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# Journal Entry / Diary Informal Letter Formal Letter Dialogue / Interview

1 Background / Topic Opening Opening Dialogue: A dialogue is an
Details w/ Thoughts and equal conversation between
2 Background Introduction
Feelings two people (both should speak
Details w/ Thoughts and for about the same amount of
3 Body Details of the Situation time).
Details w/ Thoughts and Interview: Instead of an evenly
4 Body Further Development balanced conversation between
two people, an interview will
5 Future Future wishes/action Future Action have one person talking a lot
more than the other.
• Write in the first person 'I' • Add a few bits of personal • Clear Structure with topic • Use stage directions given in
brackets (sometimes, for effect -
• Date at the top chat, usually at the start of sentences
don't overuse)
• Use topic sentences to write the letter, to make it seem • Think about the purpose. • Rely on punctuation for effect.
clear paragraphs genuine. State it if necessary. Lay it out like a script, using colons.
• Give a clear sense of the • Make sure main part of letter • Think about the audience as • Use language that is appropriate
writer's personality and relates to task and that you this will affect the language and realistic to the character. Create
a clear sense of voice - particularly
explain their feelings and use appropriate tone (Don’t you choose. in the dialogue.

changing emotions be bright and cheerful if • Think about the purpose (this
• Focus on key moments or writing to pass on bad news.) will affect your language - DIALOGUE:
• Equal conversation between two
incidents in their world • Do not use ‘text’ speech e.g. e.g. if you are asked to people. Each character needs a clear
• Provide a sense of time and ”Hey Bobby! how r u?” PERSUADE then use personality.
sequence (use time • Do not use slang e.g. ‘gonna’ PERFECT techniques). • Should NOT be one person asking and
the other answering; it MUST be both
connectives: finally, or ‘cos’ • Varied punctuation ways. Mixture of long and shorter
afterwards, earlier, later that • Use contracted verb forms • Different sentence types paragraphs.
day...) like we’ve, I’m, etc. INTERVIEW:
• Use varied punctuation • Use short sentences and • One person asks the questions and the
• Use varied sentence types active verb forms. other answers. Not an equal
• Write the address and date • Answers need to be long / detailed;
on the right. include lots of information that you have
read in the passage.
points – use them!

# Formal Report News Report Magazine Article Speech

1 Explanation of Situation LEAD – WH Questions Topic Introduction
2 First phase or aspect Background Background Alternative View
3 Second phase or aspect Report of Actual News Discussion Criticism of Alternative View
4 Third phase or aspect Quotations Prediction Your View
5 Conclusion Future Conclusion Conclusion
• Make points clear in • First paragraph 4 Ws • Have a clear viewpoint on • Write in the first person ‘I’
separate paragraphs with • Expert or witness comments the issue, this is more (but use ‘we’ to include the
topic sentences (use included to give weight to the personal than a news report, audience!)
subheadings if you want) story it's got an opinion • Use direct address ‘How
• Use time connectives • Don't use 'I', stay objective • A personal take on an issue would you feel?’
(Earlier, Later that day, and unbiased. Just report the • use the first person 'I' • Clear topic sentences, with
Afterwards). Reports of an facts. • Varied sentence types and separate points/ideas for
event would give information • Given the events in order punctuation for effect each paragraph
about what happened (start to finish). Use time • Explores ideas deeply • You don’t need speech

in chronological (time) order. connectives (first, later, marks.

i.e. FROM THE BEGINNING finally) to link • Use some informal
TO THE END paragraphs/events. language, shorter sentences
• Stay objective - this isn't and questions to keep your
descriptive writing - a clear audience interested.
presentation of information. • Varied punctuation for effect
You may come to a • Range of sentence lengths
conclusion but there should
be no exaggeration or Personal Pronouns
emotive language. Present Tense
• Formal and Standard English Rhetorical Devices (Alliteration,
• Facts and Statistics Hyperbole, Metaphors, Repetition,
• Variety of sentence lengths Rhetorical Question)
and punctuation Rule of Three
Emotive Language
Powerful Words
Facts & Statistics