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Zitation: Rath, Norbert (2016): Zur Nietzsche-Rezeption Horkheimers und Adornos, in: Kritiknetz - Zeitschrift für Kritische Theorie der
Gesellschaft

© 2016 bei Norbert Rath bzw. www.kritiknetz.de, Hrsg. Heinz Gess, ISSN 1866-4105



 

  
  
 
       
 
 
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1 Die Fotografie Hitlers in Weimar neben der Nietzsche-Büste kommentiert K. Kraus (1933/34, 63 f.) wie folgt:
„‘Welche Wohltat ist ein Jude unter Deutschen’ meint Nietzsche. [...] Und dieser Nietzsche wird geradezu
persönlich: ‘Pfui über die, welche sich jetzt zudringlich der Masse als ihre Heilande anbieten!’ So spricht die
Büste auf der Photographie.“
2 Gegenwärtig verfolgt H. Dahmer diese Intention weiter, vgl. Dahmer 2013, 1 ff.
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3 Das gilt z.B. für die völkisch-antisemitische Bewegung, für die ihn seine Schwester Elisabeth Förster-
Nietzsche gegen sein ausdrückliches Votum postum vereinnahmen wollte (vgl. Niemeyer, 2009, 103-105), für
christliche Positionen (vgl. Biser ²2008) oder für einen humanistisch verstandenen Sozialismus (vgl. Th. Mann
1947). Zur vielfältigen, nicht auf einen Nenner zu bringenden Rezeption Nietzsches im deutschen Sprachbereich
insgesamt ist die profunde Studie von Aschheim (1996) aufschlussreich.
4 In: Horkheimer, GS 12/566. Vgl. KSA 4/20: „Wer will noch regieren? Wer noch gehorchen? Beides ist zu
beschwerlich. Kein Hirt und Eine Heerde! jeder will das Gleiche, jeder ist gleich: wer anders fühlt, geht
freiwillig in’s Irrenhaus.” (Also sprach Zarathustra 1) – Adorno bezieht sich mehrfach auf diesen Satz
Nietzsches, etwa GS 3/332; GS 8/360.
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5 Zum Thema ‘Nietzsche und Adorno’ vgl. die Dissertation von Maras (2001). – Zur ästhetizistischen Kritik am
Szientismus bei Nietzsche und Adorno vgl. Sünner 1986. – Zu den Besuchen Adornos in Sils Maria auf den
Spuren Nietzsches vgl. Müller-Doohm 2003, 608-610. – Sorgner (2000) zufolge hat Adorno in einer Vorlesung
des Jahres 1963 gesagt, Nietzsche habe ihn am stärksten von allen Philosophen beeinflusst, noch vor Hegel.
6 Benjamin benutzt dieses Bild in seinen Aphorismen Über den Begriff der Geschichte (1940), um den
Triumphzug der Kultur aus der Perspektive von unten in den Blick zu nehmen: „Wer immer bis zu diesem Tage
den Sieg davon trug, der marschiert mit in dem Triumphzug, der die heute Herrschenden über die dahinführt, die
heute am Boden liegen. Die Beute wird, wie das immer so üblich war, im Triumphzug mitgeführt. Man
bezeichnet sie als die Kulturgüter.” (1980, GS Bd. 1.2, 696, VII.) – Zu Benjamins Nietzsche-Rezeption vgl. die
Hinweise bei Reschke 1992, 303-339, sowie Pütz 1974, 176 f.
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7 Immer wieder gilt Horkheimers und Adornos Reflexion der Deutung des Konzepts des ‘Übermenschen’; vgl.
dazu Horkheimer 1947, 151: „Der vollendete Übermensch [...] ist eine Projektion der unterdrückten Massen,
eher King Kong als Cesare Borgia.” – Charakteristisch für Adornos Tendenz, Nietzsche vor dem Vorwurf, den
Faschismus im Vorhinein entworfen zu haben, in Schutz zu nehmen, ist seine Anmerkung, Nietzsches Entwurf
des ‘Übermenschen’ habe so wenig mit dem Freudschen Modell des Vaters der Urhorde gemein wie sein Bild
der Zukunft mit dem Faschismus (vgl. GS 8/420).
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8 Für die Minima Moralia sind Nietzsche und Hegel (mit weitem Abstand vor allen andern) die wichtigsten
Bezugsfiguren. In der Dialektik der Aufklärung wird Nietzsche sogar noch häufiger als Hegel zitiert bzw.
thematisiert. Mit dem Nachweis direkter Zitate und Bezugnahmen ist aber noch nicht viel gesagt. Der subkutane
Einfluss Nietzsches auf Sprache, Stil, Darstellungsweise und einzelne Theoreme Adornos ist so nicht messbar.
Die Bedeutung Nietzsches wird am deutlichsten in den Minima Moralia, die – in ihrer Verbindung von
schneidender Kritik und Desillusionsromantik – nach dem Vorbild seiner Aphorismenbücher verfasst sind. Nicht
umsonst spricht Adorno, in Anspielung auf Nietzsches Fröhliche Wissenschaft, hier gleich im ersten Satz von
seiner „traurige[n] Wissenschaft“ (1951, 7). Auch für die Ästhetische Theorie ist der Einfluss Nietzsches kaum
zu überschätzen.
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9 Eine ähnliche Intention verfolgte Karl Kraus mit der 1933/34 geschriebenen, aber seinerzeit unveröffentlicht
gebliebenen Dritten Walpurgnisnacht: Nietzsche „wäre, trotz aller Schwankung zwischen den Kulturen, für
untermenschliche Methoden, zur Natur zurückzufinden, für eine Grausamkeit, die zugleich unappetitlich ist,
vermöge seiner Hinneigung zu romanischen und semitischen Lebensformen kaum heranzuziehen.” (59) Über
Heidegger sagt Kraus, dass er “seinen blauen Dunst dem braunen gleichgeschaltet” habe (58). Nietzsche
dagegen wird vor der “Gleichschaltung” in Schutz genommen: “Nietzsche, welcher Zuchtwarte abgelehnt hat,
hätte an der Anwendung des Axioms, dass der Mensch etwas ist, das überwunden werden soll [vgl. KSA 4/14,
N.R.], wenig hellenische Freude.” (60)

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10 Vgl. Horkheimer, Zur Kritik der instrumentellen Vernunft, Vorwort von 1946: „unsere Philosophie ist eine”.
– Adorno hat in der Erstpublikation der Aspekte der Hegelschen Philosophie (1957) betont, „daß das philosophi-
sche Denken des Autors und das Max Horkheimers eines sind.” 1963, bei der Zusammenstellung dieses
Aufsatzes mit zwei anderen zu den Drei Studien zu Hegel, streicht Adorno diesen Satz (vgl. GS 5, 386).
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11 Nietzsche wird – in der Ausgabe von 1947 – auf den folgenden Seiten genannt bzw. zitiert: DA 10, 59, 61,
65, 106, 114, 118-125, 128, 137-139, 142 f., 153, 183, 277 f., 303.
12 Habermas 1986, 171 f. – Habermas spricht in diesem Zusammenhang von den „in der Dialektik der
Aufklärung angelegten, zwischen Horkheimer und Adorno niemals ausgetragenen Differenzen” (172) als einem
Grund für die Publikationsscheu des späten Horkheimer.

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13 Vgl. folgende Stellen zu Nietzsche in Horkheimers Werk nach der Dialektik der Aufklärung: Zur Kritik der
instrumentellen Vernunft: 7, 87, 151, 168f. (1946); 248, 259, 315 (1961); 244 (1967); Notizen 1950-1969: 10, 63,
71, 73f., 76f., 99, 157; Sozialphilosophische Studien (1972): 169, 184 (1952); 73 (1955); 94 (1960).

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14 Die zahlreichen Belegstellen, in denen Adorno auf Nietzsche eingeht – auf etwa 160 Seiten der Bände der
Ausgabe der Gesammelten Schriften Adornos tauchen Bezugnahmen auf Nietzsche oder dessen Werke auf – ,
sind in der digitalen Ausgabe der Gesammelten Schriften mittlerweile leicht aufzufinden (Digitale Bibliothek,
hg. von Rolf Tiedemann, Berlin 2003). Ich verzichte daher hier auf eine Auflistung.

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15 Auf Nietzsches Kritik an einem Begriff der Wahrheit als des Dauernden, Bleibenden, Ewigen beruft Adorno
sich 1951, 204; GS 5/25-27; GS 7/12 u. 529 und öfter. – Vgl. dazu insbesondere die Studie von K. Maras (2001)
zur Vernunft- und Metaphysikkritik bei Adorno und Nietzsche. – G. Schweppenhäuser (2001, 97 f.) vertritt die
These, Adornos Kritik an Nietzsche sei in seiner Spätphilosophie deutlicher geworden, wie sich besonders in
seinen Vorlesungen zur Moralphilosophie zeige.
16 Das zentrale Theorem der Ästhetischen Theorie, Kunst sei Erkenntnis, ja sogar der Philosophie potenziell in
der Genauigkeit und Durchschlagskraft der Erschließung von Realität überlegene Erkenntnis, ist von Nietzsche
beeinflusst. – Zu Nietzsches Bedeutung für Adornos Ästhetische Theorie vgl. N. W. Bolz 1980, 369 ff. Ý Zu
Nietzsche als Herausforderung für Adorno und Habermas in Bezug auf deren Wahrheitstheorien vgl. J. Früchtl
1990, 431-461.
•Š
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17 A. Nehamas (Nietzsche. Leben als Literatur, Göttingen 2012) meint, Nietzsches Darstellungsform habe
notwendig die Gestalt eines literarischen Kunstwerks annehmen müssen.
•U
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