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Formulation of Hypothesis, Alternative Hypothesis, Null Hypothesis,

Statistical Hypothesis, Evaluating Hypothesis

Submitted to fulfill the Assignment of

Quantitative Research Methodology


Dr. Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd.

Compiled by:

1. Afida Sari Wardatul Mila (932200917)

2. Anggya Dewi Chusna (932209217)

3. Yanti Anggun Sari (932212017)





Learning Strategy which has been in vogue for the last years, has witnessed differing
conceptualization and empirical outputs by different researchers and linguists from various
language backgrounds. It all boils down to the fact that there are many points in this theory
which are not clear.

First of all, thanks to Allah SWT because of the help of Allah, writer finished writing
the paper entitled “The Difference between Qualitative & Qualitative Inquiry, Deductive &
Inductive Reasoning, and Theory Testing & Theory Formulation” right in the calculated time.

The purpose in writing this paper is to fulfill the assignment that given by Dr. Sri
Wahyuni, M.Pd. as Quantitative Research Methodology major.

In arranging this paper, the writer truly get lots challenges and obstructions but with
help of many individuals, those obstructions could passed. Writer also realized there are still
many mistakes in process of writing this paper.

Because of that, the writer says thank you to all individuals who helps in the process of
writing this paper. Hopefully Allah replies all helps and bless you all. The writer realized that
this paper still imperfect in arrangement and the content. Then the writer hope the criticism
from the readers can help the writer in perfecting the next paper. Last but not the least
hopefully, this paper can helps the readers to gain more knowledge about Quantitative Research
Methodology major.

Kediri, October 2nd, 2019



A. Issue Background

Hypotheses can be classified in terms of how they are derived (i.e., inductive versus
deductive hypotheses) or how they are stated (i.e., directional versus null hypotheses).
If you recall the discussion of inductive and deductive reasoning in Chapter 1 , you may
guess that an inductive hypothesis is a generalization based on specific observations.
The researcher observes that certain patterns or associations among variables occur in
a number of situations and uses these tentative observations to form an inductive
hypothesis. For example, a researcher observes that, in some eighth-grade classrooms,
students who take essay tests appear to show less test anxiety than those who take
multiple-choice tests. This observation could become the basis for an inductive
hypothesis. A deductive hypothesis, in contrast, is derived from theory and provides
evidence that supports, expands, or contradicts the theory. A research hypothesis states
an expected relation or difference between variables. In other words, the quantitative
researcher specifies the relation he or she expects to test in the research study. Research
hypotheses can be nondirectional or directional. A nondirectional hypothesis states
simply that a relation or difference between variables exists. A directional hypothesis
states the expected direction of the relation or difference. For example, a nondirectional
hypothesis may state the following: “The achievement of 10th-grade biology students
who are instructed using interactive multimedia is significantly different than the
achievement of those who receive regular instruction only”.

The corresponding directional hypothesis may read: “Tenth-grade biology students

who are instructed using interactive multimedia achieve at a higher level than those
who receive regular instruction only”. The nondirectional hypothesis predicts a
difference between the groups, whereas the directional hypothesis predicts not only the
difference but also that the difference favors interactive media instruction. A directional
hypothesis should be stated only if you have a basis for believing that the results will
occur in the stated direction. Nondirectional and directional hypotheses involve
different types of statistical tests of significance, which are examined in Chapter 13 .
Finally, a null hypothesis states that there is no significant relation or difference
between variables. For example, a null hypothesis may be: The achievement level of
10th-grade biology students who are instructed using interactive multimedia is not
significantly different than the achievement level of those who receive regular
instruction. The null hypothesis is the hypothesis of choice when a researcher has little
research or theoretical support for a hypothesis. Also, statistical tests for the null
hypothesis are more conservative than they are for directional hypotheses. The
disadvantage of null hypotheses is that they rarely express the researcher’s true
expectations based on literature, insights, and logic. Given that few studies can be
designed to test for the nonexistence of a relation, it seems logical that most studies
should not be based on a null hypothesis.

B. Problem Identification

1. What is the formulation of hypotheses?

2. What is alternative hypotheses?

3. What is null hypotheses?

4. How to make statistical hypotheses?

5. How to evaluate a hypotheses?

C. Purpose of the paper

1. To understand the formulation of hypotheses.

2. To understand alternative hypotheses.

3. To understand the null hypotheses.

4. To understand how to make statistical hypotheses.

5. To understand how to evaluate a hypotheses.



A. Formulation of Hypotheses
B. Alternative Hypotheses (Ha)
Note that the hypothesis “Children taught by individual instruction will exhibit
less mastery of mathematical concepts than those taught by group instruction”
is an example of an alternative hypothesis. In the example, if the sample mean of the
measure of mastery of mathematical concepts is higher for the individual instruction
students than for the group instruction students, and inferential statistics indicate that
the null hypothesis is unlikely to be true, you reject the null hypothesis and tentatively
conclude that individual instruction results in greater mastery of mathematical concepts
than does group instruction. If, in contrast, the mean for the group instruction students
is higher than the mean for the individual instruction students, and inferential statistics
indicate that this difference is not likely to be a function of chance, then you tentatively
conclude that group instruction is superior. If inferential statistics indicate that observed
differences between the means of the two instructional groups could easily be a function
of chance, the null hypothesis is retained, and you decide that insufficient evidence
exists for concluding there is a relationship between the dependent and independent
variables. The retention of a null hypothesis is not positive evidence that the null
hypothesis is true. It indicates that the evidence is insufficient and that the null
hypothesis, the research hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis are all possible.
C. Null Hypotheses
It is impossible to test research hypotheses directly. You must first state a null
hypothesis (symbolized H0) and assess the probability that this null hypothesis is true.
The null hypothesis is a statistical hypothesis. It is called the null hypothesis because it
states that there is no relationship between the variables in the population. A null
hypothesis states a negation (not the reverse) of what the experimenter expects or
predicts. A researcher may hope to show that after an experimental treatment, two
populations will have different means, but the null hypothesis would state that after the
treatment the populations’ means will not be different.
What is the point of the null hypothesis? A null hypothesis lets researchers
assess whether apparent relationships are genuine or are likely to be a function of
chance alone. It states, “The results of this study could easily have happened by
chance.” Statistical tests are used to determine the probability that the null hypothesis
is true. If the tests indicate that observed relationships had only a slight probability of
occurring by chance, the null hypothesis becomes an unlikely explanation and the
researcher rejects it. Researchers aim to reject the null hypothesis as they try to show
there is a relationship between the variables of the study.
Testing a null hypothesis is analogous to the prosecutor’s work in a criminal
trial. To establish guilt, the prosecutor (in the U.S. legal system) must provide sufficient
evidence to enable a jury to reject the presumption of innocence beyond reasonable
doubt. It is not possible for a prosecutor to prove guilt conclusively, nor can a researcher
obtain unequivocal support for a research hypothesis. The defendant is presumed
innocent until sufficient evidence indicates that he or she is not, and the null hypothesis
is presumed true until sufficient evidence indicates otherwise.
For example, you might start with the expectation that children will exhibit
greater mastery of mathematical concepts through individual instruction than through
group instruction. In other words, you are positing a relationship between the
independent variable (method of instruction) and the dependent variable (mastery of
mathematical concepts). The research hypothesis is “Students taught through individual
instruction will exhibit greater mastery of mathematical concepts than students taught
through group instruction.” The null hypothesis, the statement of no relationship
between variables, will read “The mean mastery scores (population mean μi) of all
students taught by individual instruction will equal the mean mastery scores (population
mean μg) of all those taught by group instruction.” H0: μi=μg.*
D. Statistical Hypotheses

E. Evaluating Hypotheses


A. Conclusion