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onvariousaspects

ofacoustics.

Thermoacoustic engines

G.W. Swift

Condensed

Matter and ThermalPhysics

Group,LosAlamosNationalLaboratory,LosAlamos,

New Mexico 87545

Thermoacoustic engines,

or acousticheatengines,are energy-conversion devicesthat achieve

simplicityandconcomitant reliabilityby useof acoustictechnology.

Their efficiency

canbe a

substantialfractionof Carnot'sefficiency.In thermoacousticprime movers,heat flow from a

high-temperature sourceto a low-temperature sinkgenerates acousticpower(whichmaybe

convertedto electricpowerusinga transducer).In thermoacoustic heatpumpsand

refrigerators,

acousticpoweris usedto pumpheatfroma low-temperature sourceto a high-

temperaturesink.This reviewteachesthe fundamentals of thermoacoustic

engines,by analysis,

intuition, and example.

CONTENTS B. Resonators........................................................1162

C. Transducers ...................................................... 1164

Introduction .............................................................. 1146

A. History ............................................................. 1148 IV. Examplesof thermoacousticengines.................. 1166

A. The lecture demonstration ............................... 1166

I. The singleplate......................................................1149

A. Oscillatorytemperature...................................1150 B. Thermoacoustic refrigerator ............................. 1167

B. Heat flux, work flux, and efficiency.................. 1152 C. Liquid-sodiumthermoacousticengine.............1169

C. Lagrangianpoint of view.................................. 1154 V. Related engines..................................................... 1172

II. The shortengine...................................................1156 A. Stirling engines.................................................1174

A. Zero viscosity................................................... 1157 B. Pulse-tube refrigerators....................................1175

B. Arbitrary viscosity............................................ 1159 Acknowledgments..................................................... 1176

III. Other componentsof thermoacousticengines .... 1160 Appendix................................................................... 1176

A. Heat exchangers...............................................1161 References ................................................................. 1179

A area heat flux per unit area

soundspeed R resonator radius, or resistance

COP coefficientof performance Re real part of

isobaricheat capacityper unit mass r radial coordinate

E energy s entropyper unit mass

power T temperature,or transductioncoefficient

½ energyper unit volume • t time

power per unit area u volumetric velocity

f frequency,or functionin Eq. (56) or (57) x componentof velocity

G gap v voltage

total energyflux velocity, or its y component

I electric current work flux, or acousticpower

Im imaginarypart of w enthalpy per unit mass

K thermal conductivity power per unit volume

L resonatorlength x positionalongsoundpropagation

l plate half-thickness y positionperpendicularto soundpropagation

M Mach number yo plate half-gap

m mass z impedance

P,p pressure thermal expansioncoefficient

Q quality factor of resonance F normalizedtemperaturegradient

1145 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84 (4), October 1988 0001-4966/88/101145-36500.80 @ 1988 AcousticalSociety of America 1145

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y ratio, isobaricto isochoricspecificheats C Carnot

Ax plate length C cold

6 penetrationdepth E electrical

es plate heat capacityratio H hot

r/ efficiency hx heat exchanger

tc thermal diffusivity I current

A wavelength i in, or input

X radian wavelength L load

/• dynamicviscosity M mechanical

m mean

v kinematicviscosity

• secondviscosity o out, or output

rad radiation

Ii perimeter

res resonator

p density

• viscous stress tensor s standing,or solid

cr Prandtl number t traveling

r period of the oscillation V voltage

• phaseangle x alongsound-propagation direction

co angular frequency y perpendicularto sound-propagationdirection

tc thermal

Subscripts and superscripts v viscous

A amplitude 1 first order

ac acoustic 2 second order

In our introductory thermodynamicscourseswe learn iscalledthecoefficient

of performanceCOP= Qc/W, re-

that thereare two classesof heatengines:primemoversand flecting

thefactthatQcisthedesired

effect

forrefrigerators.

heatpumps,asshownin Fig. 1. In a prime mover,heat flows Combining Eqs.(1) and(3) toeliminate

Q• yields

through the enginefrom high to low temperature,and the COP<Tc/(Tn- Tc) (5)

enginegenerates work. In a heatpump,the flowsof heatand and, again, the right side is called Carnot's coefficientof

work are reversed;i.e., work is absorbedby the engine,re- performance,COPc.

suitingin the pumpingof heatfrom low temperatureto high But theengineering of nuclearpowerplants,automobile

temperature.

engines,window air conditioners,and other real heat en-

The first and secondlaws of thermodynamicsplacean ginesseemsvery far removedfrom theseconclusionsof ele-

upper bound on the efficiencyof heat engines.Let Tn and mentarythermodynamics. The desireto approachCarnot's

Tc be the temperaturesof the hot and cold thermal reser- efficiencymustcompeteagainstneedsfor low cost,highreli-

voirs,

respectively,

QuandQctheassociated heatflows,and ability,safety,compactness, etc.,to producethe designsfor

W theworkflow,asin Fig. 1. In theusualcaseof cyclic the practicalheat enginesavailablein our society.Sincethe

engineoperation,

QH,Qc,andWaretime-averaged powers, principalqualitiesof the thermoacoustic enginesthat arethe

and we assumesteady-stateoperation,sothat the time-aver- subjectof this revieware reasonableefficiencyand extreme

agedstateof the engineitselfdoesnot change.The firstlaw simplicity,we believeit is very likely that practicaluseswill

of thermodynamics,simpleenergyconservation,statesthat be foundfor theseengines.

Oc- v-0.

The secondlaw statesthat the entropygeneratedby the sys-

Prime mover Heat pump

tem must be positiveor zero. Sincethe engineitself is in

(time-averaged)steadystate,we must focuson the net en- TH TH

/I///////////////////////// ///l///11/111111//l/I//l//

tropy increasein the reservoirs:

Qc/Tc - Qn/Tn>O, primemover; (2)

Qn/Tu - Qc/Tc>O, heatpump. (3)

6c

For the prime mover, the efficiencyof interest (the desired q////

//////•///////////// •c

output,

divided

bytherequired

input)isr/= W/Qu. Com- ß

Tc Tc

FIG. 1.The two typesof heatengine,the primemoverand the heatpump.

rI = W/Qn< (Tn - Tc)/Tn. (4) Often,the primemoveris calledan "engine"andthe heatpumpis calleda

"refrigerator."We preferto usethe wordenginegenericallyto includeboth

The temperatureratio on the right sideof Eq. (4) is called functions,and to reservethe word refrigeratorfor thoseheatpumpswhose

Carnot's efficiencyr/c; it is the highest efficiencythat a purposeis to extractheatfrom the lower temperature.

engines 1146

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To illustratethis simplicity,we now brieflydescribetwo

thermoacousticengines.They achievetheir simplicityby us-

ing no movingparts, no exoticmaterials,and no closetoler- Hot

ancesor critical dimensions.The first example, shown in exchanger ••- •.

Fig. 2, is just a lecture demonstrationthat generatesloud Prime mover_

stack

soundusingthe heat from a propaneflame.This prime mov-

Room temp.

er is a copperpipe, closedat one end and opento air at the' exchangers •R =QH

+(•C

other. Near the center, a sectionof the copperpipe is re-

Heat pump

placedwith a thin-walledstainless-steel tube,insideof which stack

is a stackof thin, well-spacedstainless-steel platesaligned

Cold

parallelto the tube axis.At eachend of the stainless-steel exchanger

stackthere is a set of spaced-apartcopperstrips,alsowith

their planesalignedparallelto the tube axis,and hard sol-

37 cm

deredto the copperpipe.None of the dimensions or align-

mentsis critical. In operation,heat from a hardware-store

propanetorch is appliedto the closedend of the pipe,and

room-temperature coolingwaterpasses througha thin tube

wrappedaroundand soft-soldered to the openend of the

pipe. The copperstripsnearestthe closedend carry the

torch's heat to that end of the stainless-steelstack, and the

copperstripsnearesttheopenendmaintaintheotherendof

the stack near the cooling-watertemperature.When the

temperaturedifferenceacrossthe stackis largeenough,the

air in the pipe oscillatesspontaneously

at about 500 Hz, a

frequencysuchthat a quarterwavelengthof soundequals

the pipe length, with a pressureantinode(i.e., amplitude

maximum) at the closedend and a velocityantinodeat the

openend.Thesoundradiatedfromtheopenendof thepipe

isimpressivelyloud,about100dBa meteraway.Thelecture

demonstration is a primemover:It produces

acousticwork,

by acceptingheat from a high-temperaturesourceand re-

jectingheatto a low-temperaturesink. FIG. 3.Thebeercooler,a heat-driven

refr!ger.ator.

High-temperature

heat

Our secondexampleto illustratethe simplicityof ther- QHcauses low-temperaturerefrigeration

Qc'QH+ Qcisrejected

atroom

temperature.

moacousticenginesis a heat-drivenacousticrefrigerator

shownin Fig. 3 and affectionately

knownas"the beercool-

er." The beer cooler'scaseconsistsof a 37-cm-longtube,

steel in the center, and thin nickel near the bottom. Nearest

closedat the top, and openingat the bottom into a large

the top, there are a stackof platesand two setsof heat ex-

sphericalbulb.The casecontains3-bar (0.3-MPa) helium

changestripsjust like thoseof the lecture demonstration

gas,and is madeof thick nickelnearthe top, thin stainless

describedin the last paragraph.The platesin the stackare

0.025-cm-thickstainlesssteel,spaced0.08 cm apart;the up-

per,hot heatexchanger stripsarenickel,andthe lowerheat

•

Heatin,atTH

•,/4: 16cm

exchanger stripsarecopperandareheldat 23 øCby cooling

Hot heat

exchanger

strips

•

watercirculatingthrougha collar aroundthe outsideof the

_,...... ////////••////////////////////

Work out case.When the temperatureof the hot heatexchangeris hot

enough,the heliumgasoscillatesspontaneously at about580

Hz (with a pressureantinodeat the closedtop of the case

and a velocityantinodeat the tube-bulbjunction), just asin

the lecture demonstration. Thus this stack functions as a

Stack

Cold

heatof

plates

½/

exchanger

stnps

primemover,producingacousticwork from heat.

Heatout,at Tc Just below the prime-moverstack, another stack and

pair of heat exchangers functionas a heat pump,drivenby

FIG. 2. The lecturedemonstration,whichproducesloud soundfrom a heat the acousticwork generatedby the prime-moverstack.The

source.The quarter-wavelength longresonatorhascylindricalsymmetry. heat-pumpstackis identicalto the prime-moverstack,and

The stackof platesand two setsof heatexchangerstripsare alignedsothat

theirplanesareparallelto theaxisof theresonator,with theheatexchanger its upper,room-temperature heatexchangerandlower,cold

planessubstantially nonparallelto the plateplanes.Everythingis to scale heat exchangerare madeof copperstrips.Heat-exchanger

exceptthe thicknesses and spacingsof the platesand strips;thosedimen- stripsandadjacentstackplatesaresubstantially nonparallel

sionscanbe foundin Sec.IV. Thermoacousticeffectsin the stackof plates

to eachother, to preventaccidental,total blockageof any

produceacoustic powerat thefundamentalresonance frequencyof theres-

onator, while heat is externallysuppliedto the left end of the stackand gapsin the stackby a heat-exchanger strip.When the hot

removedfrom the right end. heat-exchanger temperatureis high enoughthat the gasos-

1147 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G. W. Swift: Thermoacoustic engines 1147

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ciliates,thecoldheatexchanger coolsto below0 øC,asheat -4

-6-

peratureheatexchanger. Hence,thewholesystem functions

as a refrigerator,

with no movingparts,poweredby heat

deliveredat hightemperature.

In Figs.4 and 5 we displaydataobtainedwith thisde-

vice.

1Asshown

in Fig.4, whenthehotheatfluxOuisin-

ß

creased fromzero,thehottemperature Tu increases

essen- .12 L I I I I I

tiallylinearlyat first,whiletheacoustic

pressureamplitude 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

changers) remains at zeroandthecoldtemperature Tc re-

mains atroomtemperature. WhenOureaches about160W, FIG.5.Thebeercooler's

coldtemperature

Tc asafunction

ofloadOc,for

a qualitative

changeoccurs; abovethat value,Tu remains (•H-- 380W.

nearlyconstantat about400øC,Pl increases,andTc drops

to wellbelowwater'sfreezingtemperature. At thehighest

driveused (Ou= 380W),Pl= 0.2barandTc = -- 11øC. moacoustic engines,

weproceed in Sec.I, "Thesingleplate,"

For thisoperatingpoint,Fig. 5 showstheeffectof an exter- withanextremely

ß

detailedpresentationofthesimplest ther-

nalheatloadQcapplied tothecoldheatexchanger. AsOcis moacoustic engineweknowof,to displaythekeyfeatures of

increasedfrom 0 to 10 W, Tc risesonly from -- 11 to thermoacoustics

with as few distracting complications as

-- 6 øC.

possible. In Sec.II, "The shortengine,"weaddrealisticde-

Thepurposeofthisreviewistogivethereadera qualita- tailsto the simplepictureof Sec.I, to arriveat an accurate

tive understanding

of thermoacoustic

phenomena suchas modelfor thermoacoustic phenomena, suchas in the two

occurin the lecturedemonstration

andthebeercooler,and examples justpresented. Mathematical

detailsarerelegated

to teachthe readerhowto designsuchengines andhowto to the Appendix, sotheydo not detractfromdeveloping

predicttheirperformancein quantitative

detail.We assume intuition.Thosefeatures ofheatexchangers,

resonators,

and

thatthereaderhashada normalundergraduate-level

expo- transducers thatarepeculiarto thermoacoustic

enginesare

sureto acoustics

and thermodynamics,

sufficient,for exam- introduced in Sec.III, "Othercomponents

of thermoacous-

ple,to recognize

thedifference

betweentraveling

andstand- tic engines."The final two sectionsuseresultsfrom all four

ingwaves, to solveordinary

differential

equationsusingthe previoussections

to explainthe performance

of severalen-

complexexponentialmethod,and to understandthe differ- gines:

threethermoacoustic

engines

inSec.IV, "Examples

of

encebetweenisothermalandadiabaticprocesses.After fin- thermoacoustic

engines,"

andsomeStirling-like

engines

in

ishingthisintroductory

section

witha briefhistoryof ther- Sec.V, "Relatedengines."

A. History

The historyof thermoacoustic

enginesis long but

5

sparselypopulated.A review of Putnam and Dennis2 de-

400

360

320 -- -

scribesexperiments

acousticoscillations

of Byron Higgins3 in 1777in which

in a largepipewereexcitedby suitable

280 a/ _ placementof a hydrogen flameinside.TheRijketube,4 an

earlyextensionof Higgins'work, is well knownto modern

•200160 •m

xm acousticiansas a dramatic lecture demonstrationfor under-

80 /

graduateclasses.

Higgins'research

eventually

evolvedinto

themodernscience

of pulsecombustion,

5 whoseapplica-

40©

o tions have includedthe German V-1 rocket (the "buzz

' I I

24 •- bomb")usedin WorldWar II andthe residential

pulse-

20-

combustion

furnaceintroducedby Lennox,Inc. in 1982.

16-

12-

TheSondhauss

tube,6shownin Fig.6(a), istheearliest

8- thermoacoustic

enginethat is a direct antecedentof the

4- primemovers describedin thisreview.Over100yearsago,

0-

ß

glassblowersnoticedthatwhena hotglassbulbwasattached

-4 -

to a coolglasstubularstem,thestemtip sometimes emitted

-8 -

-12 sound,andSondhauss quantitatively

investigated

the rela-

0 1 oo 200 300 400 tionbetweenthe pitchof thesoundandthedimensions of the

(5. (w) apparatus.In someextensivehistoricalremarks,Rott7notes

thatSondhauss hadreferredtosomeresearchonthissubject

FIG. 4. Performance

of thebeercoolerwithno externalcoolingload 40 yearsearlier,knownat firstasthe "glowingglasshar-

(Qc= 0)asafunction

of0H.Temperatures

(O)areplotted

against

theleft monica."Lord Rayleigh 8 explainedthe Sondhauss tube

vertical

axis,andpressures

(I), normalized

bymeanpressure p•,= 3 bar,

qualitativelyin 1896:

andsquared,areplotted

againsttherightvertical

axis.Thelinesareonly

guidesto the eye. "In almostallcases

whereheatiscommunicated

toa body

1148 J.Acoust.

Soc.Am.,Vol.84,No.4,October

1988 G.W.Swift:

Thermoacoustic

engines 1148

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(a) (b) Longsworth

12producedsignificant

refrigeration

by apply-

-•H Room-temp.•

ing a very low-frequency,high-amplitudepressureoscilla-

tion to the gasin a tube.As they explainedthe phenomenon,

heat

sink

I J "If any closedchamberis pressurizedand depressurized by

deliveryand exhaustionof gasfrom onepoint on its surface

and the flow is essentiallysmooth,heat pumpingwill occur

Heat igh-P

Rotary

valve

JPulse

I awayfrom the point on its surface,"becauseof the tempera-

input ture changesthat accompanythe pressurechangesin the

gas,and their time-phasingrelative to the oscillatorygas

flow.Independently,

MerkliandThomann13

observed

slight

coolingaroundthe velocityantinodeof the gasresonatingin

gener

a simple cylindrical resonator,and presentedan accurate

theory for the effect.

A most important advance in modern experimental

thermoacousticswas the realization by Carter and co-

Sound output workers

TMin 1962that placingsuitablestructures

(like the

stack of platesin Fig. 2) inside Sondhausstubes improved

FIG. 6. Early thermoacousticengines.(a) The Sondhausstube,an early theirperformance.

In somehistoricalremarks,Feldman

15

primemover,wasabout15cmlongandmadeof glass.(b) The pulse-tube statesthat thiswasthe firstexperimentalwork on Sondhauss

refrigeratorof Gifford and Longsworthachieveda temperatureratio

Tc/T,_• 1/2 whenoperatedat 1 Hz with a pressureratioPh•/P]o_•4.

oscillatorssince1917.The ideasof Carter etal. led quicklyto

Feldman'sPh.D. thesisresearch 16on Sondhauss oscillators.

His mostefficientoscillatorproduced27 W of acousticpow-

er from 600 W of heat.

mechanicalwork.If thephasesof theforcesthusoperative Kirchhoff 17calculated acoustic attenuation in a duct due to

be favourable,a vibration may be maintained.... For the oscillatoryheat transfer betweenthe solid isothermal duct

sakeof simplicity,a tube,hotat theclosedendandgetting wallandthegassustaining

thesoundwave.Kramers,18mo-

graduallycoolertowardsthe openend, may be consid- tivatedby Taconis'experiments,madefurther progress,al-

ered.At a quarterof a periodbeforethe phaseof greatest though his final resultsdisagreedwith the experimentsby

condensation...the air is movinginwards,i.e., towardsthe ordersof magnitude.Then, about 20 yearsago,Rott and co-

closedend, and thereforeis passingfrom colderto hotter workersbegana remarkable

seriesof papers,

7'19-24

initially

partsof thetube;... But in facttheadjustmentof tempera- directed toward understandingTaconis oscillations.Ulti-

ture takestime, and thusthe temperatureof the air devi- mately, Rott et al. establisheda soundtheoreticalfounda-

atesfrom that of the neighboringpartsof the tube,inclin- tion applicableto basicexperimentswith boththermoacous-

ing towardsthe temperatureof that part of the tubefrom ticprimemovers I •'25'26

andthermoacousticheatpumpsand

whichtheair hasjust come.From thisit followsthat at the refrigerators.

13.26,27

We relyheavilyontheirpointof viewin

phaseof greatestcondensation heatis receivedby the air, this review.

and at the phaseof greatestrarefactionheat is givenup

from it, andthusthereis a tendencyto maintainthe vibra- I. THE SINGLE PLATE

tions."

To illustrate the basicprinciplesof thermoacousticen-

Rayleigh'squalitativeunderstandingwascorrect;but a ginesmostclearly,we will discussin this sectiona simple

quantitatively

accuratetheoreticaldescriptionof thesephe- examplewherethe acousticand thermodynamiceffectsare

nomenawas not achievedfor half a century, as we will see nearly distinct. We will considera fluid (either a gasor a

shortly. liquid) supportingan acousticplanestandingwave, and a

Another variant of thermoacousticprime mover is the singlesmall solidplate alignedparallelto the directionof

Taconisoscillation,9whichcanbea severenuisancein cyro- vibrationof the standingwave.We will seethat the standing

genicapparatus.Theseoscillations, oftenof extremelyhigh waveismodifiedby the presence of the plate,resultingin two

amplitude,can occurwhen a gas-filledtube reachesfrom important effects:(1) a time-averagedheat flux near the

room temperatureto cyrogenictemperatures.Taconis' surfaceof theplate,alongthedirectionof acousticvibration,

qualitativeexplan•/tionof the phenomenon wasessentially and (2) the generationor absorptionof real acousticpower

the sameasRayleigh's. ClementandGaffney lø madesys- (work) near the surfaceof the plate. Thesetwo simpleef-

tematic observationsof Taconis oscillations, and the oscilla- fects,producedby the interactionbetweensoundwaveand

tionshavebeenstudiedmore recentlyin a seriesof measure- solid boundary,are the basisof all thermoacousticengine

mentsby Yazakiandco-workers. TM phenomena.To derivethesetwo basiceffectswith as few

The historyof imposingacousticoscill. ationson a gasto distractingcomplicationsas possible,we will make many

causeheatpumpingand refrigerationeffectsis evenbriefer simplifyingassumptions in this section.Havingthusestab-

and more recent than the history of thermoacousticprime lishedbasicunderstandingof thermoacoustics, we will treat

movers.In a devicecalleda pulse-tube refrigerator,shownin more realisticallycomplicatedsituationslater in the article.

Fig. 6 (b) andto bediscussedin detailin Sec.V, Giffordand Considera solidplateof lengthAx, width II/2, and neg-

engines 1149

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ligiblethickness,

asshown

inFig.7.ThelengthAxisaligned productsof complexsolutions,which arisewheneverpower

alongthe x axis,and there is an ordinary acousticstanding is computed.As an example,we considerthe time-averaged

wave directedalongx in the fluid aroundthe plate, so that electricalpowerdissipated in anelectricalimpedance

experi-

the acousticpressureis PA sin(x/Y•)cos(cot)and the acous- encing a current I(t) -- I• cos(cot-• •b•) and voltage

tic velocityis - (PA/pma)COS(X/h)sin(cot),

whereP• is V(t) = V• cos(cot-3-•bv). The instantaneouspower dissi-

the pressureamplitude at the pressureantinodesof the pated,I(t) V(t), is time dependent.The averagepowerdissi-

standingwave, cois the angularfrequencyof the wave, t is pated I(t) V(t) is givenby

time,,omisthemeandensityof thefluid,a is thesoundspeed

of the fluid, and 7•= a/co is the radian length of the wave. I(t)V(t)= 1 T

I• cos(cot

-3-

•b•)

VA cos(cot

-3-

•b•,)

dt

(We usethe angularfrequencyco= 2•rf, wheref is the ordi-

nary frequency,and the radianlength7•• A/2•', whereA is = -•I• V• cos(•, - •,) , (7)

the wavelengthand 7• is to be read "lambdabar," to avoid with v = 2•r/cothe periodof the oscillation.This is a familiar

factors of 2•' in subsequentexpressions.)We have defined

result.The prescriptionfor computingthis quantityin com-

the width as II/2 becausea crosssectionperpendicularto x plex notationis

through

theplate•'eveals

aperimeter

II, andwewillseelater

that the heat flux alongthe plate is proportionalto II, and IV ---• Re[IV], ' (8)

the acousticpower is proportionalto the total (both sides) where Re[ ] signifiesthe real part and the tilde denotes

plate surfacearea IIAx.

complex conjugation.In this notation,

I= I.•ei•' and

We pausenow to carefullyestablishnotationthat will be

usedthroughoutthe article. We will assumethat an expan-

V-- V.•ei'•;thetime-averaged

power is

sion to first order in the acousticamplitude sufficesfor all IV = -•Re[/•] = «Re[IAe•'V•e

-i•]

thermodynamicand acousticvariables(temperature,den-

• •1I• V• cos(•b•- •b•,), (9)

sity, pressure,velocity,entropy), and will adopt the usual

complexnotation for time-oscillatoryquantities;thus, for the same result as before. This is all trivial when, as in our

example,the pressurep will be written example,themagnitudesandphasesof the oscillatingquan-

titiesare given;but wheninsteadthe real and the imaginary

P = Pm-[-Pleitøt

, (6)

partsare known,Eq. (8) becomesa very powerfulcomputa-

with P l (and similarly the other small oscillatingampli- tional tool.

tudes) a function of position,and all the time dependence In this notation, then, the acousticstandingwave has

appearing

in thefactoreiø•t.

Themeanvalues(subscripts

m) pressureP'--Pm-["Pleiø"tand x componentof velocity

will be real, but the small amplitudes(subscripts1) will in u = u•ei•",with

generalbe complex,reflectingtime phasingof the oscillating

Pl = P• sin(x/7•) •p• (x), (10)

quantities.

We assume that all readers are familiar with the com- Ul = i(P•/pma)Cos(x/•.) =iu• (x) . (11)

plex exponentialmethod of solution of linear differential

equations,and the conventionthat the real part of this com- To avoidconfusingminussignslater, we take0 (x (A/4, so

plex solutionrepresentsthe actual, physicalsolution.Less that we definep• and u• as positivereal functionsof x. The

familiar is the propermethodof dealingwith time-averaged superscripts refersto standingwaves.

A. Oscillatory temperature

In the absenceof the plate, the soundwaveis adiabatic,

Y

and so there is an oscillatingtemperatureT• relatedto the

pressurep•by

x

Op/s

= -• p• =•p•, (12)

p• •p•p pmCp

wheres is entropyper unitmass,• = - (3p/3 T)p/pmis

theordinarythermalexpansion

coe•cient,andcpisthecon-

stant-pressureheat capacityper unit mass.All thesevari-

ablescanbefunctionsofx if, for example,themeantempera-

ture Tm dependson x. In Eq. (12), we haveuseda Maxwell

relation,andthe usualpropertiesof partial derivatives.Note

that,sinceTm•/Pm Cpispositive

andreal,T• andp• arein

z phase

inanordinary

sound

wave.Foridealgases,

it iseasy

to

FIG. 7.Geometry

ofthesimplest

thermoacoustic

example.

Thesingle

plate show that

liesin the y = 0 plane;it hasa lengthAx alongthe directionx definedby a

plane

acoustic

standing

wave,

awidth

H/2,andanegligible

thickness. tm •/Pm Cp• (y -- 1) T•/YPm, (13)

1150 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacoustic engines 1150

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wherey, the ratio of isobaricto isochoricspecificheats,is

5/3 for monatomicgasesand somewhatsmallerfor other

gases.Thus

T•=•'--I p• (14)

rm •' Pm

(17)

for gases,sothat the fractionaltemperatureoscillationsare or

of the sameorder asthe fractionalpressureoscillations.For

STP air and pressureamplitudestypical of conversation, $1= (Cplrm) T1-- (i•/Pm ) P• . (18)

T• _•10--4øC,soit is notsurprising

thatthermoacoustic

ef- SubstitutingEqs. ( 17) and ( 18) into Eq. (16) yieldsa differ-

fectsare unnoticedin everydaylife. ential equationfor the unknownfunction T• (y),

We now introducethe plate, asshownin Fig. 7, into the

d2T•

standingwaveand beginour thermoacousticcalculationsby icopmc•or,

-- K•= icorm•p, --pmC•o

17Tmu• (19)

first findingthe temperatureT = T,• + Tieirøtof the fluid dy2 '

near the plate. We will seethat the plate modifiesthe origi- in termsof the givenquantitiesp•,u•, and •T•, to be solved

nal, unperturbedtemperatureoscillationsof Eq. (12), in subjectto the boundaryconditionT• (0) = 0 imposedby the

both magnitudeand phase,for fluid about a thermal pene- plate and the boundaryconditionthat T• ( • ) be finite. The

solution is

tration depth •5K= x/2tc/co

away from the plate, where

tc= K/p,•% is the fluid'sthermaldiffusivity

andK is its

thermal conductivity.The thermal penetrationdepth is,

roughly,the distancethat heat can diffusethroughthe fluid

=

\ pm C• co T•(T,•

l•p• 17

T,•)

u• (1 -- e (20)

during a time 1/co.In air at 1000Hz, •SK= 0.1 mm. The terms in this equationare easilyinterpreted.The

fluid far from the plate, y>>•5•,makes negligiblethermal

To make rapid progress,we needseveralassumptions.

contactwith the plate;in that case,

We assumethat a steady state exists.We assumethat the

plate is short enough (Ax • X) and far enoughfrom both r•-- ( rm l•/pmq )Pl -- (vrm/co)u• . (2•)

velocityandpressurenodesthatp• and u• canbe considered The first term here is simply due to the adiabaticcompres-

uniform over the entire plate. We assumethe fluid haszero sionsand expansions of the fluid, asin Eq. (12). The second

viscosity,so that u• doesnot depend0n y. We assumethat term comesfrom the mean-temperaturegradientin the flu-

the plate hasa large enoughheat capacityper unit area that id; as the fluid oscillatesalongx with displacementampli-

its temperaturedoesnot changeappreciablyat the acoustic tudeu•/co,thetemperatureat a givenpointin spaceoscillates

frequency.We neglecttemperaturedependenceof the ther- by an amount17T• u•/co evenif the temperatureof a given

mophysicalpropertiesof the fluid andplate.We assumethat pieceoffiuid remainsconstant.The actual temperatureos-

the plate has a given mean-temperaturegradientin the x cillationsarejust a linear superpositionof thesetwo effects.

directionI7Tin, and neglectthe plate'sthermal conductivity SettingEq. (21 ) equalto zero,we notethat thereis a critical

in the x direction.We also neglectthe fluid's thermal con- mean-temperaturegradient

ductivityalongx. This lastassumptionmay seemextremely

artificial in light of the importanceof the fluid's nonzero 17Tcrit= r m•cop•/pmCpU• (22)

thermal conductivityin the y direction,but it is essentially

equivalentto the easilysatisfiedcondition•5•,• X, thoughthe [the notation (17T•)crit, though more precise,is too awk-

proofof thisis too difficultto presentin this section.Consis- ward] for which the temperatureoscillationsat a point are

tent with these assumptions,we also take the mean fluid zero. For this temperaturegradient,the fluid propertiesand

temperature Tm(x) to be independentof y and to be the standing wave geometryconspireso that the temperature

sameas that of the plate. changes due to the pressureoscillationscancelthosedue to

To calculatethe oscillatingfluid temperatureT•, we be- the displacement oscillations.

ginwiththegeneralequationof heattransfer 28 The critical temperature gradientis important because,

aswe will seelater, it isthe boundarybetweenthe heatpump

and prime mover functionsof thermoacousticengines,and

pT • + v.17s =17.(K17T) 17r m• 17rcrit for efficientengineperformance.At this point,

+ (terms quadraticin velocities) ( 15) it is instructiveto further manipulateEq. (22) to displaythe

(where v is the velocity), which showsthat the entropyat a order of magnitudeof the critical temperaturegradient.

point changesin time due to convectiveflow of entropy, Equations(10) and ( 11) showthatp•/u• =pro a tan(x/X).

conductionof heat, and.generationof entropyby quadratic Thegeneralization

of Eq. ( 13) to anarbitraryfluidis29

terms (e.g., viscosity).Keepingonly first-orderterms,and y-- 1= Tmi• 2a2/c•. (23)

neglectingthermal conductionalongx, Eq. (15) becomes Substituting

boththeseresultsinto Eq. (22) yieldssimply

p,•T,• icos•+ u•

C•$m

•X )

= K•

c•2T•

c•y

2 '

(16) 17Tcrit

=y--1

T•tan

(-•). (24)

For gases(and also for usefulliquids), (y- 1)/T,• l• is

To expresss in termsofp and T, we write near 1, and for reasonableplate positionsin the standing

1151 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacoustic engines 1151

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wave,1 < tan(x/h) < 10.ThusV Tcrit,•, Tm/•. It will be use-

ful tokeepthisorderofmagnitude in mindlater,asanengine

whoselengthisa substantialfractionof h canbeexpected to

spana substantialfractionof the absolutetemperature.

Returningnow to the full expression

for T•: The y-de-

pendent

partofEq.(20), 1-- e- (•+oy/,•,,,

iscomplex.

Its

real and imaginarypartsare plottedin Fig. 8. It approaches

1 for y))6• and zerofor y•6•, wherethe plateimposesthe

conditionT• = 0. Most importantly,for y_•6•, its magni-

tude is still of the orderof 1, but it hasa substantialimagi-

nary part.

(Y)

B. Heat flux, work flux, and efficiency

This phaseshift in the oscillatingtemperatureof the

standingwaveat about y =t S,`,dueto the thermalpresence

of the plate,is an importantresultbecauseit leadsdirectlyto

the time-averagedheatflux in the x direction,which we now

compute.Sincewe are neglectingordinarythermalconduc- z

tivity in thex direction,the only way heatcanbetransported FIG. 9. The arrowsrepresentthe hydrodynamicheat-fluxdensity62alongx

alongx isby the hydrodynamictransportof entropy,carried nearthe surfaceof the plate.The heat-fluxdensityis largestat abouta dis-

by the os½illatoryvelocityu•: tance6Kfrom the surfaceof the plate.The shadedareaisequalto I-I6K,and

is approximatelythe effectivecross-sectional

area for heatflux alongx.

02 = T,, p,, s•u• . (25)

We havegiventhe heatflux per unit area•2 the subscript2 as

a reminderthat it is a second-order

quantity,the productof

two first-orderquantities.Using Eq. (18) to expresss• in UsingEq. (20) for T1 in Eq. (27) and performingthe inte-

termsof T• andp•, and usingEq. (8) to evaluatethe time- grationyield

averageproduct,we obtain

•2: -12PrnCp

Re[Tlg•] -- -•T,,fire[ p•g•]. (26)

The secondterm iszerobecausep•andu• are•r/2 out of time

phasefor a standingwave, i.e., p• = --ip] u] is purely u• 6,, Im

w 1+i

imaginary.Only Im[ T•] contributesto the first term be-

causeu• = iu] is purelyimaginary,sothat = -- III•,` T,./•p• ul (F -- 1), (29)

•2 = -•p,,CpIm[Tl]U• . (27) where F = V T,,/VT•,.•t is the ratio of actual temperature

gradientto the critical gradientdefinedin Eq. (22). Let us

We seethat •2 is a functionof y; its y dependenceisthe same

examinethisexpression briefly.The heatflux isproportional

as that of Im[ Tl], shownin Fig. 8. In Fig. 9, we showthis

to the area II6•, as is reasonablereferring to Fig. 9. It is

heat-fluxdensityschematically.It is largestat a distance6•

proportionalto T,•/3 ( = 1 for idealgases).It isproportion-

from the plate,and fallsto zeroboth at the platesurfaceand

al to the productp• u•, and so equalszero if the plate is at

at infinity.

either a pressurenode or a velocitynode of the standing

ThetotalheatfluxQ2along

theplate,inthex direction,

wave;themaximum

valueofp•u• isP •/2p•a, andoccurs

is foundby integrating•2 over the y-z plane:

halfway betweenthe nodes.Finally, the heat flux is propor-

tional to the temperature gradient factor F- 1. When

=n ay. (28) V Tm = V T•it, F- 1 = 0, so there is no heat flux. For

•7Tm). •7Tcrit, 1-'-- 1 > 0 andthe heatflux is towardthe pres-

surenode, while for V Tm < V T•rit, F- 1 < 0 and the heat

flux is away from the pressurenode. If suitableheat ex-

Magnitude•

• ' changersat temperaturesTn and Tc areinstalledat theends

of the plate (with Tu -- Tc = t7T•nAx), this heat flux car-

i Real

part riesheat from one exchangerto the other.

This heat flux is small under ordinary circumstances.

For example,for valuestypical of ordinary conversationin

•rt• [ • ,

ß

0 I 2 3 4 5

torsit is simpleto achievesoundamplitudesmanyordersof

Y/5• magnitudehigherthanthoseof ordinaryconversation.Since

Q2isproportional

toP•, andsince

inpractical

acoustic

en-

FIG. 8. The real and imaginaryparts,and magnitude,of T•(y). ginesthe entire crosssectionof the standingwave is filled

1152 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacoustic engines 1152

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P,

with plates (spaced roughly 26K apart), very high heat (a)

fluxesare easilyachieved.

We turn now from the heat flux to the work flux, i.e., the

acousticpower. We recall from thermodynamicsthat the

work dw doneby a differentialvolumeof fluid dx dy dz asit

expandsfrom dx dy dz to dx dy dz q- dV is p dV = - (p/

p)dx dy dz dp, andsothe powerper unit volumeis

tb= dw = p dp ß

(30) p

(b)

dx dy dz dt p dt

In the presentcaseof oscillatorymotion,we are interestedin

the time averagewith

P = Pmq-P•eiø't (31)

and

(c)

dp _ •P t-u •p= loop,

+ u,••x . (32)

dt •t •x

grangianto Euleriancoordinatesin fluid mechanics; i.e., Eq.

(30) is true in the referenceframeof the movingfluid, while

we want to calculateeverythingin the moreconvenientlabo-

Pm p

ratory rest frame.

SubstitutingEqs. (31 ) and (32) into Eq. (30) yields FIG. 10. Pressureand density, as functionsof time, in various circum-

four terms.Sincepl = 0, Ul = 0, and p•u• = 0, we are left stances.(a) About a thermalpenetrationdepthfrom the plate,andfor large

with enoughtemperaturegradient,the fluid expandsat high pressureand con-

tractsat low pressure,and hencedoesnet work. (b) About 6K from the

lb2 = -- ( CO

/pm ) iplpl (33) plate,and for small (or zero) V Tin, the fluid contractsat high pressureand

expandsat low pressure,and henceabsorbswork. (c) Either far from the

for the averageacousticpower producedper unit volume. plateor closeto the plate,pressureand densityoscillationsare in phase,so

no net work is done.

The subscript2 is again a reminder that this work is a sec-

ond-order quantity, the product of two first-order quanti-

ties.

To evaluateEq. (33), we mustexpress

P l in termsof T•

andPl: = - IIAxfo

W2 ©-•-

1to/3p•

Im[T,]dy

(34)

=I2 nAx (/90,

rm/

%

or

u• 6• Im

co 1+i

/91=

--Pm]-•Tlq-(•)

Pl, T (35) = -- 1ii6,•AxT0,[

•(p• 32c0

)2(1"-- 1). (37)

sothat Eq. (33) will havetwo terms.The secondterm iszero 4 p0,Cp

because

/p•p•= «Re[ilp•l2] - 0, so

The acousticpoweris proportionalto the volumeII6• Ax of

lb2= co/3ip•T• = -- «co/3p•

Im [ T, ]. (36) fluid that is about a thermal penetrationdepth from the

Just as in the heat-fluxdensity,Eq. (27), only Im[ T•] as plate.It is proportional

to (p•)2, andsois quadraticin the

shownin Fig. 8 contributesto the acousticpowerproduced acousticamplitude (as was the heat flux) and vanishesat

(or absorbed)per unit volume. The fluid about a thermal pressure

nodes.

Finally,W2isproportional

to (F - 1), the

penetrationdepth away from the plate "breathes,"because sametemperature

gradient

factorasappeared

in Q2.When

of thermal expansionand contraction,with the right time •7T0, = •7Tcrit, (l"- 1) = 0, and there are no temperature

phasewith respectto oscillatingpressureto do (or absorb) oscillationsin the fluid, and no acoustic power. For

net work. This is exactly the samefluid (shown shadedin V T0, > V Tcrit, F- 1 > 0 and acoustic power is produced

Fig. 9) that we have seenis responsiblefor the heat flux. nearthe plate.Whetherthispowerincreases

the amplitude

Fluid elsewhereis ineffectivein doing (or absorbing)work: of the standingwave, is radiatedaway to infinity, is simply

The densityoscillationsfor y>>6Kandfor y,•6• arein phase absorbed,or flows through an acoustic-to-electrictrans-

with the pressureoscillations,and hencedo (or absorb) no ducer to generateelectricpower dependson detailsof the

net work.This is shownschematicallyin Fig. 10. resonator,not on the plateitselfor on the standingwavenear

Thetotalacoustic

powerW2produced

isfound

byinte- the plate.For V TO,< V Tcrit, r • - 1 < 0 and acousticpoweris

grating•2 over all space,usingEq. (20) for T•: absorbednear the plate. Here, V Tm = 0 is a specialcaseof

1153 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacousticengines 1153

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such power absorptionthat is treated in many standard sureoscillations.But the additionof a stationaryplatewhose

acoustics

texts.3øIn that situation,the acousticpowerab- functionis simplyto imposea temporallyisothermalbound-

sorbedby a surfaceper unit area is [usingEq. (23) ] ary condition on the fluid changesthis dramatically. The

thermalinteractionof the wavewith the platestimulates( 1)

W2=16•co(y

, II Ax 4

- 1)Pp•2

ma2

ß

(38) a heat flux along the plate, about a thermal penetration

depthawayfrom theplate,and (2) the generationor absorp-

The thermal boundary-layerlossdescribedby Eq. (38) and tion of acousticpower (work) by the fluid near the plate.

viscousshearat the boundaryare the two dominantdissipa- Thesetwo effectsconstitutea heat engine;whether it is a

tion mechanisms for sound in small enclosures, as we will heat pump or a prime mover is determinedby the plate's

discuss further in Sec. III. temperaturegradient.

We have now calculatedheat and acousticpower ex-

pressionsfor a singleplate in a standingwave. This simple C. Lagrangian point of view

deviceis a heatengine.For smallenoughtemperaturegradi-

Sofar in this section,we haveadoptedthe usual(Euler-

ents,F -- 1 < 0, and the heatflux givenby Eq. (29) is in the

ian) point of view of fluid mechanics,focusingattentionon

positivex direction,up the temperaturegradientfrom cold

what happensat a givenpoint in spaceasthe fluid movesby.

to hot. Equation (37) showsthat the acousticpoweris then

Someadditionalinsightcanbe gainedby brieflyconsidering

negative,sothat work is absorbedto causethe "uphill" heat

an alternative(Lagrangian)pointof view,wherewefollowa

flux. This is exactlythe situationfor a heat pump, as in Fig.

givenparcelof fluid asit moves.Figure 11displaysthecycles

1. Similarly, for large enough temperature gradients,

of an acousticengineservingas prime mover and as heat

F- 1 > 0, and the signsof both heat and acousticpower

reverse, so that heat flows from hot to cold and acoustic pump, following a typical parcel of fluid as it oscillates

alongsidethe plate.In a real acousticengine,the oscillations

poweris produced;the deviceis a prime mover,asshownin

are sinusoidal;but for simplicity,we considerhere square-

Fig. 1.

wave,or articulated,motionsothat the basicthermodynam-

We now calculatethe efficiencyof the single-plateen-

ic cyclecan be picturedasconsistingof two reversibleadia-

gine.Foraprimemover,

theefficiency

•7= W/On.Forour

baticstepsand two irreversibleconstant-pressure steps.The

ß

cycleis identicalto theBraytoncycle.3•

•, = Oc= •2. Thenr/is justtheratioof Eqs.(37) and

(29)' An important factor in the operationof traditionalheat

enginesis phasing:Pistonsor valveshaveto movewith cor-

•7= Axflcop•

/p,• csu• . ( 39) rectrelativetimingfor the workingmediumto be transport-

Noticing that this expressionresemblesEq. (22) that de- ed throughthe desiredthermodynamiccycle.The thermo-

fined•7Tcrit

, we can write acousticenginecontainsno obviousmovingpartsto perform

thesefunctions,yet the acousticstimulationof heat flux and

•7TcritAX VT,, Ax AT r/c

r/ ....... , (40) the generation(or absorption) of acousticwork point to

T• FT• FT• r sometype of timed phasingof thermodynamicprocesses,

where•c is Carnot'se•ciency, the maximumpossiblee•- here achievedin someremarkablysimpleway. The key to

ciencyof an engineat T• spanningAT= VT• Ax, with phasingin acousticenginesis the presenceof two thermody-

A T• T•. It is remarkableto arrive at sucha simpleresult namicmedia:fluid andplate.As the fluidoscillatesalongthe

after somuch labor. The e•ciency of the single-plateprime plate at the acousticfrequency,it experienceschangesin

mover is lessthan Carnot's e•ciency by the simple factor temperature.Part of the temperaturechangescomesfrom

1/F. This illustratesthe fundamentalconflictbetweenpow- adiabatic compressionand expansionof the fluid by the

er and e•ciency that is commonto many practicalheat en- soundpressureand the rest is a consequence of the local

gines.Here, it is only in the limit F -- 1• 0, wherethe power temperatureof the plate itself. The heat flow betweenfluid

outputof the deviceapproaches zero,that the ideal,Carnot and plate doesnot produceinstantaneous changesin fluid

e•ciency is achieved;for nonzero power, the e•ciency is temperature.Instead,the heat flow betweenthe two media

necessarilylessthan Carnot's. createsa time delay, or time phasing,betweentemperature

We can make a similar calculationfor the heat-pump and pressureand motion,which is neededto drive the fluid

modeof operation,wherethe relevante•ciency is the coe•- througha thermodynamiccycle.Thusa simplebut irrevers-

cientofperformance,

COP= •a/•a. Usingthesame

meth- ible process•heat flow acrossa temperaturedifference•is

od as in the last paragraph,we and intrinsicto theoperationofthermoacousticengines.In other

words,rather poor thermal contactis necessaryto achieve

COP- F COPc ß (41)

the proper phasingof the temperatureoscillationsof the

Since F< 1 in the heat-pumpmode, we seeagain that the workingfluid. For sinusoidalmotion,theseargumentsapply

efficiencyis lessthan Carnot's;and, again,we seethat Car- to theparcelsabouta thermalpenetration

depthfromthe

not's efficiencyis approachedas F -- 1-•0, i.e., as the heat plate. Parcelsfarther away haveno thermal contactand are

pumpedby the engineapproacheszero. simplycompressedand expandedadiabaticallyand reversi-

We pausenow to summarizewhat we havelearned.An bly by the soundwave.However,parcelsthat are at abouta

ordinary acousticstandingwaveis accompaniedby no par- thermal penetrationdepth from a plate have goodenough

ticularly interestingthermodynamicphenomena---onlythe thermalcontactto exchangesomeheatwith the platebut, at

adiabatictemperatureoscillationsthat accompanythe pres- the sametime, are in poorenoughcontactto producea time

1154 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift:Thermoacousticengines 1154

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(a) Heat Pump: SmallV Tm (b) Prime Mover: LargeV Tm

%7Tm Tm+x1%7

Tm (1) Tm

-x•vT

m Tm+X

1VT

m •

'i ;//////////////////////////////////7

Gas Parcel

dW" • ---'3

2xI 2x I

i I

L, __ .,I

Tm- x.•%7

Tm Tm-x.•%7

Tm+ 2T• Tm-x•%7T

m Tm-x1%7

Tm+ 2T•

Pro-P• Pm+P• Pm-P• Pm+P•

(2) Tin+

Xl%7

Tm (2) Tm+

x1%7

Tm

F- -•l dW

I I

L_L:_J L__

FIG. 11. Typical fluid parcelsin (a) a

Tm-x1VTm+2T•-> Tm+ x•VTm Tm-x.•%7

Tin+2T• --) Tm+ x1%7

Tm thermoacoustic heatpumpand (b) a ther-

Pm+ P• Pm+ P• moacousticprime mover, experiencinga

four-stepcyclewith two adiabats(steps1

and 3) and two constant-pressure heat

transfers(steps2 and 4). Whetherthe en-

(3) Tm-XlVT

m Tm+x•VTm (3) Tm- x• V Tm Tm+x• VTm gineis a heat pump or prime mover is de-

terminedby the signof the parcel-to-plate

temperaturedifference2 Ti -- 2x• V Tm at

the beginningof steps2 and 4, whichis in

turn determinedby the sizeof I7T,• rela-

i • I .,x,i....I -2x•I•

I__ ._/

ii

I tive to T•/x•.

Tm+ x•%7

Tm- 2T1 Tin+

x•%7

Tm

Pro-P• Pm+P• Tm+ x•VTm-2T• Tm+ x•VTm

Pro-P• Pm+P•

IJ. _ _ J.I

Tin+x•V Tm-2T•-> Tm- x•%7

Tm Tin+x•VTm-2T•-• Tm- x•VTm

Pm'P• Pro-P•

delaybetweenmotion and heat transfer. heat flowsin the oppositedirectionfrom plate to fluid. If

Relativephasingof motion (steps1 and 3 in Fig. 11) heatflowsintothe parcelin step2 andoutof it in step4, the

and heat transfer (steps2 and 4) determineswhether the parcelexperiences

thermalexpansion

at highpressure

and

acousticengineis a primemoveror a heatpump.The signof contractionat low pressure,and hence does net work

the relativephasing,andthusthe modeof the acousticheat d W- d W'. If the heatflowsarereversed,the parcelexpands

engine,is determinedby the magnitudeof the temperature at low pressureand contractsat high pressure,so work

gradientalongthe plate.During the compressional part of dW- dW' is done on it. Both heat and work fluxes can thus

the acousticstandingwave, the parcel of fluid is both be reversedand the engineswitchedbetweenfunctionsby

warmedanddisplacedalongthe plate.As a result,two tem- alteringthe sizeof the temperaturegradient.A zero or low

peraturesare importantto that parcel:the temperatureof gradientis the conditionfor a heatpump;a high gradientis

the fluid after adiabaticcompressionalwarming and the the conditionfor a prime mover.Accordingto Eq. (22), at

temperatureof the part of the platenextto the fluid parcel the critical temperature gradient, V Tm -- •7Tcrit

aftercompression (anddisplacement).If thetemperatureof =Tm •cop]/pmCpU];there,

thetemperature

changealong

the fluid is higherthan that of the plate,heat will flow from the plate2 V Tm u]/co that the parcelseesjust matchesthe

the fluid to the plate.If the temperatureof the fluid is lower, parcel'stemperaturechangedue to adiabaticcompression

1155 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G. W. Swift: Thermoacousticengines 1155

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2Tin15'p•/Pro%,

andno heatflowsbetweenthe parceland will, however,include viscosity,longitudinalthermal con-

the plate. ductivity,finite (insteadof infinite) plateheatcapacity,and

Usually the displacementof a given parcel of fluid is a plurality of plates.

smallwith respectto the lengthof the plate.Thus therewill We could,at this point, build eachof theseeffectsinto

be an entire train of adjacentfluid parcels,eachconfinedin the model of Sec. I one at a time. Instead, to save labor, we

its cyclicmotionto a shortregionof length2x• _•2u•/co and proceednow to introducethe most generaltheory of ther-

eachreachingthe sameextremepositionasthat occupiedby moacousticenginesthat we know. We only outlinethe deri-

an adjacentparcelhalf a cycleearlier.During the firstpart of vation here;the detailsare givenin the Appendix.The re-

the cyclefor the heat-pumpmode,theindividualparcelswill sultsof thisgeneraltheoryarecomplicatedandopaque(and

eachmove a distance2x• toward the pressureantinodeand are mostusefulfor accuratenumericalcalculations,which

depositan amount of heat dQ at that positionon the plate. are alsodiscussedin the Appendix). To build our intuitive

During the secondhalf of the cycle,eachparcelmovesback understanding,in this sectionwe then immediatelymake a

to its startingpositionand picksup the sameamountof heat fewapproximations(suchasshortstacklength) that greatly

dQ from the plate. But this heat wasdepositedtherea half- simplifythe results,sothat we canmakesomecontactagain

cycle earlier by an adjacent parcel of fluid.' In effect, an with Sec. I.

amountof heatdQ is merelypassedalongthe plate from one The derivationgivenin detail in the Appendixproceeds

parcel of fluid to the next in the directionof the pressure as follows.Considera parallel-plategeometryas shownin

antinode.Thus the plateis usedonly for the temporarystor- Fig. 12, with the x axisalongthe directionof acousticvibra-

ageof heat. An individualparcelof fluid transportsheatdQ tion and the y axisperpendicularto the planesof the parallel

acrossonly a smalltemperatureintervalalongthe platethat plates.The plateshavethicknesses 2l and spacings2yo.We

is comparableto the localtemperaturechangeT•. However, write down the equationof motion for the fluid

becausethereare manyparcelsin series,dQ is shuttleddown

the plate, thereby traversing the temperature interval p +(v.V)v - -Vp+ttV2v+ •+ I7(I7.v),

TH -- Tc, which can be much larger than T•.

(42)

If, on the other hand, we examinethis train of gaspar-

celswith respectto the flow of work, we realize that each with the boundaryconditionv = 0 at the fluid-plate inter-

parcelhasa net effect.For example,a parcelof gasnear the face,and the continuityequationfor the fluid,

platein an engineoperatingin the heat-pumpmodeabsorbs

net work becauseits expansionis at a lowerpressurethan the c•p

cgt

+ V.(pv)--O, (43)

correspondingcompression.But sincethe sameis true for

every parcelin the train, the total work done on the gasis wherep is density,v is velocity,p is pressure,

tt is viscosity,

and • is secondviscosity.We requirethe fiuid'sisobaricspe-

proportionalto plate length.

cificheatperunitmass

%,itsthermal

expansion

coefficient

II. THE SHORT ENGINE

/3, its ratio of isobaricto isochoricspecificheats7/, and its

soundspeeda, so that we can usethe relations

In Sec.I, we consideredthe simplestpossibleexampleof

a thermoacousticengine,a singleshort plate in an acoustic

ds= (cp/T) dT-- (/3/p) dp, (44)

standingwave. By making a very large numberof simplify- dp= -- p/5'dT + (T'/a2) dp, (45)

ing assumptions,we arrived at the centralthermoacoustic- where Tis temperatureands is entropyper unit mass.Final-

engineeffectswithout too many distractingcomplications. ly, we write down equationsfor heat flow in the fluid and

The centraleffectsare: ( 1) The thermal boundarycondition solid

imposedon the fluid by the plate causesa phaseshift (in

time) of the oscillatingtemperaturein the fluid abouta ther-

mal penetrationdepth away from the plate. (2) Therefore,

heatflowshydrodynamically,parallelto the platein the flu-

id about a thermal penetrationdepth away from the plate,

(a)

and (3) acousticpoweris absorbedor producedby the fluid

abouta thermal penetrationdepthaway from the plate. (4) X•

Whether the heat flowsup or down the temperaturegradi-

ent, and whetherpoweris absorbedor produced,dependson Stack

ofplates

the magnitudeof the mean-temperaturegradientrelativeto (b) FIG. 12. Geometry used for

a critical temperaturegradient. Fluid multiplate enginecalculations.

In this section,we will developa more realisticmodel (a) Overall view, and (b) ex-

for thermoacousticengines.The resultsof thissectionwill be I Solid panded view. Each plate has

thickness21,andeachfluid lay-

developedfurther as they are applied in Sec. IV to three Fluid

er hasthickness2yo.

thermoacousticenginesthat have been built. In order to

2Z

spanned lSolid

Fluid y'

Y •x

keepthe resultsof this sectionintuitivelyunderstandable, we

willstillmaketheassumptions

thatthetemperature • x 2Yo

is much less than the absolutetemperatureand that the

lengthof the platesis much shorterthan a wavelength.We I Solid

1156 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacoustic engines 1156

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fluidandsolid,and•Sv= x/2v/(0is thefluid'sviscous

pene-

)= I7.(K17T)4-(terms

pT • 4-v.Vs quadratic

in tration depth (roughly, the distancethat sheardiffusesin a

velocity), (46) time 1/(0), with v = t•/Pm the kinematicviscosity.Also, H

is,asbefore,thetotalperimeterof platein contactwith fluid

OTs in a givencrosssectionparallelto the y-z plane;in other

psCs = KsV2Ts, (47)

•t words,H Ax is the total surfaceareaof plate-fluidcontact,

whereK isthermalconductivityandthe subscripts refersto Hyois thetotalfluidcrosssection,andHI is thetotalplate

cross section.

the solid, and use the boundary conditions T= T• and

K •T/•y = Ks •T•/•y at the fluid-solid interface.We then

linearizetheseequations,assumingthat all variablesoscil- A. Zero viscosity

late at angularfrequency(0: We will not yet try to directlyinterprettheseformida-

P =Pm 4-Pl (X) eiø't

, (48) ble-lookingresults.Instead,wequicklymakethreeassump-

tions, to simplify the equationsenoughto seewhat they

P = Prn(X) 4-Pl (X,y)eiø't, (49) mean.

T= Tm(x) 4- Tl(X, y)e i•'t, (51) proximationin manyrealisticsituations,but wewill put vis-

cosityback into the problemin Sec.IIB.) Thus cr= 0 and

Ts = T,, (x) 4- Ts•(x, y)e i'øt, (52)

s =Sm(X) + S•(X,y)e i"'t. (53) Second,wemakethe "boundary-layer" approximation:

In theAppendix,wemanipulatethe resultingequations We assumethat yo>>•5• and l>>•Ss.

In makingthisapproxi-

(by integratingwith respectto y) into the form of a wave mation, our goal is simplyto set the hyperbolictangents

equalto unity.In Fig. 13,weplotrealandimaginarypartsof

equationforp•(x) in termsof dTm/dx andmaterialproper-

tanh[ ( 1 4- i) yo/•5•]. Notethatat Yo= 2•5•thefunctionis

.

alreadywithin a few percentof unity. We will seelater that

cludingboth heat and work) alongx in terms of Pl (x),

Tm(x), materialproperties,and geometry.The waveequa-

practicalenginesusuallyhave•5••<Yo•<2•5• (and similarly

tion is for l and•s ), sotheboundary-layerapproximation isactual-

ly rather goodevenin realisticsituations.

Third, we make the "short-stack"approximation.We

l +es ' Pl-[ (02 dx Prn assumethat thestackissho• enoughthat it doesnot perturb

the standingwaveappreciably,sowe cantake

a2

(02 (l-a)(1

f• -f•+es) dT•dp•

dx dx

_ O,

_ ( 54) p• = P• sin(x/X)•p• (60)

and

Theseare the sameexpressions aswe usedin Sec.I, except

H2=

Ilyo

im[dP•

2(0pm Pl(1--•,-- (Tm•(f•:--•')

[-•XX )(1+ )]

1+es for the extrafactor( 1 + l/Yo) in u1.This factorappearsbe-

causethe fluid's volumetricvelocityis the sameinsideand

+

nyoc atto dp• outsidethe stack,sothe velocityin the stackis higherthan

2(03pm(1--0

') dx dx dx that outsideby the cross-sectional area ratio ( Yo+ l)/yo.

We alsoassumethat, for purposesof integrationalongx, the

XIm[f,+

(f,,--f•,)(l+esf•,/f,,)}

(1 + es)(1

stackis short enoughthat pl and ul may be regardedas

independent of x within the stack, and' that

AT = Tn -- Tc • Tin, so thermophysical propertiescan be

- n(yoK + lKs)•, (55) assumedindependentof Tm and hencealsoindependentof

dx

X.

where

With thesethreeassumptions,

andusing

cr- cplu/K- v/•' (56)

is the fluid's Prandtl number,

tanh[(1 + i) yo/tS•,

]

f• = , (57)

( 1 + i) yo/tS•,

f• = tanh

[(14-i)yo/tS,,

(1 + i) yo/tS,,

] (58)

and

PmCprS,,tanh[ ( 1 + i) yo/tSK]

•-•

*" 0

0 I

part

• 2

,,J

3

es = . (59)

yo/b•

pscstSs

tanh[ ( 1 + i) l/tSs]

Here, tSKandtSsare the thermalpenetrationdepthsin the FIG. 13.Therealandimaginary

partsof tanh[( 1 4- i)yo/6K].

1157 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G. W. Swift:Thermoacousticengines 1157

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dpl on the efficiencyof thermoacoustic engines,soit isbestif the

(62)

x components K andKs in the secondterm of Eq. (64) areas

from Eq. (A3), Eqs. (54)-(59) simplifyto small as possible.Yet nonzero thermal conductivitiesin the

y directionare essentialfor the engine'soperation.The y

P•+

to

me2

02 dlldpl

2 dx •

•'-•-•dx,I

componentof the fluid'sthermalconductivityappearsin tS•

in the firstterm ofEq. ( 64); if it werezero,therewouldbeno

(y-- boundary-layer thermoacoustic effectsat all. The y compo-

(F -- 1)p•, (63) nentof theplate'sthermalconductivityappearsin tSsin esso

(1 +i)(1 +e•)yo

that if the plate had no thermal conductivityalong y, no

1 Tmfi plateheatcapacitywouldbe accessible, the platecouldim-

4 1 poseno thermalboundaryconditionon the fluid,andagain

therewouldbenothermoacoustics effects.Thusanisotropic

dTm

-- II( yoK + lKs) • , (64) conductors,

withKx < Ky andKsx< Ks.v,

aredesirable.

dx

We canalsousethe expression for energyfluxto discov-

and er what qualitiesof a working fluid result in high power

densityfor thermoacoustic engines.To get an estimateof

es= tomC•6,c/psCs6s

, (65) powerperunitvolume,

webeginwithEq.(64) forH2asan

estimateof the engine'spower,and divideby the approxi-

whereF = I7Tm/I7TcritandI7Tcrit---Tmfi(.Dp'•

•rn Cp

U•,just mate volume of the engine (including resonator)

asin Sec.I. Theseexpressions

aresimpleenoughthat we can

V = II6,, ( 1 + l/Yo) (A/4). Setting F - 1--•1 and

easily make contact with the resultsof Sec.I.

p• u• • P • ( 1 + l/Yo)/2pro

a fromEqs.(60) and(61), and

We beginwith the expressionfor the energyflux, Eq.

neglectinglongitudinalthermal conductance,we obtain

(64). Noticing that IIy o is the total cross-sectional

area of

fluid in the y-z plane, and similarly that IIl is the cross- H2 f T•fi P• f T•fi

sectionalarea of solid,we seethat the secondterm in Eq. .... tOm

a2M2, (66)

V 2 1 +es tom a2 2 1 +es

(64) isjust the ordinary conductionof heat down the tem-

perature gradient by fluid and solid. The first term is the whereM = Pn/tom

a2isa kindofMachnumber,

indicative

of

hydrodynamic

heatfluxQ2wederived

forthesingle

platein the degreeof nonlinearbehavior(beyondthe scopeof this

Sec. I, Eq. (29), exceptfor the factor 1/( 1 + es) that we review)to beexpected.The powerdensityisproportionalto

discuss in the nextparagraph.The heatfluxandtotal energy f, because higherfrequencyleadsto shorterwavelength and

flux are essentiallyequal in the short-stackapproximation

ß hence a smaller resonator. It is proportional to

because W2 is relatively small: W2/Q2 Tmi•/( 1 + es), so the most basic requirementthat the

= AT/TIn F,• 1, becausewe assumedA T,• Tm. As before, working fluid must satisfyis that it have a large thermal

weseethat thehydrodynamicheatfluxisdownthetempera- expansioncoefficient.Gases(Tm/3 = 1), and liquidsnear

ture gradient for sufficientlylarge temperaturegradient their criticalpoints( Tm/3---1), havethe largestexpansion

(i.e., F -- 1 > 0), and up the temperaturegradientfor small coefficients.

gradient.This heat flux is proportionalto the area II6•, so Aboveall, because

it appearsquadratically,theacoustic

that if yo=6•, essentiallythe entire cross-sectionalarea of pressure

amplitudePAor Mach numberM shouldbeaslarge

fluidin thestackii effective

in carrying

heat. as possible. The amplitude-dependent factor

The propertiesof the platematerialappearin the factor P •/toma2= tom

a2M2 in Eq. (66) represents

the compres-

es--pmCv6,,/psCs6s,

whichreflects

the factthat the plate sionalenergyper unit volumestoredin the fluid.For gases,

maynot havesufficientheatcapacityto successfully impose PA is likely to be limited to M=0.1 by nonlineareffects,so

the boundaryconditionTl = 0 on the fluid. In the bound- thattom

a2= 7/Pro

shouldbeaslargeaspossible.

Fortypically

ary-layerapproximation,theplatehasheatcapacityperunit incompressible

liquids,

Pma2>)Pro,andP• islikelytobelim-

areap•c•6• availableto interactthermallywith the plate- ited by the strengthof the resonator(and by cavitationat

fluid interface.If this availableheat capacityis large com- P.4=Pm) longbefore

M becomes

large;thustom

a2should

be

paredto the corresponding fluid heatcapacityper unit area assmallaspossible.In both cases,high meanpressures and

Pm%6,,,thenT1= 0 istheboundary

condition

onthefluid, high acousticpressuresare desirable.

asweassumed in Sec.I. Butifp•c•6• isnotlargecomparedto Thermoacoustic enginesarecapableof veryhighpower

pm%6,,,Tl at theboundary is nonzero. The temperature densities,accordingto Eq. (66). For example,a gasengine

changeexperienced by a thermalpenetrationdepthof fluid with f= 1000Hz, Pm= 10 bar, and M = 0.1 hasa power

asit relaxesto a penetrationdepthof plateistherebyreduced densityof 8 W/cm3;a liquid-sodium engineat thesamefre-

by a factor 1/( 1 q-e•); consequently,the hydrodynamic quencywithP• = 200barhasa powerdensityof 4 W/cm3.

heat flux is reducedby the samefactor. For comparison, a typical (100 hp, 1 ft3) automobileen-

Throughout this review, we assumethat the thermal gine'spowerdensityis 3 W/cm 3.

conductivitiesof the fluid and plate are isotropic;what if The waveequation,Eq. (63), isreadilymodifiedto give

they are not? The secondterm in Eq. (64), the ordinary an expressionfor acousticpowersimilarto Eq. (37) of Sec.

conductionof heat down the temperaturegradient,comes I. We beginby noticingthat, in the geometryof Fig. 12(a),

from the x components of the fluid and plate thermalcon- net acousticpower cannotescape(nor flow in) in the y

ductivities.This heatconductionhasa whollynegativeeffect direction.Thus the acousticpower generatedor absorbed

engines , 1158

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mustshowup as a differencein averageacousticintensity considerable algebraiccomplication,and a little conceptual

p•u• betweenthe two endsof the stack: difficultyas now u• is a functionof y.

As usual, we assumestanding-wavephasingbetween

W2--IIYo[(plUl)right-

( plUl)left

] pressureand velocity,sothat pressurep• = p• canbe taken

d asreal, and the meanx velocity

= Ily0Ax• (PlUl)

, (67)

proportionalto the total volumeIIyo Ax of fluid in the stack <u,)---1 Yo Jo

u, dy = i<u• ) (72)

region.We noticethat, if the left-handsideof Eq. (63) is ispurely

imaginary.

Wewillrequire

expressions

fordp•/dx

equatedto zero,theresultingexpression isthe familiar,ener- in termsof (u•) and (u•), whichwe obtainby integrating

gy-conservingacousticwaveequation,sothat the unfamiliar Eq. (A4) with respectto y. The resultis

right-handsidemustrepresenta source( or sink) of acoustic

power.With thisclueasmotivation,wemanipulateEq. (67)

asfollows,usingEq. (62):

dp.•t

= _ iCOpm

<Ul)

= COpm

(u•) ß

(73)

clx -œ

Note that dpl/dX is complex,eventhough(u{) is real.

IJV

2 = dxd (pitt,)

IIy o Ax

=__1

2

Re d•• dp

•] As before, we take

F = VTm/VTcrit (74)

=51

-Re[P'dx

d•--iO)pm

Ul•l]ß and

(68)

VTcrit= Tm•(Dp•OmCp

<U•). (75)

The secondtermin bracketsispurelyimaginary,soit canbe These definitions are somewhat a matter of convenient fa-

dropped: miliarity, as the conceptof a criticaltemperaturegradient

becomes hazyin thepresence of viscosity.Without viscosity,

1 iiyøAxRePldxI ' (69) •7Tcritisthetemperaturegradientfor whichthetemperature

oscillationsat a givenx locationare zerofor all y. But in the

AgainusingEq. (62) for dp•/dx, we rewritethe waveequa-

tion presence of viscosity,Ti dependson y in sucha complicated

fashionthat no naturaldefinitionof •7Tcritexists.

Substituting theseexpressions intothe energyfluxequa-

du

ax• p•2

i(o[(l q-(y-l)6,,

=

i)( l q-es) yo

(F-- 1)p• --p•

] (70)

tion, Eq. (55), and into the wave equation,Eq. (54), and

then makingthe boundary-layerapproximation(6• <Yo,

and substitutethis into Eq. (69) to find simply

6,,"•Yo,6s< l) sothatall hyperbolic tangentscanbesetequal

W2

= 1 ii$K

Ax (y- 1)co (p•)2(F

-- 1), (71) to unity, we obtain

4 pma2(1 + es)

the sameresult as Sec.I, Eq. (37), exceptfor the factor •2= 1n6• rm•p• 2 2

1/( 1 + es) that we discussedabove. 4 (1 + e•)(1 +a)(1--$•/yo+$•/2yo)

We pauseto summarizethe resultsof the last several

paragraphs.In the boundary-layerapproximation(which is X F -- l+•--

goodevenin many realisticsituations),for a short ( Ax < X )

stackof plates,and neglectingviscosity,the heat flux and

acousticpower are givenby expressions very similar to the - II( yoK + IK• )• (76)

dx

simpleresultsof Sec.I. Thus a practicalenginecan be ex-

and

pectedto usea workingfluidwith a largethermalexpansion

coefficient and to have all available cross-sectional area filled

with platesspacedfrom to apart. The only effectof

longitudinal(i.e., alongx) thermalconductivityis to add to

pløt -

pma2

(.0

2 d.(1-f,•

•X''pm dpl)

dx'

the heat flux in the x directionby simpleconduction.This

reducesthe engine'sefficiency.The finite specificheat and

transversethermal conductivityof the plate material de-

(y--1)6,,p•

(1q-i)(1 (,(1q-x/-•)(1--fv)

7FT[)yo F -,).

(77)

creaseboth the hydrodynamicheat flux and the acoustic

powerby the samefactor, 1/( 1 + es); in the absenceof lon- When cr= 0, thesereducesimplyto Eqs. (63) and (64)

above.

gitudinal thermal conductivity, this would leave the effi-

ciencyunchanged. As before, we calculate the work flux in the short-stack

approximationusing

B. Arbitrary viscosity W2

=llyo

Ax

1 Re(

Pl•d,ix

<i,)+dp,

<i' )).' (78)

2

nonzeroviscosity.The derivationparallelswhat we havejust weobtaind ( • •)/dx in thefirsttermfromthewaveequation

completedin this section.The inclusionof viscosityadds by noticingthat the secondterm in Eq. (77) is

engines 1159

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In the single-plate

derivation

of Sec.I, Qe- 0 and

02 dx Pm • 02 dx We= owhenVTm= VTcrit ßWhendissipative

nonidealities

such as viscosityand longitudinalthermal conductionare

and we obtain dt:,,/dx in the secondterm from Eq. (73). included,the conceptof critical temperaturegradientbe-

Substitutingthoseexpressions into Eq. (78), we eventually comesmorecomplicated.

Let uscall (VT) crit

n thetempera-

obtain

turegradient

forwhichHe•--' 0, and(VT)crit

w thatforwhich

W2=0. We seefrom Eqs. (76) and (80) that, for

4 pma2(1 +•s) dTm/dx> (VT) w We> 0 andJ-/e

crit, > 0, sotheengineis a

primemover;and for dTm/dx< (VT)u W2< 0 and crit,

2 2

He< 0,sotheengine

isaheatpump. Inbetween, for(VT)u crit

w (which couldbe a substantialrange,if

eitherviscosityor longitudinalthermalconductionis large),

- • H6• Ax 2 2

. (80)

the engineis in a uselessstate,absorbingwork, absorbing

4 1 -- 6•/Yo + 6•/2yo heat at Tn, and rejectingheat at Tc. Another critical tem-

When a = 0, this reducessimplyto Eq. (71 ) above. peraturegradientcould be definedby includingresonator ß

considerable complication toH: andW:in theshort-stack, ily to retainyet a fourth temperaturegradient,Eq. (75), as

boundary-layerapproximations.Theseresultsare usefulfor the definitionof V Tcritin this section,for algebraicsimpli-

numericalcomputations,but are too complicatedfor much city.

intuitive appreciation.To retain the essentialeffectsof vis- In this section,we havedevelopedapproximateexpres-

cosity without all the tediousdetails, we will discussthese sionsfor the energyflux andacousticpowerofthermoacous-

results onlytolowestorderin viscosity, namelytoorder•. tic enginesin realisticsituations.In additionto the assump-

We alsoassumeYo=6•, which is the casefor most realistic tions that the platesare rigid and stationaryand that the

applications, sothat6•/yo=•. With theseassumptions, acousticsis linear,we haveonly madethe "boundary-layer"

Eqs. (76) and (80) reduceto and "short-stack"approximations.It turns out that the

boundary-layerapproximation,yo>•6K,is not especiallyre-

strictive.It lets us set varioushyperbolictangentsequal to

4 •1 + es)(1-•) unity, and fortuitouslythe errorsintroducedby doingsoare

only of the order of 10% for realisticenginegeometries

- n(y•+ tKs)•, where Yoand 6Kare nearlyequal.The short-stackapproxi-

dx mation, Ax,• X and A T,• Tin, is also not too restrictive.In

our (admittedly limited) experience,Eqs. (76) and (80)

We

__41II8•Ax(Y-

• 1)co(p•

pmae(1+es)

): (F-l) predictthe performance of realistic"long" acousticengines

to within about a factor of 2. So, for accurate calculations,

the resultspresentedin the Appendix mustbe used;but for

- •,ns•,ax Opr•(U•)•. (82)

roughestimates,the resultsof this sectionare goodapproxi-

With viscosityappearingonly oncein eachexpression,these mations,and are much simplerto computewith.

are now simple enoughto interpret. [However, Eqs. (81 ) In addition, the resultsof this sectionare fairly easyto

and (82) are quantitativelyinaccurateexceptfor fluidswith interpret intuitively. The expressions for arbitrary viscosity

extremely low Prandtl numbers.] The lowest-ordereffectof are complicated,but thoseto lowestorder in viscosity,Eqs.

viscosityon the acousticpower,the secondterm in Eq. (82), (81 ) and (82), are simple.There, it is easyto "see"Sec.I's

is easyto understand.It is simply the power dissipatedby expressions for heatflux and acousticpowerabouta thermal

viscous shear in the fluid in the boundary layer, a well- penetrationdepth from the plates,modifiedaslongitudinal

known fluid-mechanical

result.

3• Thus viscosityabsorbs thermal conductanceadds to the heat flux, as viscousshear

acousticpower, having a deleteriouseffecton the efficiency dissipatesacousticpower,and as nonidealplate properties

of thermoacousticengines.In this respect,the bestworking modify the thermal boundaryconditionat the fluid-plate

fluids are those with low Prandtl number: liquid metals interface. It is also easy to understandthat the engine's

(tr-•0.01), superfluid

3He-4Hemixtures(tr-•0.1), andbi- workingfluid shouldhavea largethermal expansioncoeffi-

nary monatomicgasmixtures (tr-• 0.3). cient and a small Prandtl number.

To lowestorderin x/-•,Eq. (81) shows thatthehydro-

dynamicheatfluxis increasedby 1/( 1 --x/-•). Thisfactor III. OTHER COMPONENTS OF THERMOACOUSTIC

ENGINES

arisesbecausethe meanvelocity(u•) underestimates the

velocitywith which entropyis convectedalongthe stack.As In the last two sections,we have focused our attention

we saw in Sec. I, the convectiveentropy transport occurs on the heart of the thermoacousticengine:the stack,where

mostly at distance6• from the plate. The velocity there is the presenceof a standingwave stimulatesa time-averaged

higherthanthemeanvelocityby 1/( 1 --x/tr). Thisfactor convectiveheatflux eitherup or downthe temperaturegra-

also decreasesthe efficiencyof thermoacousticprime mov- dient, accompaniedby the absorptionor productionof

ers, but tends to increase the COP of thermoacoustic heat acousticpower.In this section,we will introducethe other,

pumps. auxiliarycomponents neededto makecompleteacousticen-

1160 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift:Thermoacousticengines 1160

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gines:heat exchangers,resonators,and transducers.As agedheatflow, eventhoughit is significantlyhotterat (c')

thesecomponents are familiarfrom otherapplications of thanat (c). Hence,thereisnocompensating heatflowfrom

thermodynamics andacoustics,wewill bebrief,tryingonly (c) to match the heat dQ removedby (b') from the heat

to illuminatefeatures

thatareespeciallyrelevantor peculiar exchanger at TH. In thissimplepicture,heatdQ is extracted

to theirusein acousticengines. Theseremarkswill befurther fromthereservoir at Ta by (b'), passedondowntheplatein

illustratedby the examplesof Sec.IV. successive cyclesby successive parcels,andthenrejectedto

the reservoirat Tc by (d).

We can understandfrom thesesimpleargumentsthat

theheatexchanger shouldhavea lengthof aboutthe peak-

A. Heat exchangers

to-peakdisplacement amplitude2u•/co.In Fig. 15(a), we

Heatexchangers arerequiredin thermoacoustic engines showa heat exchangerthat is longerthan 2u•/co.In that

to supplyand extract heat at the endsof the stack.Recall the case,thereare someparcelsof fluid that contactonly the

Lagrangianpictureof the acousticallystimulatedheattrans- heatexchanger, at bothextremesof their positions, sothat

port alongeachplatein thestack,presented at theendof Sec. theyperformno usefulfunction.Their presence is purely

I. Figure 14 showsone plate, cross-hatched, with heat ex- dissipative, by virtueof bothviscousandthermalprocesses

changers at eachendconsisting of cavitieslabeledTH and (aswill bediscussed in subsectionB below,regardingreso-

Tc. Flowingheat-exchange fluids,heatpipes,or perfectheat nator losses).On the other hand, in Fig. 15(b) we showa

conductorskeeptheseheatexchangers isothermal.We show heatexchanger that is shorterthan 2u•/co,sothat thereare

five parcelsof fluid near the plate, and their extremesof parcelsthat "jump" from the plateto well pastthe heatex-

position.Thus (a) and (a') represent, respectively, themax- changer,andnevercontactthe heatexchanger at all. Such

imumexpanded andmaximumcompressed positions of par- parcels,and their bucket-brigade "partners"extendingin

cel (a), and similarly for (b) and (b'), (c) and (c'), (d) and seriesalongtheplate,areineffective in carryingheat(except

(d'), and (e) and (e'). Then the cyclefor the typical"mid- insofaras they transferheat longitudinallyby diffusionto

plate"parcel( a) consists of a rapidmotion( 1-• 2 ) from (a) parcelsthat areproperlylinkedto theheatexchangers). The

to (a') with no heat flowing,a wait (2-• 3 ) at (a') for ther- properlength,2u•/co,for a heatexchangeris impreciseby

mal equilibriumwith the plate,a rapid motion (3-• 4) from roughly•SK, asthat is the distanceoverwhichheatcandiffuse

(a') to (a) with no heatflowing,followedby a wait (4-• 1) longitudinallypastthe endsof the heatexchanger.

againfor thermalequilibrium.As wesawin Sec.I, oneresult It is alsodesirablethat as little dissipationof acoustic

of thiscycleis a time-averaged hydrodynamic transportof poweraspossible shouldoccuron the heatexchanger sur-

heatalongthedirectionof acousticoscillation.For clarityin faces.Theselosses,due to viscosityand thermal conductiv-

Fig. 14,we havedrawn nonoverlapping parcels,but in fact ity, shouldbe roughlyproportionalto the heatexchanger

we imaginethat (a') and (b), or (d') and (a), occupythe surfacearea,and hencesomelossis unavoidable. Applica-

samelocations.Then it is easyto seethat, at midplateloca- tion of the equationspresentedin the next subsectionfor

tions,the time-averaged heattransferfrom fluid to plateis surfacedissipation of acoustic powerto theseheatexchanger

zero;forinstance,theheatdQ deliveredto theplateby (a) is surfacesis questionable, as thoseresultsare valid only for

removedfrom the platea half-cyclelater by (d'). fully developed laminaroscillatoryflowandwill not apply

Now, let uslookcloselyat what happensat the endsof near an abruptchangein surfacesuchas occursat the non-

the platenearthe heatexchangers. Consider, for example, plateendof the heatexchanger. Nevertheless, theequations

parcel (c), which makes thermal contact to the heat ex- probablygivetherightorderof magnitude of acoustic power

changerat point (c) of itscyclebut isout of thermalcontact dissipationin the heat exchangers, sufficientlyaccuratefor

at location(c'). After compression ( 1-• 2 ), theparcelishot- mostdesigncalculationsasin mostcasesthis is a smallfrac-

ter at (c') thanit wasat (c), by the peak-to-peak adiabatic tion of the engine'stotal powerdissipation.

temperatureoscillation2T• givenby Eq. (12), but it hasno The idealheatexchanger, with perfectthermalconduc-

meansat (c') to thermallyrelax.Nothinghappens to it dur- tance,no acousticpowerdissipation,and a lengthof 2ul/co,

ing the waitingperiod(2 -• 3), soon decompression ( 3 -• 4) is impossible. Fortunately,reasonable compromises work

it comesbackat (c) to the sametemperaturethat it had at quitewell, asshownby the enginesdescribedin Sec.IV and

( 1). Parcel(c) just idles,not contributingto anytime-aver- the Introduction.

4 3

e' d d' a I a' b b' c 1,4 c'

fluidparcels

abouta thermalpenetration

depthfromoneplateofathermoacousticengine,

withheatexchangers atitsends.The

directions

oftheheatflowsdQ havebeenchosen forprime-moveroperation.

Forclarity,wehavedrawntheplatelengthonlya fewpeak-to-peakoscillation

amplitudeslong;usuallytheplateismuchlonger,sothata longchainof parcels

actsin series,

passing

heatalongtheplatelikea bucketbrigade.

engines 1161

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(a)

I 4 2 3

FIG. 15.Heate•changers

ofimproper

length.

In (a) the heat exchangeris too long,sothat the

parcelof fluid shownmerelyshuttlesheat from

one part of the heat exchangerto another,ab-

sorbingwork. In (b) the heat exchangeris too

(b) short,sothat the chainof parcelsshownhasno

source of heat.

A resonatoris necessaryto contain the stack and heat In Eqs. (83) and (84), we have alreadyimplicitly as-

exchangersof,a thermoacousticengine,sincestanding-wave sumedQ>• 1. The Q of a resonance(acousticor otherwise)

time phasingofp• and u• is needed.The resonatorshould may be measuredor computedin severalways. If a reso-

have a high quality factor Q, to minimize the dissipationof nanceis excitedand then allowedto freelydecay,the oscilla-

acousticpowerinto heat. We will illustratethis in great de- tion decaysaccordingto

tail with the half-wavelengthplane-waveresonator (and, e - •"/2• ei,O,, ( 85)

later, briefly mention someother resonatorsalsowell suited

sothat in Q cyclestheoscillationamplitudedropsby a factor

for acousticengines).Considera cylinder,as shownin Fig.

e- •. Alternately,

16, with a length (alongx) of L, a radiusR, and filledwith a

fluid of densityPm and soundspeeda. The fluid oscillates Q= roEst/P, (86)

longitudinallyat frequencyto, at the lowestresonancefre- where

Wstistheenergy

stored

intheresonance

andP isthe

quencyof the resonator,sothat L = A/2. The resonanceis averagerateof energydissipation.

A third viewpointis that

maintained by either a thermoacousticprime mover or a Q is a measureof the sharpnessin frequencyof a driven

transducer,not shown in the figure. We take x = 0 in the resonance.

Tocompute

theQoftheplane-wave'resonator

of

center of the resonator, so that Fig. 16,we will useEq. (86), sowe will needexpressions

for

Pl = PA sin(x/X) --p• (x) , (83) WstandP. Botharesecond

orderintheacoustic

amplitude,

aswereQ2andW2.WeobtainWstbyintegratingthetime-

u• = i(PA/pma)Cos(x/•) •iu • (x) , (84)

averagedacousticenergydensity

e= :•[( p• )2//9ma2 (lt,•)2

] q-llOm (87)

overthe volumeof the resonator.The firstterm in the energy

densityis the compressiveenergystoredper unit volume,

and the secondterm is obviouslythe kinetic energyper unit

I•X volume.SubstitutingEqs. (83) and (84) into Eq. (87) and

-L/2 L/2

gst

=•edV=

41IOta

P} 2L

a2rrR . (88)

•x

Bulk soundattenuationand parasiticlossessuchasme-

chanical hysteresisand radiation outsidethe resonatorare

generallynegligiblein acousticengines;hence,mostof the

ß

thermal effects at the resonator walls. Surface viscous and

,.. Pma

thermal attenuationof soundis thoroughlydiscussed

in ad-

E vancedtexts,but the treatmentin introductorytexts33is

brief, and not easilyappliedto our problemhere.Hence,we

beginwith our Eq. (80) for the time-averagedacousticpow-

FIG. 16. A plane-waveresonatorof length L = A/2 and radiusR. The er absorbedby a stack!Dividing Eq. (80) by thesurfacearea

means to drive the acoustic oscillation is not shown. of the stackII Ax, andtaking Yo>>6• and F = 0 asappropri-

1162 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacousticengines 1162

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ate for the resonator,we obtainan expressionfor k, the dissi- TH Tc

k....41 (P•)28,

pma2

' l+e

1,--1

s 09

1 (U,

•)28v09

q-"•-Pm , (89)

as obtainedin advancedtexts34 (exceptfor es, which is

usuallyneglected).The expressionis readily interpretedin

terms of the acousticenergy density,Eq. (87). Equation

(89) showsthat, within the appropriatepenetrationdepths FIG. 17.A thermoacoustic enginein a resonator.The cross-hatchedregion

8Kand By, the compressiveand kinetic energydensitiesare representsall fluid within a penetrationdepth of someplate in the stack;

suchfluidisusefulin performingtheengine'sfunction.The speckledregion

dissipatedessentiallyeverycycleof the wave.The meanki- representsall fluid within a penetrationdepth of the resonatorwalls;such

neticenergy

perunitvolume

p,• (ul)2/4 timestheviscous fluidiscompletelydissipative. The restof thefluid,unshaded,storesenergy,

penetrationdepth8• is the kineticenergyin the fluid within and determinesthe frequencyof the acousticresonance.

a penetrationdepthof the surface,per unit areaof resonator

surface;thisenergyis dissipatedby viscousshearin the fluid

at a rate w. Similarly, the compressive energydensityin the

fluid-near the wall is dissipatedby thermal relaxation be- IF - 11sin2(x/X) (92)

tween fluid and wall; the extra factor (•/-- 1)/( 1 q- es) ap- 2rrRL +R/L + 4-d/2(r--

pears in the compressive-energy dissipationterm because

that dissipationis proportionalto the differencebetweenthe WewantIW211•>• 1.Weseethat,neglecting

several

possible

adiabaticand isothermalcompressibilities, which is propor- factors

of2, IVl/k isjusttheratiooftwoareas,

thetotal

tionalto (•/- 1), modifiedby the availablesurfaceheatca- surfacearea of plate II Ax and the resonatorsurfacearea

pacity throughEs.The power thus lost from the acoustic 2rcRL.Thus resonatorlossesare negligibleto the extentthat

resonanceappearsasheat,at the temperatureof the resona- the dissipativesurfaceareaof the resonatoris negligiblerela-

tor.

tive to the productivesurfacearea of the stack,or, alterna-

Toobtain

thetotaldissipation

• fortheplane-wave

res- tively, to the extent that the dissipativevolume2rcRLS,,of

onator, we integrateEq. (89) over the surfacearea of the the resonatoris negligiblerelativeto the productivevolume

resonator,using Eqs. (83) and (84) for p• and ul. The II Ax 6K_•rrR2 Ax of the stack,asshownin Fig. 17.Even

result is thoughthis conclusionis not quantitativelyaccurate,it is a

usefulintuitive guidefor reducingresonatorlosses.For ex-

ample,

increasing

R increases

I proportionately,

since

4 p,•a

2wrrRL

8,, q-es the dissipative

volumeisproportionalto R whilethe produc-

(The 2R/L term comesfrom t-heend capsof the resonator, tivevolumeisproportional toR 2.Asa secondexample,con-

eachofarearrR2.Sincep]-• 0 andu• = 0 there,theendcaps siderthebeneficialeffectof increasing

Pmby increasingpro,

experienceonly compressive energylosses,proportionalto while keepingAx, R, and L constant.Increasingp,• de-

8•.) Finally, we can calculatethe Q usingEqs. (86), (88), creases

6• by1/x/-p,

• , thereby

decreasing

thedissipative

vol-

and (90): ume,whiletheproductive

volumercR2 •c staysconstant

(as

longasthenumber

ofplates

isincreased

byx/P-•,tokeepthe

1

-- =

8• t

8• (y-- 1) t

28• (y-- 1) . (91) plate spacingcomparableto 38• ).

Q R R (l+es) L (lq-es) Thus it is conceptuallyusefulto divideup the volumeof

a thermoacousticengine'sresonatorinto three portions,as

The Q is of the order of the resonatorradiusdividedby the shownin Fig. 17.Fluidwithina penetration

depthof a plate

thermal or viscouspenetrationdepth.The simplicityof this isproductive.Fluid within a penetrationdepthof the resona-

resultis dueto the fact that gst is proportionalto the volume

ß

tor surfaceis dissipative.The rest of the fluid is reactive,

rcR2L of theresonator,

whileE ismoreor lessproportional simplystoringenergyand determiningthe frequencyof the

to the volume8(2rcRL) within a penetrationdepth (either acousticresonance.Although we havedevelopedthesecon-

thermal or viscous) of the surfaceof the resonator.Thus Q, ceptswith referenceto the cylindricalplane-waveresonator,

proportional

to gst/P,isproportional

to theratioof these they apply to other resonatorsas well. Thesequantitiescan

two volumes, R/8. - be calculatedaccuratelyby simpleintegrationof Eqs. (87)

As a further guideto intuition aboutthe importanceof and (89). The Q of an acousticresonanceisroughlythe ratio

high Q for thermoacousticengines,we introducea short of reactiveto dissipativevolumes;and whena thermoacous-

stackintothe2./2 plane-waveresonator,asshownin Fig. 17. ticengine

isintroduced

intoa resonator,

theratioofp.rodu.

c-

(We do not yet show an acousticpower transducerin the tive to dissipativevolumes(roughly equal to I W21/E)

resonator;seebelow.) Whether this thermoacousticengine shouldbe large.

is a prime moveror a heatpump,we want the stackacoustic As an exampleof two otherwaysto decreaseresonator

power

I tobemuch

larger

than• toensure

thatanegligi- losses,

consider

theHoflerresonator,

35shownin Fig. 18(c),

blefractionof the acousticpowerisdissipatedby the resona-

ß o

consistingof two tubesand a sphereconnectedin series.To

tor. If we useEq. (37) for W2and Eq. (90) for E [ and using the extentthat the spherevolumein Fig. 18(b) can be con-

Eqs. (23) and (83), and settinges = 0 ], then sideredinfinite, the acousticpressureand velocityin it are

1163 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacousticengines 1163

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(a) (a)

i

• Z/2

(b)

(c) (b) R

Tc •. TH• TH• Tc

samestackgeometry. The resonatorlosses

of (b) areabouthalfthoseof the

cylindricalplanewaveresonatorshownin (a); and the lossesof (c), the

Hofler resonator, are even lower. I • r

o R

(c)

fluid within a penetrationdepth of the sphere'ssurfacedoes

not contributeto the dissipativevolume. Hence, the total

surfacelossof the resonatorshownin Fig. 18(b) is half that

of the simpleplane-waveresonatorof Fig. 18(a). The evolu- FIG. 19. A radiallybreathingthermoacoustic engine,conceptuallysimilar

tion of the resonatorfrom Fig. 18(b) to Fig. 18(c) reduces to the plane-waveengineof Fig. 16,but with spatialdependences givenby

surfacelossevenmore. This is not intuitively obvious;but a Besselfunctionsof r insteadof trigonometricfunctionsof x. A stack is

calculation

35basedon Eq. (89) showsthat,for modestde- shownin the resonator;heatexchangers areomittedfor clarity. (a) overall

view;(b) centralcrosssection;and (c) spatialdependences ofp• and u•.

creasesin the length and diameter of the tube joining the

stackhousingto the sphere,the decreasein surfacearea re-

ducesE faster than the accompanyingincreasein acoustic

velocity

increases

•. TheHoflerresonator

willbediscussed gyfluxH2isidentical

toEq.(55), withx replaced

byr andof

further in Sec. IV. course with II = II (r).

As a final exampleof an acousticresonatorappropriate

for usewith thermoacousticengines,we considerthe cylin- C. Transducers

drical radial-waveresonator,as shownin Fig. 19. The fluid

in the resonator oscillates in its fundamental radial "breath-

The two thermoacousticenginespresentedasexamples

in the Introduction worked without transducers;but in most

ing" mode,sothat u• isdirectedalongr andis a functionof r.

situationswhereheat enginesare used,acousticpoweris an

Thus, with no stack,the spatialdependences of p• and u• are

inconvenientform of work, and a power transduceris re-

givenby Besselfunctionsof r insteadof trigonometricfunc-

quired to convert acousticpower into someother form of

tionsof x; p• and u • are still re/2 out of time phase.The stack

work, or vice versa. In Fig. 20, we show schematicallya

of platesfor suchan enginelookslike a well-spacedstackof

thermoacousticenginewith transducer.If the engineis a

circularwashers.All the short-engineresultsof the previous

heatpump,acousticpoweris suppliedto the resonatorby

two sectionsare still applicable,with trigonometricfunc- the transducer, to maintain the acoustic resonanceand to

tionsreplacedby Besselfunctions,andall the remarksdevel-

pump heat from one end of the stackto the other. Alterna-

opedin this sectionaboutproductive,dissipative,and reac-

tively, if the engineis a prime mover,the transducerextracts

tive volumes also apply. At the level of detail of the

acousticpower from the resonator,convertingit into some

Appendix,the full waveequationin the stackregionis

desiredform suchas electricalpower. Preferablythe trans-

ducer is simple,reliable, and efficient,so that the inherent

(1-F

(y--1)f")

1+ e• p,.a

•fird(l-f,,

to2r p.• dp•)

. p•+

dr

r•

virtuesof thermoacousticenginesare not compromised.

An importantquality of a high-Q resonanceis that the

-/3• a2 f• -f• dTm

dp,-_ O, (93) transducerdriving it canbe locatedalmostanywherein the

(02 (1-tr)(1 +e•) dr dr resonator. (We will frame our discussionhere in terms of a

which differs only slightly, in the secondterm, from the heat pump; equivalentargumentscan be made for a prime

plane-wavewaveequation,Eq. (54). The equationfor ener- mover.) For example,in the limit of high Q, the apparatus

1164 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacousticengines 1164

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(a) encemust not perturb the pressurethat would be at its sur-

Tc TH faceif it wererigid. Similarly,the engineof Fig. 20(c) will be

o o resonant at L = A/2 only if its transducer is "ultracom-

c 3 pliant": As a soundreceiver,its presencemust not alter the

c :3

c 3 standingwave, and as a soundsource,its velocitymust de-

L =X,/2

pend only on the standingwave, not on propertiesof the

transduceritself. In Fig. 20(d), we showan enginewith a

(b) Tc TH transducerthat is neithernoncompliantnor ultracompliant.

c o -i- The transducerhasmovingmasscomparableto the massof

c o

c o

o o frequencyis determinedby propertiesof both the resonator

fluid and the transducer.Suchan arrangementcouldbe used

to make an acousticengineshorterthan A/4.

(c) Tc TH Hunt 36has listed mechanisms for electroacoustic trans-

c 3

duction:electrodynamic,electrostatic,magnetic,magneto-

c

c

3

o

strictive,and piezoelectric.We must add to this list sirens,

o

c

o

3

whistles,and pistonson crankshafts,which might also be

usefulfor thermoacoustic engines.The focusof development

of electroacoustictransducershas been on linear, passive,

(d) reversibledevices,becausemost speakersand microphones

areusedin circumstances requiringhighfidelity.Suchtrans-

ducersobeyequationsof the form

V• = Z E/1 -Jr-TU1, (94)

p• - _+ TI1 + Z •r U1, (95)

FIG. 20. Schematics of completethermoacoustic engines,eachwith a reso- where V1isthe oscillatingvoltageacrossthe electricaltermi-

nator, transducer(with oscillatingvoltage V• and current I•), stack of nals of the transducer,I1 is the current passingthrough

plates,andhot andcoldheatexchangers. The transducereithersuppliesor

extractsacousticpower,dependingon whetherthe engineis a heatpumpor

them,andp• and U1arethe pressureand volumetricvelocity

a primemover.(a) and (b) areacoustically equivalentandusea noncom- at the surfaceof the transducer.The three remainingcom-

plianttransducer;( c) usesan ultracomplianttransducer;(d) usesa moving plex, frequency-dependent constantsin Eqs. (94) and (95)

permanent

magnet,

withmassm--proXz'R2,interacting

witha coilofwire. completelycharacterizea transducer'selectroacousticbe-

havior. Here, Ze is calledthe blockedelectricalimpedance,

Z•t is called the internal mechanicalimpedance,and T is

calledthe transductioncoefficient,sinceit coupleselectrical

shownin Fig. 20(b) is equivalentto that of Fig. 20(a). This

and acousticalquantitiesin the two equations.Linear, pas-

is true becausethe standing-waveparts of P l and ul are

sive, reversible transducersalmost always have the same

roughly Q times larger than the traveling-waveparts sup-

transductioncoefficientT in both equations;such trans-

pliedby thetransducerto maintaintheresonance, sothat the

ducersare saidto be reciprocal.

heat pumpingeffectsin the stackand the dissipativeeffects

Sincemostelectroacoustic transducerdevelopmenthas

at the resonatorwalls are determined (to order I/Q) by the

beenmotivatedby concernfor high fidelity, comparatively

standingwaveonly. But althoughthe enginesof Fig. 20(a)

little effort has been directed toward making transducers

and (b) are acousticallyequivalent,they are not thermally

efficientin transformingpowerfrom oneform to the other.

equivalent.For instance,if the engineis a refrigerator,it is

Fortunately,a well-developed

analyticalframework

37nev-

preferableto have the room-temperaturetransduceradja- ertheless exists, and much of the mathematics we have used

cent to the room-temperatureend of the stack, as in Fig.

in this reviewis applicable.For example,supposethe trans-

20(b).

ducer describedby Eqs. (94) and (95) is used to convert

The best location of the transducer in a resonator does,

acousticpowerto electricpowerthat is deliveredto an elec-

however,dependon the impedanceof the transduceritself.

tric load resistorRe. Then, V1= --IiR œ= ZEI 1 + TU 1

The transducerof Fig. 20(a) must be a high-impedance

givesthe ratio of U1to I1 in termsof Re, T, and Ze, and we

(largeforce,smalldisplacement)transducer,becauseit is at

can computethe efficiency•/as the ratio of electricpower

a point of high acousticimpedance(large pressure,small

outofthetransducer

-- Re[V•]l]/2 toacoustic

powerinto

velocity) in the standingwave. A low-impedance(small

the transducerRe[ P l U1]/2. The resultis

force, large displacement)transduceris best located at a

point of low acousticimpedancein the standingwave,asin r/-l= Re[ -T-(1 + Z•r/R•)T/T]

Fig. 20(c). We will seeexamplesof each type in the next

section.In fact, the engineof Fig. 20(a) will be resonantat + RLI( 1 + Z•r/RL ReZ•t, (96)

L = A/2 onlyif itstransducer'simpedanceissohighthat it is so that if Re Z•t, Re Ze, and Im T are all zero, then the

effectively"noncompliant":As a soundsource,its displace- transduceris 100% efficient.Here, Re Z•t is usually asso-

ment must be the same whether it is in vacuum or in contact ciated with mechanicalfriction in the moving parts of the

with the acousticmedium, and as a soundreceiverits pres- transducer,Re Ze with electrical resistance(e.g., 8 1• for

1165 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacoustic engines 1165

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commonelectrodynamicloudspeakers),and Im T with dis- how we crudely and quickly designedthe demo usingthe

sipativeprocesses tied to the transductionmechanismitself short-engineapproximations.Our goal was to estimatedi-

(e.g., hysteresislossesin magnetostrictive and piezoelectric mensionsfor a propane-fireddemo as shownin Fig. 2 that

transducers).Theseare the quantitiesthat shouldbe mini- would be asloud aspossiblewithout beingtoo largeor diffi-

mized in transducersusedwith thermoacousticengines. cult to build, usingair, stainless-steel

plates,andcopperheat

Finally, we briefly discussnonlinear electroacoustic exchangers. The only ingredientnot alreadypresentedin the

transducers. There is a well-known class of nonlinear acous- previous

sections

istheacoustic

powerradiated

4øawayfrom

tic drivers

38in whicha forceor pressure is exertedby the the openend of a small-diameterA/4 resonator,

magneticinteractionof anelectriccurrentwith itself,sothat •rad• (Ir/8)(p•a4/pma•2), (97)

the pressureis proportionalto the squareof the current.

Thus, if the transduceris driven with an oscillatorycurrent wherePA is the pressureamplitudeat the closedendof the

resonator and R is the radius of the resonator.

at frequencyto,soundat frequency2cois generated.Sucha

devicecanbe madeusingan iron-coreinductorwith air gap, We beganby equatingsourcesand sinksof acoustic

asshownin Fig. 21. Driversof thisclass,beingnonlinear,are power:

not usefulfor hi-fi or instrumentationapplications,but they W2• •rad-• •res•- •hx ß (98)

are usefulin high-powerapplications,especiallyat fixedfre- Here,W2istheacousticpower produced

bythestack,inthe

quencysothat the movingmassm (which maybequitelarge short-engine

approximationofEq.(80);•raaistheradiated

comparedto the movingmassof a conventionalelectrody- acoustic

power,givenbyEq.(97);•resistheacousticpower

namic loudspeaker)can be "resonatedaway" by a suitable absorbedby the resonatorwalls,obtainedby integratingEq.

spring. (89) over2/4 ofsidewall;and• istheacoustic

power

What we discussed in the last paragraphis well known. absorbedby viscouseffectsin the heat exchangers, obtained

What is not well known is that the inverse effect, the nonlin-

by integratingthe viscousterm in Eq. (89) overthe surface

ear generationof electricpowerby acousticvibration,canbe areaof the heatexchangers.[ We will not write out Eq. (98)

achievedin the sameapparatus.This isan exampleof a para- or subsequent equationsin full, as they are very long and

metricallydrivenoscillator, 39andis completely analogous opaque.] This designwas intendedto be very approximate,

to a pendulumdrivenby varyingthe lengthof the pendulum sowetookmanyshortcuts; forexample, in•re•weassumed

at twicethe naturalfrequencyof the pendulum.In the pres- a simple 2/4 resonator at uniform temperature

ent acoustic case, a resonant seriesLC circuit is the oscilla-

(Tn + Tc )/2 insteadof calculatingthe hot and cold end

tor, and it is drivenby varyingthe inductanceL (geometri- dissipationsseparately,we neglecteddissipationat the end

cally, by acoustic vibration) at twice the resonance

cap, and we ignoredthe fact that the part of the resonator

frequencyof theLC circuit.If theengineof Fig. 21 is a prime that supportsthe temperaturegradientactually produces

mover, the transducer'selectricalterminalsare simply con- acousticpower (just like surfacearea in the stack itself)

nectedin serieswith the resonatingcapacitorand with the ratherthan dissipatingit. Eachof the four termsin Eq. (98)

electricalload. This systemhasnot beenstudiedextensively

is proportional

to P •, soit is possible

to cancelthat factor

before, becausethe inherent, overwhelmingnonlinearities

out and solvethe equationfor the temperaturedifference

make it uselessas a high-fidelitymicrophone.But this and acrossthe stack,

similarnonlinearsystemsappearcapableof highly efficient

powertransductionovera narrowbandwidth. A T = A T(geom, matprop), (99)

where "matprop" standsfor all relevant thermophysical

propertiesof thematerials(air, copper,stainless

steel)of the

A. The lecture demonstration

apparatus,and "geom" represents all geometricalfactors:

In this section,we presentthree examplesof thermoa- resonatorlengthL and radiusR, stackpositionx andlength

cousticenginesto illustratethe manyconclusions reachedso Ax, plate thickness2l and spacing2yo,and heat-exchanger

far in this review. Our first exampleis the loud lecture de- thicknesses 2lhx,spacings

2yhx,andlengthsAx•. Other geo-

monstration of the Introduction. We will briefly describe metricalfactorscan be expressed in terms of these;for in-

stance,H = •rR2/(l + Yo).We assumed

Yo= tSK.

It mightseemremarkablethat Eq. (99) showsATinde-

pendentof acousticamplitudeand of heat flux throughthe

engine.That is alsowhat measurements on thebeercooler's

11 Tc TH prime-moverstackshowin the upperplot in Fig. 4: Above

the onsetof acousticoscillation,Tn remainsconstantwhile

QnandPAincrease

together.

Thisbehavior

isaconsequence

of our assumptions

of linearacoustics

and of all the dissipa-

tivemechanisms

in theenginesharing

thesameP • depend- .

enceremainsnear the critical valuejust neededto sustain

oscillations,and the acousticamplitudeand acoustically

FIG. 21. Nonlineartransducer,

consisting

of an iron-coreinductorwith air

gapG.Thelefthalfofthecoreandthecoilofwirearefixed;therighthalfof stimulatedheatflux aredeterminedby the rateat whichheat

the core, of mass m, is free to move. canbesuppliedto andextractedfromtheendsof theplates

1166 J. Acoust.Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift:Thermoacousticengines 1166

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by the heatexchangers.If A Tcould suddenlyberaisedabove ed to checkour understandingof thermoacoustics

quantita-

this fixed value, PA would grow exponentiallyuntil some tively.

nonlinearphenomenon(beyond the scopeof this review)

wouldlimit theamplitude.

25 B. Thermoacoustic refrigerator

Let A Text be the external temperaturedifference,be-

The thermoacousticrefrigeratorthat was the subjectof

tweenthehot andcoldpartsof the resonator,while ATis the

temperaturedifferenceacrossthe stackitself.The tempera-

Tom Hofler'sPh.D. research

35wasdesigned

andconstruct-

ture differenceacrosseachheat exchanger(A Text -- A T)/2 ed to be a highly controlledexper.imental testbedfor ther-

will be substantial,sinceso much heat has to flow in and out moacoustictheory. In addition,it was a major steptoward

throughthe thin heat-exchangerstrips.Next, we equatedthe

achievinga practicalthermoacousticcryocooler.Basically,

the device consistedof a gas-filledresonator,driven by a

ß

heat flux througheither heat exchanger loudspeaker,and containinga stackof plateswith one end

thermallyanchoredat roomtemperature.Figure22 displays

H2(PA,AT, geom,matprop) someof the directlymeasuredperformanceof the refrigera-

= Kcu X (hx geom)X (A Text-- A T)/2, (100) tor; there, the cold temperatureTc (normalized by room

whereKcu isthe thermalconductivityof copper.We elimin- temperatureTH ) and COP (normalizedby Carnot'sCOP)

ated AT usingEq. (99), and solvedfor P•, areplotted

versus

thethermal

load•elecapplied

tothecold

end, for variouspressureamplitudes.The lowesttempera-

P• = P• (A Text, geom, matprop), ( 101) ture reached (not shown in the figure) was Tc = 200 K,

and then substitutedthis result into Eq. (97) to finally ob- correspondingto a temperatureratio Tc/TH = 0.67. The

tain highest measured efficiency relative to Carnot's was

COP/COPc = 12%, which occurred at Tc/T• =0.82

•rad= •rad(AText

, geom,matprop)

. (102) with an appliedheat load 0elec

= 3 W. Here

COP= •elec/ gac,where

•elecistheelectric

powerdissipat-

Although thisresultis algebraicallycomplex,it is conceptu- edin a resistance

heaterat Tc and Wacis themeasured

ally verysimple:The acousticpowerradiateddependsonthe acousticpowerdeliveredto the resonatorby the loudspeak-

temperaturedifferenceacrossthe engine,the geometryof er.

the engine,andthe thermophysical propertiesof the materi- The refrigeratoris shownto scalein Fig. 23. The "stack

als used. of plates"wasa longstripof 8-cm-wide,0.08-mm-thickplas-

To find suitable dimensions for the demo, we wrote a tic (Kapton) sheet,spirallywound arounda plasticrod to

trivial computerprogramthat usedEq. (102) to compute make a 3.8-cm-diam assembly8 cm long. This material was

Prad,

andtriedvarious

possible

geometries

(constrained

by

copper and stainless-steel

thicknesses

in stock) until we

founda largePradforthefollowing

dimensions:

L = 14cm,

1.0 I I I I I I

R=1.5 cm, x=3 cm, Ax=l.5 cm, 2•=0.08 mm, (a)

2yo= 0.4 mm, 2/hx= 0.2 mm, 2Yhx= 0.3 mm, AXhx= 4

mm;forwhichf= 780Hz, AT = 240øC,and•raa= 2 W

whenAText

= 400øC.Usingthevalue•raa= 2 W in Eq. ß +

+

mm), knowingthat it would be loud.

The engineoscillatesat 580 Hz aboveA Text= 140øC;at

A Text= 200 øC,it is extremelyloud ( 100dB a meteraway),

radiating about 0.1 W of acousticpower. It was noticeably

louderwhenit wasnew;repeatedthermalcyclinghasruined

the uniformityof the platespacing.A spectrumanalyzerand

microphonea meter away at this power level showsecond

and third harmonics down 30 dB from the fundamental and

a fifth harmonicdown 40 dB, evidenceof nonlinearoper-

ation.

The loud demo was casuallydesigned,carelesslybuilt,

and never instrumented.It showsonly that thermoacoustic

enginesare simpleenoughto work fine undersuchcircum-

stances,and that the short engineand other similarly crude FIG. 22. Measuredperformanceof thermoacousticrefrigerator.(a) Tem-

peratureratio and (b) coefficientof performancenormalizedby Carnot's

approximationsare sufficientfor somepurposes.The next COP, versusthe electricheaterpower. In both plots,differentsymbolsrep-

two examplesin thissectionareof enginesthat werecareful- resentdifferentacousticpressures: &, PA/Pm= 0.01; d-, PA/Pm= 0.015;

ly designedusing numerical integrationsof the equations I, P•/Pm = 0.02; O, P•/Pm = 0.03. The linesin (b) are only guidesto the

derivedin theAppendix,andcarefullybuilt andinstrument- eye.

1167 J. Acoust.Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift:Thermoacousticengines 1167

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exchangerwere measuredusing two thermocouples,one

near the centerof the heat exchangerand oneon the resona-

tor wall nearby. Typical temperaturedefectsbetweenheat

exchangercenterandwall were2 øC.The hot heatexchanger

waskept at room temperatureby water flowingthroughtub-

ing solderedto the resonatorwall nearbyß

The resonator,containing10-barheliumgasresonantat

about500 Hz (the exactvaluedependingon Tc ), wasof the

low-losstype we calleda "Hofler resonator"in Sec.III. For

a thermoacousticrefrigerator,minimizing lossesin the cold

part of the resonatoris especiallyimportant, becausethose

losseshave two deleteriouseffects:They absorb acoustic

power, and they add an extra thermal load to the refrigera-

tor. The resonatorcompriseda large-diametersection,a

exchanger

small-diametersection,and a spherein series,with a pres-

sureantinodeat the top of the large-diametersectionat the

transducer and a velocity antinode near the bottom of the

Resonator:

10 cm small-diametersection;thus it wasessentiallya A/4 resona-

small-diam.

section

tor. Measurementsof the Q of the emptyresonatorand of its

losses

•resagreed

withcalculations

based

onEqs.(87) and

(89) to within a few percentßThe large-diametersection,

Resonator: whichcontainedthestackandhencesupportedthe tempera-

ture difference,was made of fiberglassand epoxy for

strength and thermal insulation, and was coated with an

evaporatedmetal film to block diffusionof helium out of the

resonator. Near the heat exchangers,the resonator was

made of copper to promote isothermal heat transfer. The

sphereand taperedsectionnear it weremadeof electroplat-

ed copper-nickellaminateß

The electroacoustic

powertransducer

4• usedto drive

the refrigerator,from the pressureantinodein the resonator,

5 cm from the hot end of the stack,was a slightlymodified

FIG. 23. Thermoacousticrefrigerator. high-fidelitymidrangeloudspeaker.The dome of the loud-

speakerwasreplacedby a thin aluminumpistonshapedlike

a truncatedconeand centeredby a flexibleepoxy-fabricsur-

round. The pistonand surroundservedto adapt the 5-cm-

thick enoughto be structurallyrobustand to havees,•.0, yet

diam voicecoil to the slightlysmallerresonatorwith enough

thin enoughto conducta negligibleamountof heatdownthe

i'igidityto withstandthe largeacousticpressuresßThis driver

temperature gradient. The spacingof 0.38 mm (roughly

coulddeliver 13 W of acousticpowerto the resonator,with

46K) betweenthe layersof plasticsheetwas maintainedby

an electric-to-acousticpower-conversionefficiencyof 20%.

well-spacedsegmentsof monofilamentnylon fishline glued

Heat generatedby the driver was carried away by room-

to the sheet,alignedalong the directionof acousticoscilla-

tion. temperaturewater flowing through tubing solderedto the ß

Each of the two heat exchangerswas madeof rectangu-

driverwasaccurately

deduced

4• frommeasurements

with a

lar copperstripsreachingacrossthe stackendsand making

excellent thermal contact with the resonator walls near tiny accelerometerattachedto the pistonand with an acous-

tic pressuresensormountednearby,not shownin Fig. 23.

them. Copperwasusedbecauseof its high thermal conduc-

The observedrefrigeratorperformancethat was pre-

tivity. The copperstripsof the cold exchangerwere 2.5 mm

wide (in the direction of acoustic oscillations), 0.25 mm

sentedin Fig. 22 iscomparedwith theoreticalcalculationsin

Fig. 24. For directcomparison,thetotal refrigerationloadat

thick, and spaced0.5 mm apart, while thoseof the hot ex-

changerwere 6.4 mm wide, 0.25 mm thick, and spaced0.38

mm apart. The dimensionsof the two exchangerswere dif- OC•-Oelec-{-

Oleak-{-

Oc-hx

-{-Oc-res

, (103)

ferentbecausethe hot exchangerhad to conductmuchmore

heatthanthecoldexchanger,

whilethecoldexchanger

had isused,

instead

oftheexternally

appliedloadOelec,

bothas

to accommodatemuch greateracousticvelocities;the resul- horizontal

axisandin theplottedCOPvalues.Here,

tant viscous losses at the cold end are a thermal load on the Qc-hx,

andOc-res

areadditionalrefrigeration

loadsdueto

refrigerator.Care wastakento keepthe gapbetweenthe hot thermalconductance of the wallsof the large-diameterreso-

exchangerand stacklessthan 0.1 mm, becausethe acoustic natorsectionandof the thermalinsulationsurrounding the

displacementamplitudeu•/w there, near the velocitynode engine,viscousdissipationin the cold heat exchanger,and

of the standingwave,was small. Temperaturesof eachheat dissipationof acousticpowerin the coldportionof the reso-

engines 1168

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1.0

I I I I I I I I TABLE I. Short-engineapproximationappliedto the thermoacoustic

re-

frigerator.

0.9

Thermophysicalproperties

Dimensions (at T,• = 255 K, p,, = 10 bar)

2l = 0.08 mm 7 = 1.67

Ax = 8 cm a = 940 m/s

A/4 - x = 9 cm p,, -- 1.9kg/m3

R = 1.9cm cp= 5.2J/g-K

c= 0.68

0.6 f= 500 Hz K-- 1.3 mW/cm-K

K, = 1.6 mW/cm-K

(b) p, = 1.4g/cm3

c• = 1.1 J/g-K

0.2

Calculatedquantities

(for PA = 0.3 bar, AT= 90 K)

A/4 = 47 cm a/4f

0.1-

p'•= 2.9)<104 Pa Eq. (60)

ß (u;) =6m/s Eq. (61)

VTc,t -- 15 K/cm Eq. (75)

F = 0.7 AT/Ax •7Tcn

t

0 i i i i i I i i 6•.=0.1 mm x/K/n'fp,,%

0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

6,, = 0.07mm xf•6K

bc (w) e, -- 0.07 Eq. (65)

II = 4.9 m vcR2/( Yo+ l)

FIG. 24. Measuredperformance(filled points) of thermoacoustic refrig-

erator comparedwith numericalintegration(lines) of the equationsde-

H= 6 W Eq.(76)

rivedin the Appendix.Symbolsrepresentthe sameacousticpressures asin W= 6W E.q.

(80)

COP/COPc= 0.35 (H/W)/(T,,AT)

Fig. 22. (a) Temperatureratio and (b) normalizedcoefficientof perfor-

mance,

plotted

against

totalrefrigerator

loadQc.

numericalcalculationsusingthe equationsderived in the

Appendix. The agreementbetweenmeasurementsand cal-

culationsis qualitativelyexcellentand quantitativelygood. (u])/co = 0.2 cm, enormous

by normalaudioacousticstan-

Someof the disagreementmay be due to substantialblock- dards.But fortunatelythe boundary-layerReynoldsnumber

ageby the heat exchangerstripsof someof the stackchan- (u])6•/v_•50, an order of magnitudebelowthe onsetof

nelsboundedby the nylon fishline. turbulence. 42

As an illustrationof the utility of the short-enginere- Finally,theshort-engine

approximation

predicts

H= 6

sultsof Sec.II, we will now estimatethe refrigerator'sper- w and COP/COPc = 0.35, in factor-of-2 agreementwith

formancefor PA/Pro= 0.03, TH = 300 K, and Tc = 210 K, the PA/p,• = 0.03 data of the figure.It is fortunatethat the

and compareour answersto Fig. 24. The necessarydimen- short-engineapproximation seemsto work so well even

sionsof the apparatushavealreadybeenpresented,and the whenthe engineisnot short.Calculationssuchasthis canbe

relevantpropertiesof helium gas (and Kapton plastic) are donequicklywith a pocketcalculator,servingas a rough

readilyavailable;theseare summarizedat the top of Table I. guidein the early stagesof enginedesignand, later, as a

Then, in the bottomof the table,we displaythe estimatesof checkof morelaboriousnumericalintegrations.

the short-engineapproximation. Note that Ax/7• = 0.27,

AT/TIn = 0.35, Ax/(A/4 -- x) = 0.9, and W/H= 1.0;

noneof theseratios is much lessthan unity, so we cannot C. Liquid sodium thermoacoustic engine

expectveryaccurateresults,sincethisapproximationis only Over50yearsago,Malone

43builtefficient

reciprocating

valid whenthe stackis shortenoughthatp• and (u•) (de- heat enginesusingliquid water as the workingsubstance.

pendenton x) and the thermophysicalproperties[depen- Malonerealizedthat manyliquids,includingwaterand so-

denton Tm(x) ] do not vary appreciablyfrom oneendof the dium, havelargeenoughthermalexpansioncoefficients to

stack to the other. We find F = 0.7, between 0 and 1 as it be goodheat-engine workingsubstances, but he rejectedso-

must be for a refrigerator,and not too closeto either limit: dium as "too dangerous." Today,materialstechnology is

Closeto F = 0, the refrigeratorcouldnot spana largetem- sufficiently

advanced to permitsafe,routinehandlingof liq-

peraturedifferencewhile, closeto F = 1, it couldnot pump uidsodium.Its extremely lowPrandtlnumber,highdensity,

much heat. The thermal penetrationdepth is about 1/4 of moderateexpansioncoefficient,and high electricalconduc-

the plate spacing,so the boundarylayer approximation tivity led us to considerits usein a thermoacoustic prime

shouldbe excellent.The plateheatcapacityfactoresis near movershownschematicallyin Fig. 25, in which heatis con-

zero, as is usualfor a gaseousworking substance.We find vertedto acousticpowerthermoacoustically and the acous-

(u•) = 6 m/s sothat the acoustic displacement amplitude tic poweris convertedto electricpowermagnetohydrody-

engines 1169

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ThisisAT/T,,timesthepowerdensity

J-I2/Vgiven

byEq.

(66), and the same conclusionscan be drawn again: For

high power density,an engineshouldoperateat high fre-

3 TH quencyand high acousticamplitude,usinga fluid with a

largeexpansioncoefficient.

Normalizing

W2byroma

x gives

a quantity

thatdepends

onx/7• and F, andisindependentof P• and f, andof Ax and

) Tc

A T separately:

= 2sin

Wmax cos •

n

--2x/a(1

+ es)(1

+ l/yo)

2cos3(x/h)

1.

(?'-- 1) sin(x/7•) F

(106)

When F isverylarge,the secondterm isnegligible;examina-

tionofthefirsttermshows

thatW2islargest

forx/h = re/4;

i.e., for a stack locatedhalfway betweenthe pressureand

velocity antinodes.For finite F, the secondterm, propor-

) Tc

tionalto• andhence

duetoviscous

losses,

become

impor-

tant, and the [ cos3(x/h) ] / [sin(x/h) ] factorin it pushes

the optimal x closer to the velocity node, where viscous

:) TH lossesare smaller.These characteristicsof Eq. (106) are

shownquantitativelyin Fig. 26, wherewe plot contoursof

m2/roma

xinthex/h- 1/F plane.

Thefigure

isforTm= 700

K sodium,with 1 d- es = 1.4 and 1 d- l/Yo = 1.8. Contours

of W2/Wma,,

forotherworking

fluids

andengines

lookvery

FIG. 25. Schematicof liquid-sodiumthermoacousticengine.The resonator similar,

sincethefactorxf-•(1 + es)( 1 + l/yo)2/(y - 1) in

operatesin its fundamentalmode, so that there is a pressureantinodeat

each end and a velocity antinode in the center. The stacksand heat ex-

Eq. (106) is usuallyof the orderof unity.

changersproduceacousticpowerfrom heat;at Tc at the velocityantinodea Now, let us considerthe efficiencyof a thermoacoustic

magnetohydrodynamic generatorconvertsthe acousticpower to electric engine,again in the short-engine,low-Prandtl-numberap-

power. proximation.

Theefficiency

r/= W2/H2,whereW2andH2

are given by Eqs. (82) and (81). Normalizing r/ by

namically. We expect this no-moving-partselectric r/c = A T /Tm and usingEq. (75) for V Tcrit, we obtain

generatorto find usewherereliabilityis paramount,suchas

in spaceandin the deepocean.Thisworkwassupported

the Divisionof AdvancedEnergyProjectsin DOE's Office

by

r/ 1[ ( (ld-e's)(tOma(U•

of BasicEnergySciences.

We will use the sodium engineto further illustrate the

utility of the short-engineapproximationof Sec.II. There,

we showedthat a thermoacousticengineis bestoperatedat / 6.o

high P•, usinga fluid with a largeexpansioncoefficientand

small Prandtl number.Here we will seehow stackposition

O.

and temperaturegradientfurther affectthe powerand effi-

ciencyof an engine.We begin by consideringthe acoustic

power, givenby Eq. (82) in the low-Prandtl-numberlimit

appropriatefor sodium.ReplacingFAx by AT/VTcrit and

usingEqs. (75), (60), and (61) give

2

mmax_

11-i•c

P.• l d-l/yoAT/3 (104)

8 pma 1 d-es

for the maximum power, which occursfor x = 2./8, where

p] u] is largest,and for F = c•. 0

If we divide roma

x by a volume V-- II6• ( 1

d- l/Yo) (A/4) roughly equal to the volume of the engine FIG. 26. Contours

of constant

normalized

acoustic

powerW2/Wma

x

includingresonator,we get a power density (dashedlines) and of constantnormalizedefficiencyr//r/c (solidlines) in

the x/X-1/F plane,for the sodiumenginein the short-engine approxima-

mrnax

: Z2 Trn-•-.--

• 'P'•AT o

(105) tion. The assumedoperatingconditionsare given in the text. Here, x/

V ld-es pma2 Tm X = rr/2 at the pressureantinode;x/X = 0 at the velocityantinode.

1170 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacousticengines 1170

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r//r/c in Fig. 26 decreases

from 0.28 to 0.07. Another new

2y0•

•=

X •+ ((ul)/o) plot showsthat r//r/c canthen be increasedbackto 0.26 by

increasingPA to 600 bar. The contoursare alwaysqualita-

tivelysimilar

tothose

ofFig.26,withW2/Wmax

> 0 in the

(1+IK•?yoK)

(1 1 -- 1/P lower-lefthalf-planeandlargestat 1/F -- 0, x/•. = vr/4;and

with r//r/c displayinga singlemaximumsomewherein the

(107)

middle of the lower-left half-plane.Similar, usefulcontour

plotscanbegeneratedfor thermoacoustic heatpumps,plot-

In this equation we can see, neatly separated,the three tingH2/Hma

x andCOP/COPcinthex/X-F plane.

sourcesof inefficiencycommon to all thermoacousticen- The actual dimensionsand operatingconditionsof the

gines.First,the intrinsicirreversibilityappearsasthe factor sodium

engine

weredetermined

bya numerical

calculation

44

1/F, just asit did in Eq. (40) in Sec.I. The intrinsicirreversi- basedon the methodoutlinedin the Appendix,and by prac-

bility isdueto the oscillatory,nonisothermalheat transferin tical constraintssuchasthe strengthof easilyfabricatedcon-

the y directionthat occursat the acousticfrequencyacross structionmaterials.The calculationspredictedthat the en-

6• at all thesurfaceareaII Ax of the engine.The onlyway to ginewouldproduceacousticpowerat r//r/c = 0.31, for Tn

reducethis sourceof inefficiencyis to operatethe engine -- 1000 K, Tc = 400 K, and PA = 200 bar, in goodagree-

closerto (F- 1) = 0, where the engine'spower unfortu- ment with the short-enginepredictionsof Fig. 26. To test

nately approacheszero. Second,viscousloss,proportional theseideas,we firstbuilt an enginewith a singlestackand no

to x/-•,appears

in thesquare

brackets

of Eq. (107), andis powertransducer,sothat all acousticpowerproducedby the

made up of two terms:"1," and a more complicatedterm. stackwould beabsorbedby resonatorlosses.The heart of the

The latter, proportional to ( ,Ore

a( u•) /p• ) 2 enginewas the stack of molybdenumplates,electric-dis-

= (1 + 1/Yo)2cot2(x/K), showsthat viscouslosscanbe chargemachinedfrom a singleroundbar of stress-relieved

madelessimportantby puttingthe stackcloserto the veloc- molybdenum.Molybdenumwas chosenbecauseof its high

ity node;large F and ?'and smalle• are alsohelpful.Third, specificheatandbecauseit doesnot dissolvein liquid sodi-

the last factor in Eq. (107) is due to ordinary longitudinal um. The stack had a central rib, with threaded holes for

conductionof heat. Asidefrom factorsof the order of unity, mounting.The plateswere0.021 cm thick, spaced0.040 cm

the relevant term is proportional to a ratio of lengths- apart.The stack,whichfilledthe resonatori.d., was5.21 cm

squared:yo6,,in the numerator,and the squareof the local longandwasmountedwith itshotend 12.65cmfromthehot

acousticdisplacement

amplitude(u])/o0 in the denomina- end of the resonator.The resonatorwas 122 cm long, 4.89-

tor. Thus longitudinalconductionlossesare minimizedby cm o.d., and 3.8-cm i.d. The endsof the resonatorwere weld-

operatingnear a velocity antinode,at high Math number, edto 32-kgmasses to providenearlyfixedacousticboundary

and keepingYoas small as possible,typically yo,•6,,. It is conditions.Stainless-steel high-pressurebellowsvalves,with

alsohelpfulto keep IK,, e•, a, and I?F small. the bellowsaway from the resonator,were weldedto short

When Eqs. (60) and (61 ) are usedto replacep] and sectionsof tubingat the top andbottomof the resonatorfor

(u]) with trigonometricfunctionsofx, Eq. (107) becomes a fillingandemptying.A flowimpedanceandballastvolume,

functionofx/X and 1/F that canbe representedasa contour half full of sodiumand half argongas,maintaineda constant

plot of constantr//•/c, similarto that for W2/Wm•x.Sucha meanpressurePrn-•-97 bar.The two heatexchangers each

plot is shownin Fig. 26, for T• = 700 K sodium,P• = 200 consistedof 18 stainless-steel hypodermictubes, 1.1-mm

bar, f= 1000Hz, Yo= 1.26•, e• = 0.4, and1= 0.8 Yo.The o.d., 0.2-mmwall, weldedinto holesdrilled throughthe res-

efficiency

hasa maximum

of•/= 0.28•/cat F = 2.0andat onator.The tubeswerespacedevenlyacrosstheboreof the

x/X = 1.3, closeto the pressureantinode.The efficiency resonator, theirlengthsvaryingfromtheresonator i.d.at the

(and work flux) decreasesfor smallerx/X becausethe vis- center to about 1 cm for the tubes nearest the wall. Manifolds

cousshearlosses,

proportional

to (u•) 2,increase;

similarly, were welded over the tubes on the outside of the resonator.

the efficiencydecreasesfor larger x/X as the temperature The hot heat exchangerwas connectedto a liquid sodium

gradientnecessarilysteepens andlongitudinalthermalcon- heatexchangeloopconsisting of an electricheater,a pump,

duction becomesmore important. For F near 1, the effi- and a flowmeter.The coldheatexcha.ngerwasconnectedto

ciencyislowasthe engine'susefulworkflux,proportionalto a pressurized-water

heatexchangeloop.The stacktempera-

F- 1, decreasesrelative to both viscousand longitudinal ture difference AT was estimated to be about 10% smaller

conductionlosses,whilefor largeF the intrinsicirreversibi- than the differenceA Text betweenthe temperaturesof the

lity becomesmoreimportant.Althoughthemaximain two heatexchangefluids,becauseof the finiteconductivities

andW2/Wm•,,

donotcoincide,

thereisa largeregion

in the of sodium and stainless steel.

x/X-F-• planein whichbotharereasonably

large. Our preliminarymeasurements

with thistestengineare

Short-engine contourplotsof powerand efficiencysuch described

in detailelsewhere45;

in Fig.27,wesummarize

the

asFig. 26 areextremelyusefulin the earlystagesof designof observed

performance.

WeseethatbelowQn= 630w, P•

an engine,becausetheyareeasyto generateandquicklygive = o,sotherewerenoacoustic

oscillations

and0n wasjust

the designersemiquantitativeinformationon engineperfor- the ordinary conductionof heat from Tn to Tc by the mo-

mance.For example,if the frequencyis raisedfrom 1 to 10 lybdenum,sodium,and stainlesssteelbetweenthe two heat

kHz to make the 700 K sodiumenginemore compact,a new exchangers.

AboveOn= 630 W, the sodiumoscillated

calculationand plot quicklyshowthat the peakof optimum spontaneously

at 910 Hz, with P• increasing

rapidlyand

1171 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacousticengines 1171

Downloaded 09 Aug 2013 to 129.173.72.87. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright; see http://asadl.org/terms

I I I

I o

400 - o. (95), and the measuredvaluesof Ze, ZM, and T agreevery

Oo Oo well with calculations.

o

o

To testthe transducer'sefficiencyin convertingacoustic

o

300 - powertoelectric

power,weputelectric

powerintothetrans-

ducerto excitethe sodiumon resonanceat high amplitude,

•" 0 o

and then switchedthe transducerto a load resistorRL and

i- 200- oø let the energystoredin the acousticresonance

flow through

the transducer to the load. Measured efficiencies were in

o

excellentagreementwith Eq. (96), asshownin Fig. 28. The

lOO -

o highestobservedefficiencywas 45%, for RL = 20 1•. We

o believewe canbuilda moreefficienttransducer,by reducing

o

o

the serieslead resistance(responsiblefor Re Ze) and by

0--o •a I nJ--a..• I I I

300 400 500 600 700 800 900 lOOO changingthe channelgeometryto reduceshort-circuiting

(•H end effects(responsiblefor Re ZM ).

FIG. 27. Observedperformance of the sodiumthermoacoustic testengine, V. RELATED ENGINES

with a singlestackandno powertransducerto extractacousticpower.The

acousticpressureamplitudePA and ATe,, = TH -- Tc are plottedagainst In this section,we will discusssomereciprocatingheat

hotheatflux engines,to explainsomeof thefeaturesof theseenginesfrom

the novel point of view of acoustics,and alsoto shedmore

light on thermoacoustic enginesby showingwhat they are

not.We will considertwo typesof Stirlingengine,and two

linearly withQH.Wehavenodataabove QH= 990W be- varietiesof pulse-tuberefrigerator.Throughoutthissection,

cause atsuchhighQH,P.•waslargeenough tocause cavita- wewill focuson heatpumps;mostof theconceptsareequal-

tion in one of the resonatorfill tubes,which was actinglike ly applicableto prime movers.

another, small, driven resonator. In that situation, the am- We begin by reviewingsomefeaturesof an ordinary

plitude of the 910-Hz oscillationsbuilt up exponentially thermoacousticheat pump, shown in Fig. 29, to establish

(with a time constantof a few hundred ms) until cavitation point of view and to tie togetherpointsfrom severalof the

occurred,violently killing the oscillationsin a few ms and precedingsections.The stackspansthe temperaturediffer-

restartingthe exponentialbuildup.Subsequently,

.

we avoid- ence Tn - Tc betweenthe two heat exchangers.It is in a

ed suchhigh QH, fearingcatastrophicfailureof the appara- quarter-wavelength cylindricalresonatorof radiusR with

tus. At the highestacousticamplitudethat we couldsafely the closedend at the right and the ultracompliantpower

achievein this apparatus,the engineproduced 18 W of transducerat the left, sothat thereis a pressureantinodeat

acousticpowerfrom 990 W of heat. the fight end and a velocity antinodeat the left end. For

We couldnot achievehigherpowerandefficiencyin this simplicity,we assumeat first that the resonatorlossesare

enginebecauseof cavitationand becausewe had not yet in- negligible.

stalled our magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) transducerto We alsoassumethat the systemhasa high Q; i.e., that

removeacousticpower from the resonator.We have been the resonator'sreactive(open) volumeis muchlargerthan

developingthe MHD transducerseparately,andtestswith it the productive volume II6• Ax of the stack. Then,

havealsobeensuccessful. In thistypeof transducer,a mag- pl u• >>p•u •' The soundwavein the resonatoris, to a good

neticfieldis appliedto the center(velocityantinode)of the approximation,a standingwave, with very little traveling-

resonator,perpendicularto the directionof acousticveloc- wavecomponent, andtheheatpumped isgiven.

togo.od ac-

ity. Electrodescontactthe sodiumthere, allowingelectric curacy by the short-engine results (Qn + Qc)/2

currentflow perpendicularto bothmagneticfieldandacous-

tic velocity.The transductionmechanismisthe sameasin an

ordinaryloudspeaker,exceptthat the metallicliquidsodium

0.5

itself servesthe function of the speaker'svoice coil. Our ß

sodiumof thickness1.2cmin thedirectionof the2.3-T mag-

0.4 -

ß 0.9T

ß 1.9 T

ß 2.3T

ß

ß

• •

I I I I I I I 1

netic field, width 7.6 cm in the direction of electric current 0.3- I !ß

flow,andlength31 cm in the directionof acousticfluid flow, q ß

with thecentral20 cmof that lengthactuallyin themagnetic 0.2-

field and in contact with the electrodes. Leads from the elec-

trodes were connected to a 1:572 transformer to transform 0.1

MHD transducerisultracompliant,soit wasweldedinto the 0I 2• • •

10 20 50 100 200 500

center(velocityantinode)of a 1-mlong,10-cm

2 crosssec- R,(•)

tion, high-Qresonatorfilled with sodiumat 130 øC.It is now FIG. 28. E•ciency •I of theMHD transducerversusloadresistanceR,., for

wellcharacterized

bothexperimentally

andtheoretically.

46 severalmagneticfieldstrengths.Pointsaremeasuredvalues;linesarecalcu-

It obeysequationsof the canonicalform of Eqs. (94) and lationsusingEq. (96).

engines 1172

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(a)

Acoustic

Ji'I

2=f dA

tPm

U•W•

. (108)

Amplitude [A subtledetail of this stepcan be foundin the Appendix

Position nearEq. (A24). ] This is the total energyper unit time flow-

ing in the x direction.Using dw = T ds+ (1/p)dp, Eq.

(108) becomes

.,

V1 • •'Vi OO

Tc

)./4

TH

•.-

f dpmTm

+f (109)

(b) We identifythe firstterm in Eq. (109) asthe hydrodynamic

H heatfluxQ2[firstdiscussed

nearEq.(25)], andthesecond

termastheworkfluxW:.Thesumoftheheatfluxandthe

work flux is the enthalpyflux, and their ratio is the COP.

x

Enthalpy

With thesedefinitionsin mind, we showthe enthalpy,

heat, and work fluxesfor the thermoacoustic heat pump in

ßßßß Heat

Fig. 29(b). The work flux is constantfrom the transducerto

+-1-4-+ Work the left end of the stack,decreasessmoothlyto zero within

the stackaswork is absorbedto pump heat,and is constant

at zero from the right endof the stackto the right endof the

resonator.The heat flux is zero in both of the openregionsof

ß -.-.-. -, _

the resonator, where the sound wave is adiabatic and so

Position

Sl ----0. Within the stack,Sl4:0, and the heat flux risesdis-

.

grows

smoothly

fromQctoQuwithinthestack,

anddrops

discontinuously

from Qu to zeroat theright endof the stack.

The two discontinuitiesin the heat flux are madepossibleby

thetwoheatexchangers

at Tc andTn, supplying

heatQc

and removingheat Qn; the nonzerovalueof heatflux within

the stackisdueto p• u] and the thermalinteractionbetween

fluid and plate. The enthalpyflux is everywherethe sum of

FIG. 29. (a) Q.uarter-waveleng.

th thermoacoustic

heatpump,in which the work and heat fluxes.It is constantthroughouteachof

acousticpower IV,.pumpsheat Qc from temperatureTc and deliversheat

0n totemperature

Tn,sothatIV,.-!-Qc= Qn.Platespacing

issuchthat the two open resonatorregionsand throughoutthe stack

yo•--6K.(b) Energyfluxesfor the thermoacoustic heatpump,neglecting region,becausethereare no externalsourcesor sinksof ener-

resonatorlosses.(c) Energyfluxesfor the thermoacoustic heat pump, in- gy in thoseregions.It risesdiscontinuouslyat the cold heat

cludingresonatorlosses.Positivevaluesrepresentfluxesto the right;nega- exchanger

byQc,anddropsdiscontinuously

at thehotheat

tive valuesrepresentfluxesto the left.

exchangerby Qu, whereenergyis addedand removedfrom

the engine.Within the stack,the enthalpyflux is constant

while heat flux risesand work flux drops,reflectingsimple

= z[II6K

Tm/3p•u] ( F -- 1) ofEq. (29). Buteventhoughit is

conservationof energywhile work is convertedto heat.

small,

the.traveling-wave

component

plUl-- Wi/•rR2isnot As a furtherillustrationof theseenergyfluxes,consider

ignorable,as it is the necessarywork suppliedby the trans- Fig. 29(c) wherewehavenowincludedresonatorloss.Some

ducerto maintain the resonanceagainstthe powerabsorbed of the work flux is now usedup by resonatorloss,so less

by the stackitself. We seeherea self-consistent

aspectof the work is availableto the stackfor pumpingheat. The work

short-engine results: If Ax,•7•, then Q>•I and so absorbedby the resonatorlossturns into heat, and hasaddi-

plUl,•p•U•; but also, if Ax,•X, then AT,•Tm, and so tional deleteriouseffectson the engineif its purposeis to

W2'••2 andagainplUl,•p•U•. refrigerate.We assumethat the two opensectionsof the res-

To be rigorous,we mustframe our discussion of power onatorare goodconductorsof heat, sothe heat generatedin

and heat fluxeswithin the enginein termsof enthalpyper them by resonatorlossis simply conductedto the nearest

unitmass w (internalenergy

pluspressure),

because heatexchanger.Then the heatgeneratedby the left resona-

2 + pw) isthetotalenergy

fluxdensity

influidmechanics.

47 tor lossmust be pumped away by the stack and hencede-

In thermoacoustics,

we can neglectthe kinetic energyflux creasesthe coolingpoweravailableto an externalload Qc,

density

Vpv2/2

because

it isthirdorder,andforclarityinthis and the heat generatedby the right resonatorlossincreases

sectionwe neglectthe contributionsof longitudinalthermal the amountof heatQn that mustberemovedby the external

conductionand of viscosityto the total energyflux. Taking heat sink. Again in Fig. 29(c) we seethe constancyof the

the x componentand time averageof the remainingterm to enthalpyflux exceptat the two heatexchangers, whereener-

secondorder, and integratingin y and z over the cross-sec- gyis externallysuppliedor removed.It isinstructiveto make

tional areaA of the engineor resonator,we find for the sec- suchapproximateenergy-fluxplotsfor eachof the thermo-

ond-orderenthalpyflux acousticenginesdiscussedin this review.

engines 1173

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A. Stirling engines (yo,•6,,) so that the fluid is in excellentthermal contact

Now, weconsidertheStirling-cycleheatpumpfrom the with them.This is in contrastto the thermoacousticengine's

samepoint of view. A conventionalStirlingengineis shown stack,in which moderateplate spacing(yo=6,,) ensures

schematicallyin Fig. 30(a). Two pistonson crankshaftsare poorbut nonzerothermalcontact.

at either end of a channelfilled with the engine'sworking The standardexplanationof theoperationof the Stirling

fluid. The pistonsmoveharmonicallyat the samefrequen- cycle

48adoptsa Lagrangian

view,focusing

attentiononthe

ciesbut outof phase.We assumethat thelengthof theengine cyclic processexperiencedby a parcel of fluid that passes

is much smallerthan an acousticwavelength.It is easyto backand forth throughthe regenerator-heatexchangeras-

showthenthat the volumeenclosedbetweenthe pistonsand sembly.In Fig. 30(a), sucha parceliscompressed in the left

the meanvelocityof the pistonsbothvaryharmonically,and open space,displacedrightward throughthe regenerator,

in phasewith eachother. The fluid is compressed, moved expandedin the right open space,and finally displaced

right,expanded,movedleft...;so,fromanacoustical pointof leftwardthroughtheregenerator. During itscompression, it

view,thefluidexperiences an oscillatorypressurep', andan is adiabaticallyheatedfrom TH to a highertemperature,so

oscillatoryvelocityu',. The subscripts"1" signify p'•'•Pm that whenit is subsequentlydisplacedfightwardit deposits

and u'•,• a (eventhoughin practicalenginesthe formercon- theheatof compress.

ionin thehot heatexchanger;

time-

averaged,thisheatis QH. Similarly,duringitsexpansion,the

ditionmaynotbetrue), andthe superscripts "t" signifythat

parcel is adiabaticallycooledbelow Tc so that, when it is

the time phasingbetweenp'• and u• is substantiallythat of

travelingacousticwaves;i.e.,theyaresubstantially in phase.

displaced

leftward,

it absorbs

Qc fromthecoldheatex-

changer.The regeneratorservesto coolthe parcelfrom TH

Becausethe left pistonmovesin while the fluid is at high

to Tc'duringthe rightwarddisplacement, storingheatin the

pressureand out while it is at low pressure,it doestime-

plates,and then servesto warm the parcelfrom Tc to TH

averaged workWi onthefluid;similarly, thefightpiston

duringthe leftward displacement,returningthe storedheat

absorbs time-averaged workWofromthefluid.

from the platesto the parcel.The engine'soveralloperation

Betweenthe two pistonsin the fluidchannelarea regen-

is unchangedif the displacement amplitudeis sosmallthat

erator and two heat exchangers.The heat exchangersserve

no parcelpassesall the way through the regenerator-heat

the samefunction as in thermoacousticengines:They are

exchangerassembly.

sources or sinksof heatQc andQH,at constant tempera-

To explaintheStirling-cycle

heatpumpin theenthalpy-

turesTc and TH, that do not significantlyimpedethe flowof

heat-work-flux framework as shown in Fig. 30(b), we

working fluid through them. The regenerator,depictedin

adoptan Eulerian,acousticpointof view,focusingattention

Fig. 30(a) asa numberof solidplatesalignedalongthe di-

on eachpointin spaceratherthan on a givenparcelof fluid.

rectionof fluid motionand smoothlyspanningthe tempera-

In the region betweenthe left piston and the hot heat ex-

ture differenceTH- Tc, resemblesthe "stack" of a ther-

changer, theworkfluxisconstant at Wi,theheatfluxiszero

moacousticengine,but it functionsvery differently. The

because s•= 0, andsotheenthalpy fluxis Wi.Similarly, in

purposeof the regeneratoris to enforcelocally isothermal

the right openspacethe heat flux is zero and the work and

conditionson the fluid: T• (x, y) = 0 (even though Tm de-

enthalpy fluxesareWo.These workfluxes aresimply the

pendson x). Thus the regeneratorplatesmust havea large

heat capacity (e• ,• 1) and must be very closely spaced acousticintensitiesp lu• timesthe channelarea.

To understandenergyfluxeswithin the regenerator,we

returnto Eq. ( 109) anduseds= (cp/ T) dT -- (13/p)dpto

expresss• in termsof T, and p•, obtaining

(a) •"•N • 6c

0 '0

H:=f [,OmCt,

T,u,

+(1-rm

]•)p,u,

] . (llO)

0

0

0 ,

0

0

0

From now on we consideronly the ideal-gasworkingfluid,

0 0

for which Tm/g = 1. Then

T. Tc

TlU

1, (111)

and within the regenerator,where T• -- 0, the enthalpyflux ß

Wothrough

theregenerator,

iscancelled

byanequaland

oppositeheat flux, so that the enthalpy flux is zero. The

L•

WIeeeeeee

Hß

'•Vi

ß

eee

ßßieeeeeeee

Enthalpy

c

ß ß ß ß ß Heat

++ +Work

discontinuities

changers

in heatandenthalpy.fi.ux

atthetwoheatex-

areOcandOH.ThusQc= WoandQH= Wi.It is

alsoeasyfrom this point of view to seethat the Stirlingcycle

has Carnot's efficiency,as long as nonessential(but un-

avoidablein practice)effectssuchasviscosity areneglected.

FIG. 30. A conventionalStirling-cycleheat pump. (a) Schematicof the

engine.The platesin the regeneratorare verycloselyspaced,with Yo'•6•, With the regeneratormuchshorterthan a wavelength,con-

sothe regeneratorisnotlike thestackofa thermoacousticengine.(b) Ener- tinuity of acousticpressureand massflux acrossthe regen-

gy-flux diagram for the engine. erator gives p,(right) =pl(left) and ul(right)/Tc

1174 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G. W. Swift:Thermoacousticengines 1174

,

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= u•(left)/T H for the ideal gaswith p,, proportionalto B. Pulse-tube refrigerators

l/T,,,. Because

Wo:p•u•,wethenhaveWi/Wo= TH/Tc, We concludethisreviewby discussing enginesthat com-

so the coefficientof performanceis bine the Stirling engine with the thermoacousticengine:

pulse-tuberefrigerators.The basicpulse-tuberefrigeratorof

COP

= Qc = Wo =r.-rc

Tc =COPe. GiffordandLongsworth•2wasshownin Fig. 6(b). It is a

thermoacousticdevice,becauseheat pumpingoccursin the

(112) large, open "pulse" tube, whosediameteris a few thermal

Ceperley

49realizedthat the essence

of the Stirlingen- penetrationdepths.There, the oscillatorypressureand ve-

gineisthat thetimephasingbetweenpressure andvelocityin locity haveessentiallystanding-wavetime phasing,and the

the regeneratoris the sameasfor a travelingacousticwave. tube walls themselves serve the function of the usual ther-

He proposedthe eliminationof pistonsfrom Stirlingengines moacousticstack,imposingan isothermalboundarycondi-

by usingacousticaltechniques,to form what he callsa trav- tion on the standingwave to stimulateheat pumping.The

eling-waveheat engine.Figure 31 showsone of Ceperley's primary purposeof the regeneratoristo thermallyisolatethe

designs,a traveling-waveheat-drivenrefrigerator.The path coldendof the pulsetubefrom the room-temperature "pow-

length around the loop of tubing is an integral number of er transducer" (a rotary valve, alternatelysupplyinghigh

wavelengths,so that a traveling wave can run around the and low pressure).

loop.At onelocationin the loop,a regeneratorandtwo heat In Fig. 32(a) we redraw the pulse-tuberefrigerator

exchangers functionasa primemover,addingacousticpow- schematically,consistentwith the other figuresof this sec-

er to the travelingwaveas heat flowsfrom a high-tempera- tion. (For the moment, ignore the dashedportion of the

ture heat sourceto a room-temperatureheat sink. At an- figureat the right end.) The apparatusis orders-of-magni-

otherlocation,anotherregeneratorandtwo heat•xchangers

functionasa heatpump,usingacousticpowerfrom the trav-

elingwaveto pumpheatfrom a low temperatureto room

temperature.In preliminarymeasurements with a traveling-

waveheatengine,Ceper!eyobservedextraattenuationwhen (a) 6H25C5Cl

"!"

5C25H15H3

a travelingacousticwavepropagateddownthe temperature

gradientin a regenerator(heat-pumpconfiguration),and

: / /;,' -

reducedattenuationwhenthe wavepropagatedup the tem-

.o • :1--- _.4 I

I • I

peraturegradient (prime-moverconfiguration).

We pauseto summarizethe most important pointsof THITc ITH \\ /

/

this section.Both Stirlingand thermoacoustic enginesre- Yo<<5•Yo--• \ /

quireoscillatorypressureandvelocity,andboth usea struc-

ture made of solid platesspanningthe temperaturediffer-

ence. In the Stirling engine,the regeneratorplate spacing . . ... ß lie

mustbemuchsmallerthana thermalpenetrationdepth,and

::..... !+..++,L.,Qo,

thetimephasing

between

pressure

andvelocitymustbethat .......

ß /oß o'• e

of a travelingwave. In the thermoacoustic engine,the stack

Enthalpy

plate spacingmust be comparableto a thermal penetration

ß 000 ß Heat

depth, and the time phasingbetweenpressureand velocity (c) + + + Work

mustbe that of a standingwave.The short-engineapproxi-

mationof Sees.I and II assumes standing-wave phasing,and

sois inapplicableto Stirlingengines;the theorypresentedin

the Appendixis generalenoughto describeboth Stirlingand

thermoacousticengines. = •H3

I}'ac• ! QH1•Vo

•- cooliel-

ee6C2

H2 ß

oe

ß

ee

ee

ß

ß

;' , ; ©e

., , •'

consistsof a longcylinderwith oscillatorypressuresource,regenerator,and

thermoacoustic enginein series.The orificepulse-tuberefrigeratorincludes

Tc TR additionalparts,showndashed:a needlevalve (or otherflow impedance)

L and a largevolume. (b) Energy-fluxdiagramfor the basicpulsetube.The

standing-wave part of the acousticoscillationscausesthermoacoustic heat

ß ß

ß ß

pumpingin the Yo'"6• region,andthe traveling-wave part causesStirling-

•c • (•R2 cycleheatpumpingin the Yo<6• region.(c) Energy-fluxdiagramfor the

orificepulsetube.The additionof the mechanicallylossyflow impedance

FIG. 31. Ceperley'sdesignfor a traveling-waveheat-drivenrefrigerator. andvolumeat the right endenhances the traveling-wavepart of the oscilla-

The arrowsshowthe directionof wavepropagation. tions,increasingthe Stirling-cycleheat pumping.

1175 J. Acoust.Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift:Thermoacousticengines 1175

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tudeshorterthan the acousticwavelength.At the left endis decreasein u]. With more travelingwave, the regenerator

thesource

ofacoustic

powerWi.Wedepict

it asasinusoidal- then pumps more heat, so the total coolingpower is in-

ly drivenpiston,eventhoughearlypulsetubesusednonsinu- creased,asshownin Fig. 32(c).

soidalswitched-valvedrives.In the centeristhe regenerator, Radebaughwas the first to appreciatethe important

spanningthe temperaturedifferencefrom TH to Tc. At the heat-pumpingfunctionof the regeneratorin the pulse-tube

rightendisthethermoacoustic pulsetube,spanningthetem- refrigerato.r,

andthat it is enhancedby the flowthroughthe

peraturedifferencefrom Tc to TH. We havedrawn it with a impedancein the orificepulsetube.His versionof the orifice

stack,schematically,becausethe pulsetube'swallsperform pulsetubes• reaches

60 K withP•/Pm= 0.27at f= 9 Hz.

the function of a stack. The orificepulsetube is very elegantin that it performses-

In this simplifiedexplanationof the pulse tube, we sentiallyas a Stirlingengine,but with the low-temperature ß

mal contactin the regeneratorand viscosity.In Fig. 32(b),er with no movingparts:a lossyflow impedance, anda ther-

wequalitatively showtheenergy fluxesforthebasic.pulse moacousticstackthat evenproducessomeextra refrigera-

tube.Work Wi is producedby'thesource;mostof it, Wc, is tion. In principle,replacingthe work-extractingpistonby a

absorbedin the stack,as requiredto permit the standing- lossyelementleadsto lower efficiency,but the increasein

wavepart of the acousticoscillationsto pumpheat,remov- simplicityis far more significant.

ingOc• fromTc anddelivering

Oa• to Ta. Because

the

frequencyis so low (f_• 1 Hz), longitudinalconduction

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

losses,

whichareproportional

to yo•,,/( (u] )/w) 2 accord-

ing to Eq. (107), canbe reasonablysmall,eventhis closeto The experimentsdiscussedin Sec.IV werelargelythe

thepressure

antinodewhere(u]) issmallandV T_•V Tc•tis work of Tom Hofler and A1 Migliori. The threeof us, with

large. Since prohibitive longitudinal conductionlossesdo the late JohnWheatIcy,developedmuch of the physicalin-

not forceit away from the pressureantinode,the stackalso tuition that is the foundation of this review. John's leader-

enjoysrelativelylow viscouslosses. ship,guidance,and insightwere invaluable,and his love of

But,to reachthestack,Wc hasto flowthrough

the thermodynamicswas a great inspiration. Steve Garrett

regenerator.And sincethereis alsoa temperaturedifference made innumerablecontributionsthroughout. Stimulating

acrossthe regenerator,there must be Stirling-cycleheat conversationswith Jay Maynard and Ray Radebaugh

pumping

in it, removing

ß

heat•c2 fromTc anddelivering helpedconsiderablyin the preparationof Secs.I and V, re-

heat Qa2 to Ta. Surprisingly,the regeneratorpumpsnon- spectively.Finally, I thank IsadoreRudnickfor convincing

heatfrom Tc to TH. The total refrigeration, me to write

n.egligib!e this review, and Dick Martin, Gloria Bennett,

Qc• q'-Qc2, is partly thermoacoustic,partly Stirling. Yet SteveGarrett, Tom Hofler, and especiallyVince Kotsubo

the two are not really independent:Without the thermo- for criticallyreadingan earlierdraft. Preparationof this re-

acousticregionto absorbacousticpower,therewouldbe no view,andmuchof the work describedherein,wassupported

Wcatthecoldendoftheregenerator,

andhence

noStirling- by the Division of Materials Sciencesin DOE's OfiSceof

cyclerefrigeration. BasicEnergySciences.

We can concludefrom either of two easy arguments

that,in thisinviscid

model,Oc• and•c2 donotdifferby

ordersof magnitude. First,weknow•c2 = Wc because APPENDIX

H = 0 inside thecoldendoftheregenerator,

andweknow Here, we outline the mostgeneralthermoacousticderi-

Oc•• Wcbecause thestack'sCOPisnotordersofmagni- vationthat we know. As shownin Fig. 12 of the main text,

tudelessthanCOPc-• 1;hence, Oc•• Oc2.Second,

nearly we considera parallel-plategeometrywith the x axisalong

all the volumeto the right of the coldheatexchangeris pro- the directionof soundpropagation,the y axisnormalto the

ductive (little is reactive or dissipative),so p•ul .-•p•u]. ß o

fluid-solid boundary with y = 0 in the center of the fluid

TakingIr•(II•,,/A) (F -- 1)l '• 1, we thenhave Wc• Qc•; and y = Yoat the boundary, and the y' axis also normal to

so,again,Oc•"••c2. Earlyresearchers

inpulse-tube

refri- the fluid-solid boundary, with y'-0 in the center of the

gerationapparentlydid not appreciatethis thermodynamic solid and y'= l at the boundary. Note that y and y' are

importanceof the regenerator;they includedit simply to oppositelydirected.The solidis assumedto be perfectlyrig-

thermally isolatethe cold end of the pulsetube from the id. We will usea first-orderexpansionin the acousticampli-

pressure source. tudefor all variables;for example,we approximatethe pres-

Mikulinandco-workers

sømadea significant

advance

in sure P•Pm nt-P•eiot.We assumethat the averagefluid

pulse-tuberefrigerationby introducingtheorificepulse-tube velocityv• = 0. Beginningwith generalequationsof fluid

refrigerator.Their modificationto the basicpulsetube is mechanics,we will derivea waveequationfor the first-order

showndashedin Fig. 32(a). At the right end of the pulse acousticpressureamplitude p• (x) at meanpressurePrnin

tube,a flowimpedance(an adjustableneedlevalvein further termsof the mean temperaturedistributionT• (x) and of

development

by Radebaugh

5•) leadsto a largevolume,so material propertiesand geometry.We will also derive an

that the pressureoscillationsin the pulsetubecauseoscilla- expressionfor the time-averagedsecond-orderenergyflux

ß

tory flow in the impedance,in phasewith the pressureoscil- H2 along x in the fluid in terms of p•, T•, and material

lations.Thisresultsin a largeincrease in traveling-wave

in- propertiesand geometry.

tensity throughout the engine, with an attendant slight First, wederivean expressionfor thex componentof the

1176 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift: Thermoacousticengines 1176

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fluidvelocityfromthe generalequationof motion

s2of a order,andagain

neglecting

0 2Ti/Ox2compared

too2Tl/Oy2,

compressible,

viscousfluid, Eq. (A8) becomes

+ •'+ V(V.v), t9mC•

icoT

1+uI dx --koT,,,

I?Pl

=K02TI

OY

2.. (A9)

(A1) We substituteEq. (A4) for uI and solveEq. (A9) for

wherepisdensity,

v isvelocity,p ispressure,

anditand•' are subjectto the boundaryconditionsT1(Yo) = Tsl(1) = Tbl

dynamicand secondviscosity,respectively.(We havene- andK(•Ti/Oy)Iy,,= -- K• (OT•i/Oy')I•. Theresultis,after

glectedthetemperaturedependence of viscosity,

whichcan a long calculation,

beimportantat extremelylargetemperature gradients.

) To

firstorder,thex componentof Eq. (A 1) is

iOpm

U= dp,

dx+ItV2u,

+(•q-•-)•x(V'v,),

(A2) x(1-(a-acosh[

(1(+1i)y/6,,

1)cosh[ ] ].)dp,

+ i)yo/6,, •x'dT,,

dx

where Ul is the x componentof vl. We know that

ul/vl •>h/S,,, 3/3x is of orderl/h, 3/3y is of order

and$v,• h, wherevl isthe y component of vl, h istheradian (dpl/dx)(drm/dx)(1

Pl+

(a- 1)prow2 +Esf,,f,,)

]

lengthofthesoundwave,• = x/2v/wistheviscous penetra-

cosh[(1 + i)y/6,, ]

tiondepth,andv = It/p,, isthekinematicviscosity.

There- X , (A10)

fore, all other viscousderivativesmay be neglectedcom- ( 1 + Es)cosh[ ( 1 + i)yo/tS,,

]

paredtoIt 3 2ul/0y2,andEq. (A2) reduces

to wherea = cv It/K = v/tcisthePrandtlnumber,

do,

icop,,ul=

dx

I-It

•y2

1. (A3) f• _ tanh[(1+i)yo/tS,,

( 1 + i)yo/&,

] (All)

solution (A12)

( 1 + i)yo/•5,,

imdœ1(

U1=O• cosh[(l+i)y/&,])

• 1- cosh[

( 1 + i)yo/$•] , . (A4) Es-=

•Kp,.Cptanh[ ( 1+ i)yo/&,]

•KsPscs tanh[ ( 1q-i) 1/•5s

]

, (A13)

The temperature

in thesolidTsis givenby thesolution

of rS,,= x/2tc/co

is the fiuid'sthermalpenetrationdepth,and

tc= K/p,, cv isitsthermalditfusivity.

= tq V2T•, (A5) Now, we derivethe waveequationfor pl(x) from the

3t

continuityequationand the equationof motion,utilizing

wheretq = Ks/pscsisthesolid'sthermalditfusivity,

and boththeequationof stateandtheaboveequations

for ui and

p•, andc• arethesolid's

thermalconductivity,density,and T1.Thecontinuity

equation

53

specific

heatperunitmass,respectively.To firstorder,and

with(02Tsl/OX2)/(O2Tsl/Oy '2)•K's/(.O•

2• 1,Eq.(A5) be- op

8t

(pv)=0 (A14)

comes

becomes to first order

02rsl

iota1

=g•OY

'2, (A6

) icop u•) +p,,Ovl

•+ -•-x(p,,, 0y

= 0. (A15)

which has the solution

CombiningEq. (A 15) with the x derivativeof Eq. (A3)

cosh

[(1+ i)y'/6•

] (A7) gives

T•i=To1

cosh[(1

+i)l/6•]'

where

• = 42g•/wisthesolid's

thermal

penetration

depth,

and with the temperatureamplitudeTo1 at the boundary

--6o2pl

d2pl

2q-

dx •O(ItO2ul)

Oy 001

Oy=0.(A16)

2 +iWpm

y' = I as yet undetermined. Theequation

ofstatecanbeusedto expressp

• in termsof T•

and

The temperature in thefluidis foundfromthegeneral

equation

ofheattransfer

28 p• = -p• •T• + (y/a2)p•, (A17)

wherey istheratioofisobaricto isochoric

specific

heatsand

a is the adiabaticsoundspeed.Substituting

Eq. (A 17) into

= V. (K VT) + (terms quadratic in velocities), Eq. (A 16) yields

(A8) o2 d2p,

W2pm

•T• a•yp• dx

2

wheresisfluidentropy

perunitmassandK isfluidthermal

conductivity.

Writing& = (%/•dT-

is thefluid'sisobaricspecific

(•/p)dp, where

heatperunit massandfl is its O½02Ul)

+iOpm

OOl

=O. (A18)

isobaricthermalexpansion coefficient,

keepingtermsto first UsingEqs.(A 10) and (A4) for Tl andu•, Eq. (A 18) may

engines 1177

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be integrated with respectto y from 0 to Yo to obtain a The first term on the right in Eq. (A24) is zero because

differentialequationfor Pl asa functionofx only. Note that ul = 0. The integralsof the secondand third termsin Eq.

vl is zero at both y = 0, by symmetry,and at the boundary (A24) sumto zero becausethe second-ordertime-averaged

Y = Yo.The resultof the integrationis mass flux is zero'

1-+-es Pl -4 CO

2 dx '' Pm dx oY"(pm

U2•-plUl)

dy--O. (A25)

Hence,

a2 f,,- f, dTm

dpl_ O. ( A19

)

w2 (1-cr)(l+es) dx dx

puw dy= Pm UlWldy

This is an important result. It is an ordinary differential do

in termsof the distributionof the meantemperatureTm(x) = Jo

[ tOmUp

TlUl q-(1 -- Tm/•)plUl] dy,

and (temperature dependent) thermophysicalproperties

(A26)

and geometryof thefluid andsolid.For an idealgasandwith

es= 0, thisresultwasobtained

by Rott.•4Oncep• hasbeen wherewe haveuseddw= T ds+ (1/p)dp =c•, dT + (1/

determined,theotherfirst-orderquantitiesUl, T1, Pl, andOl p) ( 1 -- T/?)dp.The secondandthirdintegralsof Eq. (A23)

are readily obtainedfrom Eqs. (A4), (A 10), (A 17), and containtermsof all orders,but only the zero-ordertermswill

(A 15), if desired. be significant.Hence,we take

In steadystate,for an enginewithout lateral heat flows

tothesurroundings,

thetime-averaged

energy

flux]/2 along - f•'K8Tdy--•01

ao Ox

KsOTs

dy' 8x

x must be independentof x. We will now derivean expres-

sionfor]/2;correct

to second

orderin theacoustic

ampli- aTm

= -- ( yoK + lKs) •. (A27)

tude.By conservation

of energy

55 dx

8 1 Finally, the last integralin Eq. (A23) hasmany terms.

+ Using argumentssimilar to thoseprecedingEq. (A3), we

findthatthelargest

termsareoforderyolaU•/7•,

but puwis

T--v.Ig], (A20)oforderplu•=pmaU2•.Hence,

where e and w are internal energyand enthalpy per unit

mass,respectively,and lg is the viscousstresstensor,with ao (v'Ig),,dy puw

r dy•)k•

v'= 21 6•

/.to'"'

)k

2'•1'

components

56 (A28)

•ij=itt•(OXj

Ovi0%

i 2

36ij

Ovk

k)+•'6 Ovk so that the viscousterm (v. Ig)• is negligible.Hence, Eq.

-40X Ox i•Ox

k (A23) becomes

(A21)

Termsin vv2 are of third orderand henceare neglected.

•2

II

=ao [tOrnCp

TlU

,-Jr-

(1-Tm

l•)PlUl

] ary

Integratingthe remainingtermsin Eq. (A20) with respect

aT.

to y from y = 0 to y' = 0 and time averagingyield - ( yoK + IK• ) •, (A29)

dx

withthesubscript

2on]/2reminding

usthatthisisanenergy

•x puw

dy

-- KOT

dy ao Ox

flux valid to secondorder in the acousticquantities.Substi-

tuting Eqs. (A 10) and (A4) for T1 and u• and performing

' OTs

Oxdy'-.,o =o, (A22) the integrationyield finally, after a lengthycalculation,

within the squarebracketsis the time-averagedenergyflux

perunitperimeter

J//II along

x'

20pm

[dxPl1-f,,-(1+es)(1

+o-)

+

Ilyoc

t, dTmdpl dp,

.t•= .,o puw

dy-.,o KOT

Oxdy 2W3pm(1--O

') dx dx dx

- i 8Ts

Oxdy'-.,o (v.E)xdy. (A23) XIm[f,,

+(f,--f.,,)(l+esf,,/f,)]

(1 + es)(1 +or)

Wenowexpand

J/to second

orderintheacoustic

ampli- dT.,

-- H( yoK + lKs) •, (A30)

tude. The first integralin Eq. (A23) becomes dx

puw dy•_ (Pm Ul Wm-+-ProU2Wm where Im[ ] signifiesthe imaginarypart and the tilde de-

dO dO

notescomplexconjugation.This important resultgivesthe

+ p•u•w• +p• u•w•)dy. (A24) energyflux alongx in termsof Tm(x), P l (x), and material

1178 J. Acoust.Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 4, October 1988 G.W. Swift:Thermoacousticengines 1178

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propertiesand geometry.For an ideal gasand with es= 0, ient resonatorlocation),and to specifyits amplitudethere.

thisresultwasobtainedby Rott.57 Then,thecomplexp• and p• justoutsidethestartingendof

The wave equation,Eq. (A19), and the energy-flux the stack can be determinedby standard acousticstech-

equation,Eq. (A30), arethe principalresultsof thisAppen- niques,or by integratingthe equationsthemselves, with the

dix. They are the startingpointfor all the short-engine

re- resonatorwallsplayingthe roleof the plates,from the veloc-

suits used in Sec. II and thereafter, and the basisof all our ity nodeto thestartingendof thestack,Next, p• and p• can

careful thermoacoustic numericalintegrations.Although be determinedjust insMethe startingend of the stackby

this is the mostgeneralthermoacoustic theory we havede- invokingcontinuityof pressure andvolumetricvelocity[ the

veloped,it hasseveralnotableassumptions built into it: ( 1) integralof Eq. (A4) ] at thestackend.Thesetechniques can

This is a completelylineartheory.The second-order energy alsobeusedto find p• and p• at thepowertransducer, once

effectsare obtainedfrom only first-order acoustics,obviat- p• and px at thefinalendof the stackhavebeencomputed.

ing the formidablecalculationof P2, u2, and T2. Thus we If thesedo not properlymatchthe impedance of the power

neglectnonlineareffects,suchasstreaming,that will be im- transducer, thesystemisnotresonant,showingthata wrong

portant at high Mach numbers.(2) We have assumedthat valueof cowasusedthroughthe entirecalculation.

the acousticamplitudesare low enoughto avoid turbu-

lence,

42sothatu•6,,/v< 500.(3) Wehaveassumed

thatthe

platesarestationaryandrigid.Thismaybe a poorassump-

•J.C. Wheatley

(unpublished

data).Thedevice

wasdescribed

brieflybyJ.

tion for enginesusingliquids(or veryhigh-pressure gases), C. WheatleyandA. Cox,"Naturalengines,"

Phys.Today38, 50 (August

whoseacousticimpedancemay not be negligiblecompared 1985).

to that of the solidplatematerial. (4) We haveassumedthe 2A.A. PutnamandW. R. Dennis,"Survey

of organ-pipe

oscillations

in

combustionsystems,"J. Acoust.Soc.Am. 28, 246 (1956).

meanfluid velocityis zero, eventhoughtheremay be appli-

3B.Higgins,Nicholson'sJ. 1, 130(1802).

cationswherefluid is steadilyforcedthroughthe system,to 4p.L. Rijke,"NotizfibereineneueArt, diein eineranbeidenEndenof-

enhanceheat transferfor example.(5) We have assumed fenenR6hre enthalteneLuft in Schwingungen zu versetzen,"Ann. Phys.

that wavelengths are muchlargerthan penetrationdepths. (Leipzig) 107, 339 ( 1859); K. T. Feldman, Jr., "Review of the literature

on Rijke thermoacoustic phenomena,"J. SoundVib. 7, 83 (1968).

This is an excellentapproximationat acousticfrequencies, 5B.T. Zinn,"Pulsating

combustion,"

in Advanced

Combustion

Methods,

and for all systemswe haveimagined. editedby F. J. Weinberg(Academic,London,1986), p. 113.

To numericallyintegrateEqs. (A ! 9 ) and (A30) to pre- 6C.Sondhauss,

"UeberdieSchallschwingungen

derLuftinerhitzten

Glas-

dict the performance of thermoacoustic engines,we recog- r6hren und in gedecktenPfeifen von ungleicherWeite," Ann. Phys.

(Leipzig) 79, 1 (1850).

nize that the equationscomprisea setof threesecond-order 7N.Rott,"Thermoacoustics,"

Adv.Appl.Mech.20, 135( 1980);"A sim-

coupledreal differentialequationsin the variablesTm(x), ple theory of the Sondhausstube," in RecentAdvancesin Aeroacoustics,

Re [ p • (x) ], and Im [ p • (x) ]. With the additionof the defin- editedby A. KrothapalliandC. A. Smith (Springer,New York, 1984), p.

ition 327.

8LordRayleigh(J. W. Strutt),TheTheory

ofSound(Dover,NewYork,

dpl 1945), 2nd ed., Vol. 2, Sec.322.

px =•, (A31) 9K. W. Taconis,"Vapor-liquid

equilibrium

of solutions

of 3Hein 4He,"

dx

Physica15, 738 (1949).

Eqs. (A 19), (A30), and (A31 ) becomea set of five first- •oj.R. ClementandJ. Gaffney,"Thermaloscillations

in low-temperature

order coupledreal differentialequationsin x, in the fivevari- apparatus,"Adv. Cryog. Eng. 1, 302 (1954).

•T. Yazaki,A. Tominaga,

andY. Narahara,

"Experiments

onthermally

ables

T,•,Rep•,Imp•,Repx,andImPx.Theenergy

flux$/2 drivenacoustic oscillations

of gaseous

helium,"J. Low Temp.Phys.41, 45

isa givenconstant,independentofx within the stackbecause (1980); T. Yazaki, A. Okada, F. Mizutani, A. Tominaga,and Y. Nara-

a steadystateis assumedandno energyflowsin or out in the hara,"Quasiperiodicandchaoticstatesobservedin Taconisoscillations,"

y or z directions(exceptat the heat exchangers).The fluid Proc. 18thInt. Conf.Low Temp.Phys.,Kyoto, 1987,Jpn.J. Appl. Phys.

26, Suppl. 26-3, 1747 (1987), and referencestherein.

andplatethermophysical propertiesdependimplicitlyon x •2W.E. GiffordandR. C. Longsworth,

"Surface

heatpumping,"

Adv.

through their dependence on Tm. A solutionmay be ob- Cryog. Eng. 11, 171 (1966).

tained numericallyusinga Runge-Kutta method,starting •3p.Merkli andH. Thomann,"Thermoacoustic

effects

in a resonant

tube,"

most convenientlyat the end of the stack away from the J. Fluid Mech. 70, !61 (1975).

•4R.L. Carter,M. White,andA.M. Steele

(privatecommunication

ofAto-

powertransducerandnumericallyintegratingalongx to the mics International Division of North American Aviation, Inc., 1962).

other end. As the solutionp• (x), Tm(x) is generated,the •SK.T. Feldman,Jr., "Reviewof theliteratureonSondhauss

thermoacous-

workfluxW2(x) atx canalsobecomputed: tic phenomena,"J. SoundVib. 7, 71 (1968).

•6K.T. Fe!dman,

Jr., "A studyof heatgenerated

pressure

oscillations

in a

closedendpipe,"Ph.D. dissertation,MechanicalEngineering,University

W2

= II p,u•dy= Ilyo

RetpuO•

(1-f•), (A32) of Missouri, 1966.Also availableas Bur. Eng. Res. Rep. ME-18 and as

.,o 2copm SandiaCorp., Albuquerque,NM Res.Rep. SC-DC-66-1293.

17Go

Kirchhoff,

"UeberdenEinfluss

derW/irmeleitung

ineinemGasaufdie

wherewehaveusedEq. (A4) for u• to evaluatetheintegral. Schallbewegung,"

Ann. Phys.(Leipzig) 134, 177 (1868).

Requiredto startthe numericalintegrationisa choiceof •8H.A. Kramers,

"Vibrations

ofa gascolumn,"

Physica15,971(1949).

•9N.Rott,"Dampedandthermallydrivenacoustic

oscillations

in wideand

five attendant initial conditions:the mean temperature, narrow tubes,"Z. Angew. Math. Phys.20, 230 (1969).

complexpressure amplitude,andcomplexpressure gradient 2øN.Rott,"Thermally

drivenacoustic

oscillations,

partII: Stabilitylimit

at thestartingendof thestack.Themeantemperature at the for helium,"Z. Angew.Math. Phys.24, 54 ( 1973);"The influenceof heat

conductionon acousticstreaming,"Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 25, 417

startingendof the stackisjust theheatexchanger tempera- (1974); "The heatingeffectconnectedwith non-linearoscillationsin a

ture.Oftenit is convenientto takethepressure amplitudeto resonance tube,"Z. Angew.Math. Phys.25, 619 ( 1974); "Ein 'Rudimen-

be real at the adjacentvelocitynode (or someother conven- tarer' Stirlingmotor,"NeueZuercherZtg. 197, No. 210 ( 1976); "Ther-

engines 1179

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moacousticheatingat the closedendof an oscillatinggascolumn,"J. Flu- Chap. 1.

id Mech. 145, 1 (1984). 37Reference36,Chap.4.

2•N. Rott, "Thermallydrivenacoustic

oscillations,

partIII: Second-older 38H.W. St. Clair,"An electromagnetic

soundgenerator

forproducing

in-

heat flux," Z. Angew. Math. Phys.26, 43 (1975). tensehigh frequencysound,"Rev. Sci.Instrum. 12, 250 ( 1941).

22N.Rott andG. Zouzoulas,

"Thermallydrivenacoustic

oscillations,

part 39A.B. Pippard,ThePhysics

of Vibration

(Cambridge

U.P., NewYork,

IV: Tubes with variable cross-section,"Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 27, 197 1978), Chap. 10.

(1976). 4øUsingPA=pmau•andEqs.(8.10) and(8.18) of Ref.33.

23G.Zouzoulas

andN. Rott, "Thermallydrivenacoustic

oscillations,

part 4iT. Hofler,"Accurate

acoustic

powermeasurements

witha high-intensity

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24U.A. MfillerandN. Rottr,"Thermallydrivenacoustic

oscillations,

part 42p.MerkliandH. Thomann,"Transition

to turbulence

in oscillating

pipe

VI: Excitationand power," Z. Angew. Math. Phys.34, 609 (1983). flow," J. Fluid Mech. 68, 567 (1975).

25U.A. MiillerandE. Lang,"Experimente

mitthermisch

getriebenen

Gas- 43j.F. J. Malone,"A newprimemover,"J. Soc.Arts79,679( 1931).

FIQssigkeits-Schwingungen,"

Z. Angew.Math. Phys.36, 358 (1985). 44G.W. Swift,A. Migliori,T. Hofler,andJ. C. Wheatley,"Theoryand

26j.C. Wheatley,T. Hofler,G. W. Swift,andA. Migliori,"Understanding calculationsfor an intrinsicallyirreversibleacousticprime mover using

somesimplephenomenain thermoacoustics with applicationsto acousti- liquid sodiumas primary workingfluid," J. Acoust.Soc.Am. 78, 767

cal heat engines,"Am. J. Phys. 53, 147 (1985). (1985).

27j.C. Wheatley,

T. Hofler,G. W. Swift,and A. Migliori,"Anintrinsically 45A.MiglioriandG. W. Swift,"Liquid-sodium

thermoacoustic

engine,"

irreversiblethermoacousticheat engine,"J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 153 Appl. Phys.Lett. 53, 355 (1988).

( 1983); "Experimentswith an intrinsicallyirreversibleacousticheat en- 46G.W. Swift, "A liquid metalmagnetohydrodynamic

acoustictrans-

gine," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 499 (1983). ducer," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 350 (1988).

28L.D. LandauandE. M. Lifshitz,FluidMechanics

(Pergamon,

Oxford, 47Reference

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29H.B. Callen,Thermodynamics (Wiley,NewYork, 1960),Eq. (3.47). 49p.H. Ceperley,"A pistonless

StirlingengineraThetraveling

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3op.M. MorseandK. U. Ingard,TheoreticalAcoustics

(McGraw-Hill,New engine,"J. Acoust.Soc.Am. 66, 1508 (1979); "Gain and efficiencyof a

York, 1968; reprinted by PrincetonU.P., Princeton,NJ, 1987), Eq. shorttravelingwave heat engine,"J. Acoust.Soc.Am. 77, 1239 (1985).

(6.4.37). 5øE.I. Mikulin,A. A. Tarasov,andM.P. Shkrebyonock,

"Low-tempera-

3•Reference29, AppendixF. ture expansionpulsetubes,"Adv. Cryog.Eng. 29, 629 (1984).

32Reference28,Eq. (16.3). 5•R.Radebaugh,

J. Zimmerman,

D. R. Smith,andB. Louie,"A compari-

33L.E. Kinsler,A. R. Frey,A. B. Coppens,

andJ. V. Sanders,

Fundamen- sonof threetypesof pulsetuberefrigerators:

New methodsfor reaching60

tals of Acoustics(Wiley, New York, 1982), 3rd ed., Eqs. (9.34) and K," Adv. Cryog.Eng. 31, 779 ( 1986); R. Radebaugh,"Pulsetube refri-

(9.35). geration--a new type of cryocooler,"Proc. 18th Int. Conf. Low Temp.

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28,Eq. (15.6).

dissertation,PhysicsDepartment,Universityof Californiaat SanDiego, 53Reference

28, Eq. (1.2).

1986;T. Hofler, "Measurementson a thermoacousticrefrigerator,"in 54Reference

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preparationfor J. Acoust.Soc.Am. -SSReference

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36F.V. Hunt, Electroacoustics:

TheAnalysis of Transduction, andIts Histor- 56Reference

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ical Background(Acoustical Societyof America, New York, 1982), 57Reference

21,Eq. (10).

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