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Developed by

Andrew Marsiglia, PhD, CCP


December 2010
www.andymars.com 1
Lesson 1: Getting Started with Personal
Computers
Personal Computer Basics
Personal Computer Hardware
Personal Computer Functionality

Lesson 2: Exploring Windows 7

Lesson 3: Managing Folders and Files

Lesson 4: Using Common Tools & Programs

Lesson 5: Customizing the Windows Desktop

Lesson 6: Help Windows Work Reliably

Personal Computer Basics 2


Personal Computer Basics 3
Personal Computer Basics 4
A fast operating, versatile machine that consists of
electronic parts called
 Hardware
 Components
that follow a specific set of electronic instructions called
 Software
Frequently called a PC, Workstation, or Microcomputer

Enable a person to quickly access, manipulate, and store information

Some common PC Uses


Budgeting & Performing Accounting Tasks
Analyzing numeric information
Searching through lists or reports for specific information
Scheduling & Planning Projects
Creating Illustrations
Communicating via Electronic Mail
Games
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Designed to be used in a specific Key Attributes
location High Processing power
High performance
Most powerful of PCs Upgradeable
Easily upgradeable Relatively low cost
Typical components - External
Monitor
Keyboard
Systems Unit
Mouse
Speakers
Typical components - Internal
Modem
Network Connection
Hard Disk Drive
CD/DVD Drive
Speakers
Software
All Windows Operating Systems
Unix & Linux Operating Systems
Runs majority of software available in the
world
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Designed to be used in various Key Attributes
locations Portability
Operate on internal battery or Small size
Conventional electrical connection
Not easily upgradeable
Less powerful than a desktop PC
More expensive than a desktop
Typical components - Internal
Monitor
Keyboard
Systems Unit
Mouse
Speakers
Hard Disk Drive
Modem
Network Connector
CD/DVD Drive
External Printer & Monitor Connector
Software
 All Windows Operating System
 Any software that can be used on a desktop

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Designed to be held in you hand Key Attributes
Very Portable Convenience
Portability
Lease powerful of PCs
Synchronize with a desktop or
Very limited upgradeability laptop PC
Can be as expensive as a laptop PC Coupled with cell telephone
technology:
Typical components - Internal  Blackberry
Touch Screen  Treo
Keyboard  iPhone
Systems Unit
Stylus pen
Speakers
SD Memory card
Camera
Music Library
Software
Windows CE or equivalent
Portable version of MS Office
Mapping software
GPS

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Server Farm
A network of one to dozens of servers designed to provide large scale computing
(a monolithic computer resource) to several hundred to thousands of users
simultaneously.

Mainframe Computer
A single large-scale, high-speed computer that can run many programs
simultaneously while supporting thousands of users and electronic devices.
Efficient at processing very large volumes of transactions
 Airline Reservations
 Disney World
 Banking
 Hospitals
 Air Traffic Control
 Cable TV Operations

Super Computer
Fastest computer classification. Used in research, simulation & modeling, mapping.
Does one task at a time. Designed to handle extremely intense numeric
computations.

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Some Common PC Uses
Budgeting & Performing Accounting Tasks
Analyzing numeric information
Searching through lists or reports for specific information
Scheduling & Planning Projects
Creating Illustrations
Communicating via Electronic Mail
Games

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Whether you're writing a letter or entering numerical data, your
keyboard is the main way to enter information into your computer.
You can also use your keyboard to control your computer by issuing
keyboard commands.

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Also refer to
P. 40-42

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Typing (alphanumeric) keys.
These keys include the same letter, number, punctuation, and symbol
keys found on a traditional typewriter.
Control keys.
These keys are used alone or in combination with other keys to perform
certain actions. The most frequently used control keys are CTRL, ALT, the
Windows logo key , and ESC.
Function keys.
The function keys are used to perform specific tasks. They are labeled as
F1, F2, F3, and so on, up to F12. The functionality of these keys differs
from program to program.
Navigation keys.
These keys are used for moving around in documents or web pages and
editing text. They include the arrow keys, HOME, END, PAGE UP, PAGE
DOWN, DELETE, and INSERT.
Numeric keypad.
The numeric keypad is handy for entering numbers quickly. The keys are
grouped together in a block like a conventional calculator or adding
machine.

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Whether you're writing a letter or entering numerical data, your
keyboard is the main way to enter information into your computer.

You can also use your keyboard to control your computer by issuing
keyboard commands.

Creating a New File (Ctrl l+ N) Paste (Ctrl + V)


Opening an Existing File (Ctrl + O) Finding a Word or Phrase (Ctrl +F)
Saving Your Work (Ctrl + S) Check Spelling (F7)
Printing Your Work (Ctrl + P) Undo (Ctrl + Z)
Cut (Ctrl + X) Redo (Ctrl + Y)
Copy (Ctrl + C)

For a full list of Keyboard shortcuts, go to


http://www.andymars.com/Papers_IT_Ed_Computers.htm
and select Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows XP.

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A mouse functions as a pointing device by detecting two-dimensional
motion relative to its supporting surface.

Physically, a mouse consists of a small case, held under one of the


user's hands, with one or more buttons.

It sometimes features other elements, such as "wheels", which allow


the user to perform various system-dependent operations, such as
scrolling through documents

The mouse's motion typically translates into the motion of a pointer


on a display.

Refer to Page
Right Left 43 & 44
Button Button

Scroll
Wheel
Front

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Mouse pointer selection point (the hot spot) is tip of arrow

Correct Incorrect

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Right Mouse Button
Right-click always display a menu

 Left Mouse Button


• Left-Click always selects from a menu

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Common PC Connectors

USB Port USB Hub

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Device primarily used to view text and graphic data produced by a
computer program.

Primary features
Monitor size
Anti-glare coatings
on viewing surface
Flat or Rounded
Monitor stand
Controls

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Device Cards
Video Card
 Frequently called the graphics card
 Interprets signals from the CPU then sends
it to the monitor
 The higher the RAM on the video card the
better the image on the monitor & the faster
and image is displayed.
Sound Card
Interprets signals from the CPU then Physical
converts the signal into sound Ports

Plays audio directly from a CD without CPU


intervention
Built into motherboard on contemporary PC
Game Port
Usually part of the sound card
Allows a game controller to be connected to
the computer
Network Card Device
Card lots
Provides a connection to a network
Usually an RJ45 plug & Ethernet Protocol Internal View of Basic PC System’s Cabinet

Built into motherboard on contemporary PC


Modem
Short for modulator-demodulator
Usually an RJ11 plug
Enables the PC to transmit and receive data
over telephone connection
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Printer is a peripheral which produces a hard copy (permanent
readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic
form, usually on physical print media such as paper or
transparencies.

Types of printers
Inkjet (water soluble)
Xerographic (Water resistant or waterproof)
Dot-Matrix (Water resistant or waterproof)
Xerographic Printer
Large Format (Plotters)

Printer Choice Criteria


Print Quality
Print Speed
Document Size
Document Handling Features
Inkjet Printer
Type of paper
Cost of Consumables

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A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an
analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also
demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted
information.
Primarily used to connect the PC to a computer network
Common Types of Modems
Conventional Telephone (Dial-Up)
Cable Modem
Wireless Modem

Wireless Cable Dial-Up

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Good quality speakers are self-powered, relatively small in size to fit
on desks or on the side of monitors and contain magnetic shielding.

Available in :
Monophonic
Stereophonic
Surround Sound

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Windows incorporates a wide variety of ways to store information and items such as
pictures, documents, music, video, and programs. Everything in the computer is stored
in a file or folder. The folders and files are stored on magnetic disks, CD, DVD, magnetic
tape, or memory cards.

Magnetic Hard Disk Drives (HDD):


These are non-removable storage devices that consist of a hermetically sealed metal case that encloses two or
more 2½ in diameter metal disks coated with a magnetic slurry, similar to the coating on magnetic tape. The disk
drives can spin the disks up to 7,200 rpm and have extremely high data retrieval (access) speed. They can store
in excess of 250 gigabytes of data. The computer may have up to two HDD in the systems cabinet. They have the
identification letters of C:, D:, F:, or G:. The “C:” drive is always the main system disk drive and is the residence
of Windows .

Magnetic Diskette Drive (FDD):


These are removable storage devices, also called floppy disk drives, that consist of a plastic case that encloses a
2½ in diameter Mylar disk coated with a magnetic slurry, similar to the coating on magnetic tape. The disk spins at
about 100 rpm and has slow data retrieval speed. It stores up to 250 megabytes of data. The computer may have
up to two FDD in the systems cabinet. They have the identification letters of A: or B:. The “A:” drive is always the
main system diskette drive.

Compact Disk (CD):


These are removable disks are identical to the CDs you use to play music in a home or car entertainment center.
They consist a piece of metal foil sealed between two pieces of hard, clear plastic. A laser makes indentations in
the foil to store data. CDs spin at several hundred rpm and store up to 784 megabytes of data. They may have a
disk ID of D:, E:, or F: .

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Digital Video Disk (DVD):
These are removable disks are identical to the DVDs you use to play movies in a home or car entertainment
center. They consist a piece of metal foil sealed between two pieces of hard, clear plastic. A laser makes
indentations in the foil to store data. There are ruby laser and blue-ray DVD. They are not inter-changeable.
DVD’s spin at several hundred rpm . Ruby-Laser store up to 1 Gigabyte (GB) of data. Blue-Ray DVD store up to 5
GB of data. They may have a disk ID of D:, E:, or F: .

Solid State Memory Devices:


These are removable storage devices that are literally a memory chip housed in a protective case. They can be a
USB connective memory card or an SD memory card like those used in a digital camera. These devices
presently store up to a gigabyte of data and can fit into a space as small as the end of an ink pen. Also called
thumb drive, jumpdrive, or memory stick.

External HDD:
These are similar to the enclosed HDD used by your computer but is housed in a hard plastic or metal enclosure
that attaches to your computer via a USB connection. These disk units have very high capacity, up to an Exabyte,
and have very high access speed. Great for storing music, pictures, or backup copies of important items.

Data Storage Range:


Term Meaning Numeric Quantity
Byte One Character 1
Kilobyte (KB) One Thousand Bytes 1,000
Megabyte (MB) One Million Bytes 1,000,000
Gigabyte (GB) One Billion Bytes 1,000,000,000
Terabyte (TB) One Million-Million Bytes 1,000,000,000,000
Exabyte (EB) One Million-Billion Bytes 1,000,000,000,000,000

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Disk drives have alphabetic designations that may range from A to Z.
These are common designations.

Disk
Drive Type of Disk Primary Use Comments
Letter

A Internal Diskette Primary Bootable on Old PCs Obsolete

B Diskette Data
Obsolete

C Internal Hard Disk Programs & Data


1 Max. in Laptop PC,
2 Max. in Desktop PC

D Internal CD or DVD Primary Bootable on Modern PCs


Ruby Laser Common.
Some Blu-Ray

E
Disk drive, memory card,
F External Data USB memory stick,
digital camera
G
X
Not a physical disk drive
Y External Mapped to Disk Drive on a Network
on the local PC.
Z

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Motherboard
The central circuit board into which the
CPU and all related components must
connect.
Operates at a speed separate from all
other components. Usually referred to as
“bus” speed
Central Processing Unit - CPU
Generates signals that control all devices
connected to the PC
CPU
Designed in conjunction with operating
system developers – like Microsoft
Windows .
Mother
Contains a proprietary set of instructions Board
called the “instruction set”
Operates at a speed separate from all
other components.
Usually referred to as “clock” or “cycle”
speed. Internal View of Basic Desktop PC
The speed advertised by manufacturers & System’s Cabinet
resellers.
It is an industry-standard relative measure of
speed.
It is not the speed the PC operates in total.
Operated at very high temperature
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Megahertz (MHz)
Millions of cycles per second
Reference: Electricity in our homes alternates at 60 MHz

Gigahertz (GHz)
Billions of cycles per second

Methods of PC Speed measurement

CPU speed
 Also referred to as “Clock” speed
 Number of cycles per second that a Central Processing Unit can perform

RAM Speed
 Speed at which electronic signals are transferred into and out of random
access memory

Bus Speed
 Measurement of how fast signals travel through the mother board

Refer to Supplemental Articles:


http://www.andymars.com/Papers_IT_Ed_Computers.htm
 Scientists Develop Fastest Computer
 Multi-Core CPU
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Power Power Supply
Connector Fan

Power
Switch

PS2
Sockets Printer
Socket
USB
Sockets
Game Port
Internal Serial
Physical Ports Sockets

Audio
Sockets Modem
Socket
Ethernet
Socket Video Port
(Monitor)

Ethernet
External Card
Physical Ports
Audio
Card

Common Configuration

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Keep the PC in a cool, well ventilated area
Away from moisture
Do not place in direct sunlight

Connect to a stable power outlet with a good ground


Never connect to a non-grounded outlet

Use electric power protection


UPS or surge protector power strip
During thunderstorms, power off the PC & disconnect it from the main electric
source

Uninterrupted power supply (UPS)


Not a substitute for a grounded outlet
Excellent PC protection
Do not use for heaters, coffee pots, or other high amperage appliances

Regularly clean the PC and its peripheral devices


Never use concentrated detergents such as 409 or Fantastic
Windex or similar cleaner
Always power off the PC & its peripheral devices before cleaning, especially the
monitor.
Clean mouse ball and internal roller contacts
Use alcohol

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Windows 7 is an operating system (OS), the software that manages the
sharing of the resources of a computer.

An OS processes raw system data and user input, and responds by:
allocating and managing tasks and internal system resources
as a service to users and programs of the system

The OS is the foundation of all system software and performs basic tasks:
controlling and allocating memory
prioritizing system requests
controlling input and output devices
facilitating networking
managing file systems

Most OS come with an application that provides a user interface for


communicating with the operating system,
command line interpreter
graphical user interface (What Windows 7 really is.)

The OS provides a platform for other system software and for application
software.
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Memory
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Typically the primary computer memory
Dynamic Characteristics
 Volatile
 Non-Permanent (Temporary)
Delivers data & instructions to CPU
Fastest type of memory
The more RAM the better the
computer’s performance
Operates at a speed different than CPU
Primary Buffer Space
Read Only Memory
Pre-recorded memory stored on an
integrated circuit chip
Dynamic Characteristics
 Non- Volatile
 Permanent
Virtual Memory
Hard Disk Drive acts like RAM

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Turn Power on to the PC

The computer performs a series of self-tests and diagnostic routines


Power On Self Test - POST
Will make 1 or 2 audio beeps
Any more or none at all means the computer in inoperable

The PC starts a software loader program called the “bootstrap


loader”

The bootstrap loader loads the operating system from the hard disk
drive

The PC loads other software to prepare itself for human interaction

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In computing, a buffer is a region of memory used to temporarily hold
data while it is being moved from one place to another.

Buffers are typically used when there is a difference between the


rate at which data is received and the rate at which it can be
processed, or in the case that these rates are variable.

Buffers are often used in conjunction with input or output to


hardware:
Slow devices
Printers
Sound System
Internet (Video, Music, Pictures, Large Documents)
Optical Disk Drives
Big Screen Monitors

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A line to a rollercoaster in an amusement park is like computer
buffer.
People who ride the coaster come in at an unknown and often variable
pace but the roller coaster will be able to load people in bursts (as a
coaster arrives and is loaded).

The line to the ride acts as a buffer. It a temporary space where those
wishing to ride wait until the ride is available.

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A buffer overflow or buffer overrun is a condition where a process
attempts to store data beyond the boundaries of memory allocated to
the buffer. The result is that the extra data overwrites adjacent
memory locations.
Causes erratic program behavior
Some programs stop working
Computer may temporarily stop working.

Its like the CPU is at the top of a funnel & the output device is at the
bottom of the funnel. If the CPU pours all data too rapidly, the funnel
would overflow.

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Type of Internet Access Required PC Transmission
Characteristics Accessibility Security
Connection Equipment Equipment Speed
Public
Uses conventional voice telephone Existing copper telephone Telephone Access,
Telephone None Required Very Slow
network. line. Cable Medium
to High
Ethernet Cable
Digital Subscriber Line. Uses Public
DSL Modem from or Inbuilt PC
existing telephone network with Existing copper telephone Access,
DSL telephone Wireless Very High
special line conditioning. Separate line. Medium
company. Transceiver or
channel from voice. to High
External Card

Ethernet Cable
Public
Connection to existing cable or Inbuilt PC
Uses ground-based cable television Cable Modem from Access,
Cable TV system; satellite or direct Wireless Very High
network. Separate channel from TV. cable TV provider. Medium
copper line. Transceiver or
to High
External Card

Inbuilt PC Public
Radio transmission & reception using Internal PC transceiver or
None or broadband Wireless Access,
Wireless Wi-Fi, Inbuilt PC Wireless, or external PCMCIA card or USB Medium
card. Transceiver or Low to
Broadband. device,
External Card Medium
Ethernet Cable
Public
Wireless connection typically used Cable Modem From or Inbuilt PC Varies from
External earth-base-station Access,
Satellite where DSL or Cable Internet service satellite service Wireless very slow to
with outside dish antenna. Low to
is unavailable. provider. Transceiver or medium.
Medium
External Card

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Primary
Type of Required PC
Defined Accessibility Relative Distances Devices Security
Wireless Equipment
Served

"Wi-Fi" means "wireless fidelity". Wi-Fi hotspots are places Uses transmitter-
The term "wi-fi" refers to certain where you can find wi-fi, receiver built in to Public
kinds of wireless local area free or paid. internet cafes most laptop PC Mediun Range: Access,
Wi-Fi PCs, printers
networks, or WLAN (as opposed to are likely wi-fi hotspots, and and smartphones. 50 ft. to 30 miles. Low to
LAN, or computers that are many airports, hotels and May use external Medium
networked together with wires). bars have wifi hotspots. PCMCIA card.

Broadband is often called "high- Long Range:


Broadband card Public
speed" Internet, because it usually Anywhere there is access to limited by Laptop
Broadband from cellphone Access,
has a high rate of data transmission. the cellular telephone cellphone &desktop PCs,
Wireless provider. PCMCIA Medium
Connection via the cellphone network. network Smartphones
or USB. to High
network. access.

Bluetooth is an open wireless


Smartphones,
protocol for exchanging data over Uses transmitter- Private
Connects two or more telephone
short distances (using short length receiver built in to Short Range: Acccess,
Bluetooth specific devices. Devices headsets,
radio waves) from fixed and mobile most laptop PC and 3 ft to 300 ft Low to
must be paired. laptop PCs,
devices, creating personal area smartphones. Medium
printers,
networks (PANs).

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Windows XP and XP are operating systems (OS), the software that manages
the sharing of the resources of a computer.

An OS processes raw system data and user input, and responds by:
allocating and managing tasks and internal system resources
as a service to users and programs of the system

The OS is the foundation of all system software and performs basic tasks:
controlling and allocating memory
prioritizing system requests
controlling input and output devices
facilitating networking
managing file systems

Most OS come with an application that provides a user interface for


communicating with the operating system,
command line interpreter
graphical user interface (What Windows XP really is.)

The OS provides a platform for other system software and for application
software.
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A service pack (SP) is a collection of software consisting of
updates
fixes
enhancements to a software program
delivered in the form of a single installable package.

Many companies, such as Microsoft, typically release a service pack


when the number of individual patches to a given program reaches a
certain limit.

Installing a service pack is easier and less error-prone than installing


a high number of patches individually.

Service packs are usually numbered, and thus referred to as SP1,


SP2, etc.

Besides bug fixes, SPs may provide entirely new features, as is the
case with SP2 of Windows XP.

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45

The Password Text Box

The Ease Of
Access Shut Down Options
button

The Shut Down Button

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13

Located at the bottom of the Windows Desktop

The Start
Button The Taskbar

The Quick Launch Toolbar Notification Area

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Pinned Items List

The Profile Folder

Recent Programs

Common Items

Default Programs

Shut Down
Options
The All Programs Menu

Shut down Hibernate

The Start Search Text Box

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Activity :
Exploring Desktop Elements

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The Menu Bar The Title Bar The Minimize Button

The Control
Menu Icon

The Maximize /
Restore Button
The Toolbar

The Close Button

The Status Bar

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Removes the Restores a small Reduces a full- Closes the
window from the window to the full size window back window
viewing area size of the viewing to its smaller size Frequently exits
area the program
Window
becomes a button
on the Task Bar
Only one of these buttons
will be displayed at one time
Window stays
active

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Resizing arrows appear when the mouse cursor is placed
over the border or anchor of an object.
The arrows indicate that the object’s size or location can be
changed.
An object may be a text box, picture, clipart, drawing, etc

Moves the entire object without resizing.


•Place anywhere on a border or marquee

Expands or contracts the object horizontally


•Place on an anchor

Expands or contracts the object vertically


•Place on an anchor

Expands or contracts the object diagonally.


Keeps the object in proportion.
•Place on an anchor

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At the Start Menu select Help and Support
Centralized location for all Windows XP Help and Support Functions
System Restore – The most important function!

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Disk Cleanup helps free up space on your hard disk drive.
Disk Cleanup searches your drive, and then shows you temporary
files, Internet cache files, and unnecessary program files that you
can safely delete.

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Disk Defragmenter consolidates fragmented files and folders on your
computer's hard disk.
Each file occupies a single, contiguous space on the volume.

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The Backup utility helps you create a copy of the information on your
hard disk.
You can use the copy to restore your lost or damaged data.

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Shut Down
Options

Shut down Hibernate

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Shut Down
Turns off your computer in an orderly fashion
Switch User
Allows multiple users to user use the PC at the same time
Log Off
Enables you to end your session without turning off your PC
Lock
Enables you to secure your PC if you need to leave for a short
time.
Restart
Powers off the PC then immediately restarts it and loads the
operating system
Refer to Website Article:
Turning Off Your Computer Properly

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Files
A file is an object that contains user data for documents, pictures, music,
video, etc.
Can contain program code for applications.
File Extension
File extensions refer to the format of a file and its type.
Refer to Website document, “file Format Extensions” at
www.andymars.com.
Folders
A container that stores files in an organized manner
Subfolder
A folder within another folder
Libraries
Special folder that is a repository for similar types of data
 My Documents
 My Pictures
 My Music

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File Cabinet Structure

Windows stores items on disk drives


much like people store documents in a file Documents 1
and AndyM
cabinet. 2
Settings
My Documents
3
My Music
4
The storage scheme is hierarchal or Allison Krauss
5
“Tree Structure.” Live Disc 1
Song 1. . .
Song 2. . .
HDD1 (C:) Song 3. . .

Typically, folders are stored in a disk


drive and files are stored in folders. Folder Tree from Windows Explorer

File
Cabinet
Some items are stored on the disk drive Cabinet
without being in a folder. Drawer
Folder 1

Frequently, a “master” folder may have


several folders within it much like having a
expandable paper folder that contains Folder 2
several manila folders each of which
contain various documents.

Folder 3
Folder 4
Folder 5
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Disk drives have alphabetic designations that may range from A to Z.
These are common designations.

Disk
Drive Type of Disk Primary Use Comments
Letter

A Internal Diskette Primary Bootable on Old PCs Obsolete

B Diskette Data
Obsolete

C Internal Hard Disk Programs & Data


1 Max. in Laptop PC,
2 Max. in Desktop PC

D Internal CD or DVD Primary Bootable on Modern PCs


Ruby Laser Common.
Some Blu-Ray

E
Disk drive, memory card,
F External Data USB memory stick,
digital camera
G
X
Not a physical disk drive
Y External Mapped to Disk Drive on a Network
on the local PC.
Z

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Another way to look into disks and folders is to click on the Start button then select Computer. The
Computer Window will display listing the major document files, all hard disk drives and solid state
storage devices, and all removable storage.

Click on a documents folder to reveal its contents. Likewise, click on a disk drive to reveal its
contents. The folders and files will be listed in the same tree structure as an inquiry made via
Windows Explorer.

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The Navigation Buttons The Address Bar The Refresh Button

The
The Search
Menu Text Box
Bar

The
Command
Bar

The
Navigation
Pane
The
Preview
The arrow pointing Pane
to the right side
The arrow indicates that the
pointing folder can be expanded
to the
lower-right
side indicates
that the
folder is in
the expanded
state

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Personal Computer Basics
1. Go to the Start Menu and select My Computer to list the disk drives or
select Documents
2. Right-click the desired file or folder and choose “Desktop (Create
shortcut)”
3. The Folder or File will be placed on the Windows Desktop.

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The Recycle bin is the repository of almost all of the computer’s deleted items. Its icon is show in figure 1.
When a folder, file, document, picture, music, or video is deleted it always is placed in the Recycle bin. Because
deleted items are placed in the recycle bin, they may be restored to the computer.

To view items in the recycle bin, left-click on the bin icon. Right-click on the item you desire to restore then
select Restore.

When the Recycle bin is emptied, all items contained within it are permanently deleted from the computer and
cannot be restored.
To empty the bin, right-click on the recycle bin icon to view the box shown in figure 2.
Click on Empty Recycle Bin and answer Yes.

The recycle bin size is normally 10% of the computers space on disk drive C:. When the recycle bin is full, a
warning is displayed. Consequently, the recycle bin must be emptied before more deleted items may be added to
it.

1 2

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Activity 2-3:
Using the Recycle Bin

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At the Start menu enter a search keyword and press Enter or right-click on the Start
Button to display the search dialog box

Search Criteria Box

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Programs may be generally saved in two different ways
1.Save
2.Save As

The Save option saves a document in


 Its default save location
 Retains the document name
 Retains the document file type &
extension

To invoke the Save Function


 Select File from the Menu Bar
then select Save
 Select the Save icon

 Depress the Ctrl and S keys

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Programs may be generally saved in two different ways
1. Save
2. Save As

1
The Save As option saves a document
with these available options
 Any location you select
 Can change the document’s name
 Can change the document file type &
extension

To invoke the Save As Function 2

 Select File from the Menu Bar then


select Save As
 Save As Dialog Box 3
 Enter new location in Save in field
 Enter new document name in File
name field
 Enter new file type in Save as type
field

Refer to Website Article: File Formats


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A text-editing application that has remedial formatting tools.
To launch Notepad: Left-click the Start Button, All Programs, Accessories,
Notepad

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A simple word processing application that has basic formatting tools


To launch Wordpad: Left-click the Start Button, All Programs, Accessories,
Wordpad

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Similar to a standard hand-held calculator
Use Views option to make the default calculator convert to views of
application-specific calculators
To launch the Calculator: Left-click the Start Button, All Programs,
Accessories, Calculator

Programmer View Calculator

Standard Calculator

Statistics View Calculator


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A Windows 7 accessory that allows you to capture a “snip” or “screen shot” of


any object displayed on your video monitor.
To launch the Snipping Tool: Left-click the Start Button, All Programs,
Accessories, Snipping Tool

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A Windows accessory that provides a variety of options for creating and


modifying pictures and images.
To launch the Calculator: Left-click the Start Button, All Programs,
Accessories, Calculator

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The options will lock the taskbar, allow display of the Quick Launch bar, as well as
other cosmetic options.
When you right-click on the Start button the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties window
will be displayed.

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The options will lock the taskbar, allow display of the Quick Launch bar, as well as
other cosmetic options.
When you right-click on the Start button the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties window
will be displayed.

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The options will lock the taskbar, allow display of the Quick Launch bar, as well as
other cosmetic options.
When you right-click on the Start button the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties window
will be displayed.

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Right click anywhere on the Windows desktop, except on an icon, to display the
selection box #1 shown below.

Select the Personalize option to display the Personalization Options window #2.
These selections enable you to arrange the desktop display in various ways as well as
selecting the desktop background picture.

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Set the desired picture


for your desktop

Set the desired Set the desired


color for your screensaver for
desktop your desktop

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A screen saver consists


of either graphics or text

Screen Saver Type

Screen Saver Wait Time

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Gadgets
providing
specific
information
at a glance

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Keep the PC in a cool, well ventilated area
Away from moisture
Do not place in direct sunlight

Connect to a stable power outlet with a good ground


Avoid connecting to a non-grounded outlet

Use electric power protection


UPS or surge protector power strip
During thunderstorms, power off the PC & disconnect it from the main electric
source

Uninterrupted power supply (UPS)


Not a substitute for a grounded outlet
Excellent PC protection
Do not use for heaters, coffee pots, or other high amperage appliances
Refer to Website Article: Introduction to UPS Technology

Regularly clean the PC and its peripheral devices


Never use concentrated detergents such as 409 or Fantastic
Windex or similar cleaner
Always power off the PC & its peripheral devices before cleaning, especially the
monitor.

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Clean mouse ball and internal roller contacts
Use alcohol

Perform Maintenance Tasks to Improve Performance


Remove Unused Programs
Install and run anti-spyware software
 Trend Micro
 Symantec Anti-Virus
 McAfee Anti-Virus
Free up wasted space
 Disk Cleanup
 Disk Defragmenter
Disconnect unused network connections
Disconnect unused hardware devices
Refer to Website Articles:
 5 Ways to Speed Up Your PC
 Maintenance Tasks That Improve Performance

Install and Regularly Run


Spyware/Malware Protection Software
 Adware or AdwareAlert from www.lavasoft.com
Registry Maintenance Software
 RegistrySmart from www.registrysmart.com

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Creating a New File (Ctrl l+ N) Paste (Ctrl + V)

Opening an Existing File (Ctrl + O) Finding a Word or Phrase (Ctrl +F)

Saving Your Work (Ctrl + S) Check Spelling (F7)

Printing Your Work (Ctrl + P) Undo (Ctrl + Z)

Cut (Ctrl + X) Redo (Ctrl + Y)

Copy (Ctrl + C)

For a full list of Keyboard shortcuts, go to


http://www.andymars.com/Papers_IT_Ed_Computers.htm
and select Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows XP.

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COMPUTER ARTICLES
5 Ways to Speed Up Your PC
Eliminate Left Turns
Getting Started With Email
How to Troubleshoot Hardware
Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows
Maintenance Tasks that Improve Performance
Turning Off Your Computer Properly
Scientist Develop Fastest Computer
EMAIL & PHISHING ARTICLES
5 Tips from the Hotmail Team to Help Protect Yourself from Email Scams
A Day in the Life of a Phisher
How to Handle Suspicious Email
Phishing Scam Example
5 Common Email Scams
MISCELLANEOUS
Healthy Computing Guide
Importance Of Ergonomic Input Devices
Computer File Extension List

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SELECTING A PERSONAL COMPUTER
Selecting a PC
Top 10 Desktop PC’s
Top 10 Laptop PC’s
UNINTERRUPTABLE POWER SUPPLIES
10 Best UPS Devices for PC’s
What is a UPS?
Introduction to UPS Technology

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