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Review Questions:

pH-METRY

1. Concept of pH and principles of its instrumental measurement.

2. Typical titration curves during the determination of weak and strong acids with strong base.

3. Acid-base concepts

4. Properties of electrodes used in pH-metry.

5. Calibration of electrodes used in pH-metry.

6. Reference electrodes and the principles of their use.

7. Advantages of pH-metric titrations.

8. Principles of recording and evaluating pH-metric titration curves.

9. Gran functions.

10. Titration curves of multiprotic acids.

11. Titration curves of mixtures of acids.

1. Single-point calibration of electrodes

A precisely weighed amount of potassium hydrogen phthalate will be provided. Dilute this

amount to 100.0 cm 3 to obtain a 0.05 mol/dm 3 solution, the pH of which is 4.008. During the single-point calibration this pH is set on the instrument. Immerse the clean and dry electrode into this buffer solution and make sure that the small connecting part is fully covered by the solution. It typically takes 1 or 2 minutes for the equilibrium potential to stabilize. During a titration, the equilibration time is considerably shorter. Switch the pH-meter into measuring mode and set the buffer pH by turning the ’BUFFER 1’ knob.

2. Determination of the concentration of ca. 0.1 mol/dm 3 KOH solution

The concentration of the titrant (KOH solution) is determined using the solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate already prepared. In a 150 cm 3 beaker, prepare 100.0 cm 3 of a solution with the following concentrations:

KH-phthalate: 0.005 mol/dm 3 KCl: 0.2 mol/dm 3 Titrate this sample with the KOH solution under continuous stirring. Use the following increment sequence:

0

- 3 cm 3 : add 0.5 cm 3 titrant between two points

3

- 6 cm 3 : add 0.2 cm 3 titrant between two points

6

- 8 cm 3 : add 0.5 cm 3 titrant between two points

Draw a graph showing the titration curve and determine the equivalence points using Gran

functions.

3. Determination of the concentration of ca. 0.1 mol/dm 3 hydrochloric acid

In a 150 cm 3 beaker, prepare 100.0 cm 3 of a solution with the following concentrations:

HCl:

ca. 0.005 mol/dm 3

KCl:

0.2 mol/dm 3

Titrate this sample with the KOH solution under continuous stirring.

increment sequence:

0

- 4 cm 3 : add 0.5 cm 3 titrant between two points

4

- 6 cm 3 : add 0.2 cm 3 titrant between two points

6

- 8 cm 3 : add 0.5 cm 3 titrant between two points

Use the following

Draw a graph showing the titration curve and determine the equivalence points using Gran functions.

4. Determination of the concentration of ca. 0.1 mol/dm 3 acetic acid

In a 150 cm 3 beaker, prepare 100.0 cm 3 of a solution with the following concentrations:

Acetic acid:

ca. 0.005 mol/dm 3

KCl:

0.2 mol/dm 3

Titrate this sample with the KOH solution under continuous stirring. increment sequence:

0

- 4 cm 3 : add 0.5 cm 3 titrant between two points

4

- 6 cm 3 : add 0.2 cm 3 titrant between two points

6

- 8 cm 3 : add 0.5 cm 3 titrant between two points

Use the following

Draw a graph showing the titration curve and determine the equivalence points using Gran functions.

5. Determination of the concentration of a mixture containing acetic and hydrochloric acids

In a 150 cm 3 beaker, prepare 100.0 cm 3 of a solution with the following concentrations:

HCl:

ca. 0.003 mol/dm 3

Acetic acid:

ca. 0.003 mol/dm 3

KCl:

0.2 mol/dm 3

Titrate this sample with the KOH solution under continuous stirring. Use the following increment sequence:

0 - 9 cm 3 : add 0.2 cm 3 titrant between two points

Draw a graph showing the titration curve. Determine the concentrations of both acids after

carefully considering which Gran functions are useful for this purpose.