian, Prabhudev Konana, Nirup M. Menon (2003)in their paper


“CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: A STUDY OF
ONLINE INVESTING” they found out in this environment, some traditional service
quality dimensions that determine customer satisfaction, such as the physical appearance of
facilities, employees, and equipment, and employees responsiveness and empathy are
unobservable. In contrast, trust may play a central role here in enhancing customer
satisfaction. Model trust as an endogenously formed entity that ultimately impacts customer
satisfaction and we elucidate the linkages between trust and other factors related to the
performance of the online service provider and to the service environment.

Burke (2002) has a done a research on “TECHNOLOGY AND THE CUSTOMER


INTERFACE: WHAT CONSUMERS WANT IN THE PHYSICAL AND VIRTUAL
STORE”. He noticed that trust is a key factor that determines the success of Business to
Consumer (B2C) e-commerce transactions. He identified several critical factors that
influence trust in the context of online shopping. He focused on available security measures
which assure online shoppers safety and great sales promotions and online deals which
stimulate customers to shop online.

Rakesh Kumar (2010), in his research paper titled “C” has stated that: The rises in
number of credit card providers and users have come of age. With these positively
influencing trends expected to continue in the near and far-future. The credit card industry is
likely to soar more than any industry segment. To add to that, easy and continuous payments'
structures with each passing day and with every bank poised to expand its network, the Indian
credit card user community is the biggest beneficiary. The intensifying competition prevalent
in the present day Indian credit card market has further fuelled the usage of credit cards in the
country like never-before. In an aim to overpower the peers and to sustain and prosper
themselves, the banks and financial institutions have started cutting down the interest rates
and offering lucrative deals.
Ankur Kumar Rastogi (2011) has done a research on “ONLINE SHOPPING: A
MODERN APPROACH OF BUYING” has stated that: Online shopping has become a
significant part of our life as a result of the growing internet and our busy schedule. This adds
up to faster, easier, safer and less costly shopping. Online shopping has a great advantage for
us as it is time saving and also a wide range of products can be selected with the best offer.

Dr Syed Shah Alam, Zaharah Bakar, Dr Hishamuddin Bin Ismail, Mst. Nilufar Ahsan
(2008), in their research paper titled “ YOUNG CONSUMERS ONLINE SHOPPING:
AN EMPIRICAL STUDY” has stated that : The analytical results of our investigation
indicate relationships between young consumers’ perceptions of the factors that influence
their intention to buy through online. More specifically, consumers’ perceptions of the
customer service, reliability and trust of online purchasing exhibit significant relationships
with their online buying intention. Marketers need to realize that the online marketing
environment affects the way consumers view and develop relationships. In this context, to
add value to the online shopping experience and to build relationships, trust is everything.

Shweta Tanwar, (2009) has done a research on “ONLINE SHOPPING: A NEW


GENERATION OF SHOPPING"(STUDY IN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE)”. She stated
that: Online shopping has come up as a boon for all type of consumers and it has something
to offer for everyone. Despite of this fact that it was highly convenient and time saving and to
certain extent it was also cost cutting exercise as one need not to step out of his / her home for
doing shopping. The main area of concern was the limited internet usage and language
problem. A lot of stress need to be given on these two parameters so that this IT revolution
can be of use to everyone in India and then only it can be a success in true sense of terms.
Otherwise, it will just end up being a style statement of few who wants to be away from the
crowd and then it will lose its applicability in the real world.
Dahiya Richa (2012), in her research paper titled, “FACTORS INFLUENCING
ONLINE SHOPPING BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMERS IN INDIA— AN
EXPLORATORY STUDY”. She has stated that: online shopping is a recent phenomenon in
the field of e-business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in India. Though
online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large
and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential
growth of online shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on online shopping in
India. The study has used factor analysis, correlation and multiple regressions to analyse the
impact of various categories of factors and variables on online shopping behaviour of
consumers.

Manish Dwivedi, Kumawat Mahesh & Verma Sanjeev, (2012), in their research paper
titled “ON-LINE RETAILING IN INDIA: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES”
has stated that: For retailers in India, online shopping is gaining recognition as it entails many
benefits for them. Some of these include, No real estate costs, Enhanced customer service,
Mass customization, Global reach, Niche marketing and specialized stores. In the next 5
years, online retailing in India will strengthen even further. However, long-standing
sustainability directly depends on factors like changes in the market, innovations and
interactivity by market players. Owing to increased penetration of credit cards and easy
access of computing facilities to a wider population, Internet retailing in India has witnessed
a promising growth. Moreover, bargainhunting consumers are latching on this trend as
Internet retailers are known to offer products at special discounted prices compared to store-
based retailers.