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FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN

WHAT IS FOREIGN POLICY?


Foreign policy dictates how a country will act with respect to other countries politically, socially,
economically and militarily. Foreign policy can also be known as international relations policy or simply
diplomacy. It seems likely that foreign policy, in some form, has been around since the early days of
humanity on the plains of Africa, when large tribes would presumably interact from time to time without
engaging in all-out war. Today, foreign policy is handled by foreign ministers, ambassadors, and the
Secretary of State. No country, in the modern world, can survive independently and in total seclusion of
others. The policy a state adopts in the process of establishing relations with other states is called
“Foreign policy”, it has been defined thus:

“The general plan of one country concerning its relations with other countries.”

PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY:


Pakistan's foreign policy has been marked by a complex balancing process the result of its history,
religious heritage, and geographic position. The primary objective of that policy has been to preserve
Pakistan's territorial integrity and security, which have been in jeopardy since the state's inception. A new
era began with the partition of British India in 1947 and the formation of two independent, sovereign
states India and Pakistan. Both nations searched for their place in the world order and aspired to
leadership roles beyond the subcontinent. India and Pakistan became adversaries at independence and
have so remained. The two countries fought each other shortly after partition, in 1965, and in 1971,
causing the dismemberment of Pakistan and the creation of still another new sovereign entity--
Bangladesh. India-Pakistan rivalry intensified rather than diminished after the Cold War, and the Kashmir
territorial dispute remains dangerous and recurrent. Pakistan sought security through outside alliances.
The new nation painstakingly worked on building a relationship with the United States, in which the
obligations of both sides were clearly defined. The Western-oriented, anticommunist treaties and alliances
Pakistan joined became an important part of its foreign policy. Pakistan also saw itself as a vanguard of
independent Muslim states.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN:


Our foreign policy is based on the following five fundamental principles.

1. Cooperation with the United Nations and other international agencies in maintaining world peace.
2. Friendly relations with all nations of the world.
3. Non-alignment
4. Fraternal relations with the Muslim countries.
5. Regional cooperation.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF OUR FOREIGN POLICY:
Following are the aims and objectives of our foreign policy:

1. Preservation of national independence:

The Muslims of south Asia struggled hard against the British and Hindu hegemony, solely because they
wanted to live like an independent and a free nation. In order to safeguard her independence Pakistan had
to fight two wars against India in 1965 and 1971. Preservation of national independence has always
remained the paramount principle of the foreign policy of our country.

2. Support for the right of self determination for all nations:

In international forums Pakistan always rendered full support to the cause of the nations fighting for their
right of self determination and freedom from foreign subjection. Pakistan successfully supported the
independence movements of the countries Kampuchea, South Africa, Bosnia, Libya, Indonesia, Eritrea
and a number of other Asian and African countries.

Pakistan has been giving unflinching and consistent support to the cause of independence of the people of
Kashmir and Palestine.

3. Promotion of international cooperation:

Pakistan came the member of United Nation Organization in the very next month after its independence.
As a member of the UN, Pakistan always supported the policy of resolving international disputes through
negotiation. Pakistan used her good offices for conciliation among different countries of the world at
many occasions. In this respect Pakistan’s efforts to bring about cease-fire between Iraq and Iran during
their long drawn out war needs special mention.

4. Non-alignment:

We are living in a bi-polar world, generally divided into the Socialist n Capitalist blocks. Since Pakistan
fought its way to freedom on the basis of an ideology, based on the principles of Islam, it is not possible
for us to become the blind camp-followers of either of the two ideological blocks. We have always tried
to establish cordial relations with all countries of the world, irrespective of their ideological affiliations. In
1979 Pakistan joined the NAM (Non-aligned movement) as regular member.

5. Regional cooperation:

Pakistan has always strived hard to establish good neighborly relations with the countries of region.
Pakistan entered to a pact with Iran and Turkey, which was known as RCD (Regional cooperation for
development). This pact has now been renamed as ECO (Economic cooperation organization) and has
been expanded to accommodate Central Asian Muslim States. Pakistan has always maintained ideal
friendly relation with the People’s Republic of China which is strategically the most important country of
our region.

We are trying to improve our relations with our problem neighbor India. India, unfortunately, has not so
far responded positively to Pakistan’s offer of a no-war-pact.
6. Unity of Muslim world:

Strengthening fraternal ties with the Muslim countries of the world forms an essential part of the Pakistan
Ideology. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (RA) was a great protagonist of the unity of the Muslim
world. Principles of State Policy in the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan proclaim that the state of Pakistan
shall make efforts for the improvement of its relations with the Muslim world. Pakistan maintains very
cordial relations with all the Muslim countries. Pakistan is an important member of the OIC (Islamic
Conference) and all other international Islamic forums. Pakistan has a brilliant record of upholding and
pleading the cause of the Muslims fighting for their independent in Palestine, Kashmir, Cyprus, Eritrea
and Bosnia. This support was moral as well as diplomatic.

FACTORS DETERMINING THE FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN


A country looking forward to a successful and honorable existence in the comity of nations is bound to
frame its foreign policy on the basis of the objective conditions it is faced with. In order to achieve the
highest ideals we have, and the value structure we cherish, we should frame our foreign policy on the
basis of ground realities. Given below is a brief survey of the guiding principles that are supposed to
determine the course of our foreign policy:

1. Pakistan Ideology:

Our country has an ideological basis. Pakistan was established with the sole objective of providing the
South Asian Muslims with a homeland where they could live with dignity and honor and in the light of
democratic principles enunciated by Islam. The founders of Pakistan believed that the Muslims should
invoked separate Muslim identity as a positive sentiment. This did not imply hatred for any other nation.
The Pakistan ideology demands that Pakistan should establish friendly relations with all its neighboring
countries. The peace covenant of Hudaibia established the principle that in the case of a dispute, if one of
the warring factions refuses to fall back, the other party should make unilateral concessions for the
attainment of peace. History bears witness that a times, nations are able to achieve through peaceful
means what they otherwise could not have achieved through war.

2. Regional Factors:

The area which was later demarcated as the state of Pakistan had become an arena of the power struggle
between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Fall of the Soviet Empire brought about far-
reaching changes in the world politics, but this change did not affect Pakistan’s position as the most
important country of the region.

The People’s Republic of China, which is the emerging economic super power of the world, has very
close friendly relations with Pakistan. Afghanistan has undergone rapid changes during the last two
decades. Pakistan’s western neighbor Iran is struggling hard to come out of its internal strife between
conservatism and modernism, set in after the revolution of 1979. Landlocked Central Asian States depend
upon Pakistan for access to hot water sea ports. These states are overwhelming Muslim and have religious
ties with Pakistan. These are the facts that should guide our policy makers towards the formation of a
balanced and fruitful foreign policy.
3. Islamic Identity:

As a part of the global Muslim community, Pakistan occupies a central place in the chain of Muslim
countries stretching from Africa to Far East. The Quaid-e-Azam (RA) attached great importance to
Pakistan’s relations with the Muslim countries, so did his successors.

On the other side, all Muslim countries of the world, Arab and non-Arab alike, look forward to Pakistan
for guidance in their cherished case of establishing international Muslim brotherhood.

FOREIGN MINISTERS OF PAKISTAN FROM 1947-2010:

N
Name of Foreign Minister Entered Office Left Office
o.

1 Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan December 27, 1947 October 24, 1954

2 Muhammad Ali Bogra October 24, 1954 August 11, 1955

3 Hamidul Huq Choudhury September 28, 1955 September 12, 1956

4 Feroz Khan Noon September 14, 1956 October 7, 1958

5 Manzur Qadir October 29, 1958 June 8, 1962

6 Muhammad Ali Bogra June 13, 1962 January 23, 1963

7 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto January 24, 1963 August 31, 1966

8 Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada July 20, 1966 April 25, 1968

9 Mian Arshad Hussain April 25, 1968 April 4, 1969

10 Yahya Khan April 5, 1969 December 20, 1971

11 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto December 20, 1971 March 28, 1977

12 Aziz Ahmed March 30, 1977 July 5, 1977

13 Agha Shahi January 14, 1978 March 9, 1982

14 Sahabzada Yaqub Khan March 21, 1982 November 1, 1987

15 Sahabzada Yaqub Khan June 9, 1988 March 20, 1991

16 Abdul Sattar (caretaker) July 23, 1993 October 19, 1993


17 Farooq Leghari October 19, 1993 November 14, 1993

18 Aseff Ahmad Ali November 16, 1993 November 4, 1996

19 Sahabzada Yaqub Khan (caretaker) November 11, 1996 February 24, 1997

20 Gohar Ayub Khan February 25, 1997 August 7, 1998

21 Sartaj Aziz August 7, 1998 October 12, 1999

22 Abdul Sattar November 6, 1999 June 14, 2002

23 Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri November 23, 2002 November 15, 2007

24 Inam-ul-Haq (caretaker) November 15, 2007 March 24, 2008

25 Shah Mehmood Qureshi March 31, 2008 Incumbent

PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN RELATIONS

PAKISTAN’S RELATIONSHIPS WITH CHINA

INTRODUCTION:

Since establishing diplomatic ties in 1951, China and Pakistan have


enjoyed a close and mutually beneficial relationship. Pakistan's desire for
maximum balance and diversification in its external relations has also led
to close relations with China--a valuable geopolitical connection. Pakistan
was one of the first countries to recognize the People's Republic of China
in 1950 and remained a steadfast ally during Beijing's period of
international isolation in the 1960s and early 1970s. The deterioration in Sino-Indian relations that
culminated in the 1962 border war provided new opportunities for Pakistan's relations with China. The
two countries reached agreement on the border between them, and a road was built linking China's
Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region with the Northern Areas of Pakistan. China supported Pakistan
diplomatically in both its 1965 and 1971 wars with India and provided Pakistan with economic and
military assistance. Pakistan's China connection enabled it to facilitate the 1971 visit of United States
secretary of state Henry Kissinger to that country, and in the 1980s China and the United States supplied
military and economic assistance through Pakistan to the Afghan mujahidin fighting the Soviet
occupation forces. Pakistan's ties with China remain strong, and friendly relations between the two
countries continue to be an important factor in Pakistan's foreign policy. China has long provided
Pakistan with major military, technical, and economic assistance, including the transfer of sensitive
nuclear technology and equipment. Some experts predict growing relations between the United States and
rival India will ultimately prompt Pakistan to push for even closer ties with its longtime strategic security
partner, China. Others say China's increased concern about Pakistan-based insurgency groups may cause
Beijing to proceed with the relationship in a more cautious manner.

THE INDIA QUESTION:

China and Pakistan have traditionally valued one another as a strategic hedge against India. "For China,
Pakistan is a low-cost secondary deterrent to India," current Pakistani ambassador to the United States
Husain Haqqani told CFR.org in 2006, when he was a visiting scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace. "For Pakistan," he said, "China is a high-value guarantor of security against India."
Mutual enmity between India and Pakistan dates to partition in August 1947, when Britain relinquished
its claim over the Indian subcontinent and divided its former colony into two states. Since then Pakistan
and India have fought three wars and a number of low-level conflicts. Tensions remain high over the
disputed territory of Kashmir with periodic military posturing on both sides of the border.
India has long been perturbed by China's military aid to Pakistan. K. Alan Kronstadt, a specialist in South
Asian affairs at the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service, writes (PDF) that observers in India see
Chinese support for Pakistan as "a key aspect of Beijing's perceived policy of 'encirclement' or constraint
of India as a means of preventing or delaying New Delhi's ability to challenge Beijing's region-wide
influence." China and India fought a border war in 1962, and both still claim the other is occupying large
portions of their territory. "The 1962 Sino-Indian border conflict was a watershed moment for the region,"
says John W. Garver, professor of international relations at the Georgia Institute of Technology. "Both
China and India incurred heavy costs on their economic development, and both sides shifted their policy
over time to become more accommodating to growth."

A DEEPENING MILITARY BOND:

China's role as a major arms supplier for Pakistan began in the 1960s and included assistance in building
a number of arms factories in Pakistan and supplying complete weapons systems. "Until about 1990,"
write South Asia experts Elizabeth G. M. Parker and Teresita C. Schaffer in a July 2008 CSIS newsletter
(PDF), "Beijing clearly sought to build up Pakistan to keep India off balance." After the 1990 imposition
of U.S. sanctions on Pakistan, China became the country's leading arms supplier.
Collaboration now includes personnel training, joint military exercises, intelligence sharing, and
counterterrorism efforts. While the relationship is not quite balanced, it has been critically important to
Pakistan. "Pakistan needs China more than China needs Pakistan," says Huang Jing, a China expert at the
National University of Singapore. Pakistan has benefited from China's assistance with the following
defense capabilities:

• MISSILE: Pakistan's army has both short- and medium-range ballistic missiles, such as the
Shaheen missile series, that experts say are modifications of Chinese imports.

• AIRCRAFT: The current fleet of the Pakistani Air Force includes Chinese interceptor and
advanced trainer aircraft, as well as an Airborne Early Warning and Control radar system used to detect
aircraft. Pakistan is producing the JF-17 Thunder multi-role combat aircraft jointly with China. The K-8
Karakorum light attack aircraft was also coproduced.

• NUCLEAR PROGRAM: China supplies Pakistan with nuclear technology and assistance,
including what many experts suspect was the blueprint for Pakistan's nuclear bomb. Some news reports
suggest Chinese security agencies knew about Pakistani transfers of nuclear technology to Iran, North
Korea, and Libya. China was also accused of having long-standing ties with Abdul Qadeer Khan (A.Q.
Khan), known as the father of the Pakistani nuclear program and head of an international black market
nuclear network.

BOLSTERING TIES:

Since the late 1990s, economic concerns have gained prominence alongside the military-strategic aspect
of the relationship; specifically, trade and energy have taken precedence. Over the years, frequent
exchanges of high-level visits and contacts between the two countries have resulted in a number of
bilateral trade agreements and investment commitments. Trade relations began shortly after the
establishment of diplomatic ties in the early 1950s, and the two countries signed their first formal trade
agreement in 1963. A comprehensive free trade agreement was signed in 2008, giving each country
unprecedented market access to the other. Trade between Islamabad and Beijing now hovers around $7
billion a year, and both sides are set on raising the figure to $15 billion by 2010.
The two countries have cooperated on a variety of large-scale infrastructure projects in Pakistan,
including highways, gold and copper mines, major electricity complexes and power plants, and numerous
nuclear power projects. With roughly ten thousand Chinese workers engaged in 120 projects in Pakistan,
total Chinese investment--which includes heavy engineering, power generation, mining, and
telecommunications--was valued at $4 billion in 2007 and is expected to rise to $15 billion by 2010. One
of the most significant joint development projects of recent years is the major port complex at the naval
base of Gwadar, located in the Pakistani province of Balochistan. The complex, inaugurated in December
2008 and now fully operational, provides a deep-sea port, warehouses, and industrial facilities for more
than twenty countries. China provided much of the technical assistance and 80 percent of the funds for the
construction of the port. In return for providing most of the labor and capital for the project, China gains
strategic access to the Persian Gulf: the port is just 180 nautical miles from the Strait of Hormuz, through
which 40 percent of all globally traded oil is shipped. This enables China to diversify and secure its crude
oil import routes and provides the landlocked and oil and natural gas-rich Xinjiang Province with access
to the Arabian Sea.

As Pakistan continues to face economic woes with falling foreign investment, a weakening currency, and
an underperforming stock market, securing closer economic cooperation with Beijing is seen as vital.
Pakistan currently faces a growing balance of payments deficit and China's capacity as a creditor may be
able to correct Islamabad's urgent predicament. "China's huge foreign-exchange reserves," writes
Kronstadt, "are a potential source of a major cash infusion."

THE BALANCING ACT:

Despite increased cooperation between the United States and Pakistan since 2001, Islamabad places
greater value on its relationship with Beijing than vice versa, say analysts. "Pakistan thinks that both
China and the United States are crucial for it," said Haqqani. "If push comes to shove, it would probably
choose China--but for this moment, it doesn't look like there has to be a choice." Pakistan considers China
a more reliable ally than the United States, citing years of diplomatic manipulation and neglect on the part
of Washington. As this interactive timeline explains, Pakistan and China grew closer in the 1960s as
Washington and Islamabad began to part ways over the handling of regional issues. In particular, Pakistan
felt betrayed when Washington cut off aid to Islamabad during its 1965 and 1971 wars with India.
Pakistan played a pivotal role as an intermediary during the U.S.-China rapprochement in the early 1970s,
but Pakistanis are still stung by what they see as U.S. indifference toward their country after using it to
funnel aid to the Afghan mujahadeen to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan.
REGIONAL COOPERATION:

Experts say all countries in the region are reevaluating their traditional positions. "Everyone in the region
has learned to [develop] a relatively non-ideological set of policies," says Kenneth G. Lieberthal, a noted
China expert and professor at the University of Michigan. As CSIS's Parker and Schaffer note, China has
taken a more neutral position on India-Pakistan issues such as Kashmir in the past decade and a half, and
has "begun to take the relationship with India more seriously." A case in point, they say, was China's
dissatisfaction with Pakistani military action across the Line of Control, which separates India- and
Pakistan-controlled Kashmir, during the 1999 Kargil conflict.
Pakistan is also not the only South Asian nation China is interested in strengthening ties with: Beijing has
expanded its relations with Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and the Maldives. "China
has a clear-cut strategy for using its leverage in the region," says Ganguly of Indiana University. “They're
going to continue to work with India's neighbors as a strategic hedge against New Delhi, but Pakistan will
remain central to this strategy.”
Experts believe that any confrontation between India and Pakistan is not in China's interest and would put
Beijing in the position of having to choose between the two countries and draw the United States further
into the region. "In this sense," writes Kronstadt,
"Peace between India and Pakistan is in China's interest."

PAKISTAN’S RELATIONSHIPS WITH INDIA:


According to some people, including former president Bill Clinton, South Asia is the most dangerous
place on earth. Certainly there is the possibility of conflict, but actually, the region is by no means the
most dangerous place on earth.

Telling of how Sir Cyril Radcliff was sent to fix the borders of the new countries, it begins:

Unbiased at least he was when he arrived on his mission, Having


never set eyes on the land he was called to partition between two
peoples fanatically at odds,With their different diets and
incompatible gods. Time, they had briefed him in London, is short.
It’s too late for mutual reconciliation or rational debate:

“The only solution now lies in separation.”

Many efforts were made to establish peace between Pakistan and


India. India’s first nuclear testing Rajasthan in the year 1974 sent a
wave of insecurity throughout Pakistan. Pakistan’s nuclear
programmed was its direct corollary. Gandhi openly blamed
Pakistan for maneuvering his mother’s murder. The two countries
seemed to be at daggers drawn with each other in 1987.after the revival of democracy in Pakistan in 1988,
relationships between Pakistan and India started improving. The most important breakthrough came
when the Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee came to Pakistan and attend the SAARC conference in
2004.ihe Indian prime minister and Pakistan’s president discussed issues of mutual concern in detail.
Since that time exchange of artists, intellectuals, and leaders of public opinion between the two countries
has gone a long way to improving the general atmosphere.
Business Relations between India and Pakistan: It is known that peace between India and Pakistan can
only come through trade and commerce. It is rather difficult to adhere to this realization since there are
many obstacles in the midst. One primary problem is the visa procedures for both countries. For example
Pakistani citizens need a separate visa for each separate state in India. And each time they visit a state in
India they have to report to a police department that controls the particular jurisdiction. This is a very big
departure from international visa procedures (www.bbc.co.uk). Truck drivers delivering trading goods
have also been bombed, seized, and harassed (Thibodeaux, 2008). Regardless of setbacks and obstacles
like these the leaders of India and Pakistan have continuously sought to mend their distraught ties,
primarily through trade, however there have been numerous other ventures also.

• In the beginning of 2008 there was a danger threatening the farmers of Basmati rice fields that grow on
both sides of the border. India and Pakistan applied for joint registration for the rice fields, a step toward
the unanimous goal of an India-Pakistan somewhat similar to the European Union.

• There has been talk of an Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline. Both India and Pakistan face the problem of
insufficient natural gas for their growing domestic needs and demands. The three countries are soon
expected to sign an agreement for building a 1724 mile long natural gas pipeline extending from Iran to
Pakistan to India (Hasan, 2008).

• In 2005 nine trading areas were identified for consideration to


help develop economic cooperation between India and Pakistan.
These joint ventures were considered to stimulate a healthier
political relationship and increase bilateral trade. If bilateral trade
increased between the two countries both could provide lower
costs to each other producing price efficiencies (The Hindu,
2005).

• India and Pakistan opened up a trading route through Kashmir.


This endeavor was created to bolster a 2004 peace agreement
between the South Asian rivals (Mughal, 2008). Twenty one items
were identified for trading between the two countries. For Kashmir this means more trade and more jobs
for the population in Kashmir (Thibodeaux, 2008).

Finally, the most vexed issue is the question of Kashmir. One might assume there must be vast mineral
deposits, that it must a region of great strategic significance. Otherwise, surely states couldn’t go to war
three times over that piece of territory and expend so much blood and treasure over this conflict. But alas,
there are no great mineral deposits there, and it’s of no great strategic significance.Pakistan’s Foreign
Minister Khurshid Mahmood Kasuri cites a sea change in India-Pakistan relations, agreements have been
forged requiring a pre-notification of missile testingThe Muslims of south Asia struggled hard against the
British and the Hindu hegemony, solely because they wanted to live like an independent and free nation.
Preservation of national independence has always remained the paramount principle of the foreign policy
of our country.

RELATIONS OF PAKISTAN WITH AMERICA:


United States established diplomatic relations with Pakistan that started on October 20, 1947. The
relationship since then was based primarily on U.S. economic and military assistance to Pakistan.
Pakistan is a Major non-NATO ally of the United States.

The long and checkered Pakistan-U.S. relationship had its


roots in the Cold War and South Asia regional politics of
the 1950s. Pakistan joined the US led military alliances
SEATO and CENTO. In 1954 the United States signed a
Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement with Pakistan.

U.S. concerns about Soviet expansionism and Pakistan’s


desire for security assistance against a perceived threat from
India prompted the two countries to negotiate a mutual
defense assistance agreement in 1954. By 1955, Pakistan
had further aligned itself with the West by joining two regional defense pacts, the South East Asia Treaty
Organization and the Central Treaty Organization. As a result of these alliances, Islamabad received
nearly $2 billion in U.S. assistance from 1953 to 1961, including $508 million in military aid. Pakistani
Embassy in the United States was built in Washington, D.C. in 28 August 1947, when Pakistan attained
independence from Great Britain and separated from India to form the Dominion of Pakistan. The
relations were soured because of subsequent Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971, but again blossomed
due to 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the ensuing covert war of 1980-88.

U.S. policy interests in Pakistan encompass a wide range of issues, including


Counter terrorism, nuclear weapons and missile proliferation, South Asian regional stability,
Democratization and human rights, economic reform and market opening. These concerns have been
affected by several key developments over the years, including proliferation- and democracy-related
sanctions.
Pakistan-India conflict over Kashmir and a continuing bilateral nuclear standoff and the September 2001
terrorist attacks against the United States. Before 9/11, the relationship was driven by American attempts
to enable a democratic transition in Pakistan. The relationship changed drastically after the September
11th attacks on the United States.
The United States and Pakistan have experienced several military confrontations on the Durand Line.
These skirmishes took place between American forces deployed in Afghanistan, and Pakistani troops
guarding the border. These incidents ended and reportedly caused no casualties.

ISRAEL AND PAKISTAN RELATION:

Both Israel and Pakistan are former British possessions that were
established as states shortly after World War II. Both experienced large
population exchanges following the partitions which established their
states. Some Israeli leaders believe that should diplomatic relations with
Pakistan be established then Pakistan could serve as a bridge between
Israel and the Muslim. Although the governments of Israel and Pakistan do
not officially have relations with each other, there have been a number of
contacts between the two states.
AFGHANISTAN AND PAKISTAN RELATIONS:

Afghanistan–Pakistan relations began in 1949 after British


India was partitioned into the Republic of India and the
state of Pakistan. Afghanistan and Pakistan are usually
described as inseparable states due to their sharing of same
history, religion, culture, linguistic, and ethnic ties, as well
as sharing of multiple trade and economic ties. Both
neighboring states are Islamic Republic’s and part of the
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.
However, the relationship between the two has been affected by the Durand Line, the issues of
Pashtunistan and Balochistan, the 1980s Soviet war, the rise of the Taliban, the 2001-present war in
Afghanistan, and Afghanistan's relations with India and Shia Iran.

Southern and eastern Afghanistan is predominately a Pashto speaking region like the adjacent Khyber-
Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and northern Balochistan in Pakistan. This entire
area is inhabited by the indigenous Pakhtuns who belong to different Pashtun tribes (Afghan tribes)

BOREDR LINE:
Pakistan shares a long border of 2250 km with Afghanistan
known as Durand line demarcated in 1883. The Afghan
government does not recognize the Durand Line as the official
border between the two states, claiming that the Durand Line
Agreement has been void in the past due to violations by
Pakistan as well as other reasons. Pakistan, on the other side,
issued a warning to Afghanistan that it would not "tolerate any
violations of its borders"

OTHER CONTEMPORARY ISSUES:


Relations have continued to be strained, as several top Afghan officials stated that they are weary of
Pakistan's negative influence in the country. The Afghan government usually accuses Pakistan of using its
intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), in aiding the Taliban militants. Pakistan has
denied the allegations but has said it does not have full control of the actions of the ISI. Relations became
even more strained as the United States supports an Afghan invasion of rogue tribal regions.

Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, the Pakistani government played a vital role in
supporting the Mujahedeen and assisting Afghan refugees. Pakistan absorbed an estimated 3 million
refugees and provided shelter, education, and places to work. After the Soviet withdrawal in February
1989, Pakistan, with cooperation from the world community, continued to provide extensive support for
displaced Afghans.

The overthrow of the Taliban regime in November 2001 has seen somewhat strained relations between
Afghanistan and Pakistan. The present Karzai administration in Kabul feels that the remnants of the
former Taliban government are being supported by factions within Pakistan for the same above reasons
In October 2010, Afghanistan and Pakistan finally inked together the long-awaited trade ATTPA
agreement between the two states. The landmark agreement was signed by Pakistani Commerce Minister
Makhdoom Amin Fahim and Anwar-ul-Haq Ahady, Afghan Ministry of Commerce

In July 2010, a Memorandum of understanding (MoU) was


reached between the two states, which were observed by U.S.
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. It would allow each nation's
shipping trucks into the others. Afghan slipping containers will be
allowed to drive inside Pakistan to the Wagah border with India,
including to the port cities of Karachi and Gwadar. Also in July
2010, the two states signed a MoU for going ahead with the
laying of rail tracks in Afghanistan so it gets connected with
Pakistan Railways (PR). Work on the proposed project is set to
start in the next four months, which has been in the making since at least 2005.

PAK-IRAN RELATIONS
Historically, Iran was the first nation to recognize Pakistan. Since then, Pakistan has had close
geopolitical and cultural-religious linkages with Iran Relations
between the two countries have existed since ancient times when
the Pakistani region was part of the large Persian Empire. Persian
is still considered the cultural language of Pakistan and most of
Pakistan's national anthem is written in that language. Relations
between Iran and Pakistan peaked in the 60's and 70's under the
Shah with considerable joint ventures and assistance provided by
Iran to Pakistan. Iran is also a popular tourist spot for Pakistan's
Muslims, notably its Shia population which represents about 20%
of Pakistan population of 170 million people.

Quaid-e-Azam said:

“Iran was on the top of the countries Pakistan would look


forward to, for friendship and cooperation.”

OTHER ISSUES:
Low period have occurred, however, strains in the relationship appeared in the 1980s, when Pakistan and
Iran supported opposing factions in the Afghan conflict. Also,
some Pakistanis suspect Iranian support for the sectarian
violence which has plagued Pakistan. Furthermore, many
Pakistani's were disappointed when much of Iran's nuclear
research was stated as having originated from Pakistan, this
despite the fact that Iran's nuclear program was started some 20
years before that of Pakistan's. Nevertheless, Pakistan
pursues an active diplomatic relationship with Iran, including recent overtures to seek a negotiated
settlement between Afghanistan's warring factions.

Relations between Iran and Pakistan improved after the removal of the Taliban in 2002, but regional
rivalry continues. Sunni-majority Pakistan sides with fellow Sunni Muslim Saudia Arabia in its
competition with shiite majority Iran for influence across the broader Islamic world, although Pakistan is
far less ideological than either country, and is more concerned with influence in Central Asia rather than
in the Arab world.

TRADE & ECONOMY:


Both countries are endeavoring to improve and
strengthen bilateral trade and commerce
between them, both the countries joined the
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), a
derivative of Regional Co-operation for
Development (RCD), which was established in
1964. Trade between the two countries has
increased by £1.4 billion in 2009.In order to
promote economic cooperation between the two
countries, Pak-Iran Economic Commission was
established in 1973.under this commission, Iran
established textile, fertilizer, sugar, tyre and
agricultural equipment factories in Pakistan, and
also under took the projects of expanding
railways facilities. After the fall of East Pakistan
Iran helped Pakistan meets her foreign exchange deficits. In 1979 Iran provided help for the rehabilitation
of the people affected by earthquake in the northern areas of Pakistan.

MILITARY RELATIONS:
Both nations were part of a Cold war alliance called the Central Treaty Organization. Iran has actively
supported Pakistan when it went to war with India, often sending over squadrons of airplanes and extra
tanks as well as other arms to support it. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the prominent Pakistani nuclear
scientist, is popular in Iran. In 1965 war Pakistani fighter jets were often sent to Iran for protection,
fueling and other tactical purposes. In 1971 war Pakistani planes were sent to Iranian bases in Zahedan
and Mehrabad for protection since Russian radar jamming and early Airborne warning An-12 blinded
Pakistani fighters and hence the decision to send the aircrafts for protection in Iranian Bases was taken.

BORDER:
In south-west a, 950 km long border is shared by Pakistan and Iran
Relations of Pakistan with Saudi Arabia

Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the


Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are historic. From the Middle Ages when
Arab traders were the main supply chain of silk, saffron, spices, cotton
and other goods between Pakistan and Europe through the silk route,
over centuries of history exist in relations between the two lands. The
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has invested Pakistan in many Industries.
Since the inception of Pakistan, Pakistan has been playing a major and
important role in the development of Saudi Arabia. Pakistan has
provided assistance in the field of Science & Technology, infrastructure development and many more
fields; Pakistan is providing training facilities to Saudi Armed forces. Most famous example of Saudi
Arabia's relationship with Pakistan is the Faisal Mosque that was dedicated to King Faisal of Saudi
Arabia the National Mosque of the country in Islamabad, Pakistan.

Due to the Kingdom's continuing support, many places in Pakistan are named after Saudi Kings and Saudi
Arabia in general. For example, the city previously named Lyallpur was renamed Faisalabad in honor of
the late Faisal of Saudi Arabia. Also, in Karachi, Pakistan, there are neighborhoods named Saud Colony,
Saudabad, Faisal Colony. Also in Karachi, there is an air force base “Faisal Airbase” named after King
Faisal and also, in the honor of King Faisal, the main business street of Pakistan is called Sharah-e-Faisal
in Karachi.

Saudi Arabia also hosted former Pakistani Prime Minister


Nawaz Sharif for 8 years while he was in exile. During his
stay there, Kingdom held talks with Sharif and even
provided him with license to operate business in the
Kingdom. It is believed that it was Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia which held talks with President Pervez Musharraf of
Pakistan to foster their relationship and to allow Nawaz
Sharif back in Pakistan

Saudi Arabia remains a major destination for immigration


amongst Pakistanis, the number of whom living in Saudi
Arabia stands between 900,000 and 1 million. Saudi Arabia was a major supporter of the "Islamisation"
program of the military ruler Gen. Zia-ul-Haq in the 1970s.

Saudi Arabia is the largest source of petroleum for Pakistan. It also supplies extensive financial aid to
Pakistan and remittance from Pakistani migrants to Saudi Arabia is also a major source of foreign
currency. In recent years, both countries have exchanged high-level delegations and developed plans to
expand bilateral cooperation in trade, education, real estate, tourism, information technology,
communications and agriculture. Saudi Arabia is aiding the development of trade relations with Pakistan
through the Gulf Cooperation Council, with which Pakistan is negotiating a free trade agreement; the
volume of trade between Pakistan and GCC member states in 2006 stood at USD 11 billion.
RELATIONSHIP OF PAKISTAN WITH TURKEY:

Pakistan -Turkish relationships are foreign relations between the


Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of Turkey. “One
Nation – Two States” is the phrase that best describes the relations
between Turkey and Pakistan. The people of both countries have
brotherly relations which date back to centuries. These relations
have been traditionally strong. Relations between Pakistan and
Turkey are exemplary. Both nations maintain extensive cultural,
commercial, strategic and military cooperation both countries have
a deep bond of brotherhood Moreover, Turkish Prime Minister
Recep Tayyip Endogen has called Pakistan his second home.
Economic co-operation development (E.C.O):

RCD was the old name of ECO. It is the only brotherly agreement between Pakistan Turkey and Iran as
well. It was signed on 12th July 1964. Turkey and Pakistan are founding members of the Economic
Cooperation Organization and part of the Developing 8 Countries (D-8) organization. Both nations have
worked to negotiate a preferential trading agreement, aiming to considerably increase trade and
investments, especially in transport, telecommunications, manufacturing, tourism and other industries.
Both governments have sought to increase the volume of bilateral trade from $690 million to more than
$1 billion by 2010.

Relationship in Zia and Bhutto’s period:


In both periods the Industrial trade system between Pakistan and Turkey took progress that led to a good
and deep co-operation between two. Turkey bought rice from Pakistan and Pakistan took advantage over
their industrial development.
In the session of E.C.O 2002, General Pervaiz Musharraf visit Turkey. On this visit the agreement of
economic co-operation was assigned. in 2003 Turkish foreign minister.Abdaal gull visit Pakistan ,both
countries decided to help for the development of Iraq. On 17th august 2008 Turkey assigned an agreement
to up-grade 42 old aero planes of Pakistan. Pakistan and Turkey have maintained long-standing military
ties, with Turkey supplying arms, military equipment and training Pakistani officers
Both countries are also members of the Organization o Both Nation were part of Cold War alliance called
the Central Treaty Organization of the Islamic Conference.
In short, Pakistan has not only relationship with in the field of trade but as a cultural, political and defense
as well.
Hence, Islam became a strong bond of unity between the two regions. Relations between countries are
generally guided by national and diplomatic considerations, but relations between Pakistan and Turkey
transcend all these considerations these are based on based on feelings of real fraternity and Islamic
brotherhood.
RELATION OF PAKISTAN WITH MUSLIM COUNTRIES
Following are the Muslim countries and its relations with Pakistan.

1. PAKISTAN-PALESTINE RELATIONS:

Relations between Pakistanis and Palestinians are considered to be very close and warm as Islamabad
advocates for an independent Palestinian state and an end to the on-going illegal Israeli occupation of its
territories. As its official stance that it does not consider to recognize the so-called State of Zionist
regime, which is advocated for a two state solution as the best solution to the conflict and if it was
acceptable to the plan by its own peoples of that country. Pakistan is one of the 100 countries to recognize
Palestine as a Nation-state since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence on November 15, 1988.

2. PAKISTAN-UNITED ARAB EMIRATES RELATIONS:

Pakistan was the first country to accord formal recognition to UAE on its achieving independence.
Bilateral relations and mutually beneficial cooperation have progressed steadily ever since. These
relations date back to the UAE's formation in 1971, and have
since evolved into wide-ranging co-operation in various
fields. UAE has been a major donor of economic assistance
to Pakistan. UAE has been appreciative of Pakistan's
contribution to the evolution of key institutions in the
Emirates such as armed forces, police, health and education,
and has reciprocated in the same friendly manner to the full
satisfaction of Pakistan. The two countries have common
perceptions on all international and regional issues of mutual
concern. Frequent exchanges of high level visits and regular
bilateral consultations between the two countries are
reflective of the fact that Pakistan and UAE have laid strong
foundations of mutually beneficial relations, friendship and peaceful cooperation over the years, UAE has
emerged as one of Pakistan's major economic and trading partners. A large number of Pakistani
expatriates, numbering nearly 400,000 are gainfully employed in UAE. The Pakistani expatriates in UAE
have contributed in a significant manner to promotion of bilateral understanding and to the economy of
Pakistan through their home remittances.
3. BANGLADESH-PAKISTAN RELATIONS:

Relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the


People's Republic of Bangladesh are influenced by the fact
that Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan until 1971, when it
achieved independence after the Bangladesh Liberation War
and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. As part of Shimla
Agreement, India sought to make sure that Pakistan would
take steps to recognize Bangladesh. Pakistan sought China's
help in blocking Bangladesh's entry into United Nations till
1974. Behind the scene India rallied behind Bangladesh to
help gain international recognition. By end of March 1973, 98
countries had recognized Bangladesh. Pakistan eventually recognized Bangladesh in 1974 after being
pressured from other Muslim nations particularly from the Arab states as Mujib stated he would only go
to the OIC conference in Lahore if Pakistan recognized Bangladesh.[citation needed] Pakistan established
full diplomatic relations with Bangladesh on January 18, 1976 and relations improved in the following
decades.

4. BAHRAIN-PAKISTAN RELATIONS:

Islamabad and Manama enjoy close co-operations in many fields. Joint initiatives between Pakistani and
Bahraini governments have started to further their bilateral trades, which reached to $250 million in 2007.
Pakistani businessmen are eyeing on Bahrain's property market while Bahrain is seeing Pakistan as a
good agricultural potential investment country.

5. KUWAIT-PAKISTAN RELATIONS:

Kuwait–Pakistan relations are the relations between Kuwait and Pakistan. After the end of the first Gulf
War in 1991 Pakistani army engineers were involved in a program of mine clearance in the country. The
two countries maintain cordial relations. The ties are based on common cultural and religious ties. Trade
between Pakistan and Kuwait dates back to pre-independence era. The sheikhs of Kuwait also preferred
to come to Pakistan for rest, recreation and hunting. Kuwait was also the first country to send aid to
isolated mountain villages in Kashmir after the quake of 2005, also offering the largest amount of aid in
the aftermath of the earth quake.

RELATION OF PAKISTAN WITH USSR


EMERGENCE OF USSR:

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established as a federation on


Dec. 30, 1922. The death of Lenin on Jan. 21, 1924, precipitated an intraparty
struggle between Joseph Stalin, general secretary of the party, and Trotsky,
who favored swifter socialization at home and fomentation of revolution
abroad. Trotsky was dismissed as commissar of war in 1925 and banished
from the Soviet Union in 1929. He was murdered in Mexico City on Aug. 21,
1940, by a political agent. Stalin further consolidated his power by a series of
purges in the late 1930s, liquidating prominent party leaders and military officers. Stalin assumed the
prime ministership on May 6, 1941.

The term Stalinism has become defined as an inhumane, draconian socialism. Stalin sent millions of
Soviets who did not conform to the Stalinist ideal to forced-labor camps, and he persecuted his country's
vast number of ethnic groups—reserving particular vitriol for Jews and Ukrainians. Soviet historian Roy
Medvedev estimated that about 20 million died from starvation, executions, forced collectivization, and
life in the labor camps under Stalin's rule.

Soviet foreign policy, at first friendly toward Germany and antagonistic toward Britain and France and
then, after Hitler's rise to power in 1933, becoming anti-Fascist and pro–League of Nations, took an
abrupt turn on Aug. 24, 1939, with the signing of a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany. The next
month, Moscow joined in the German attack on Poland, seizing territory later incorporated into the
Ukrainian and Belorussian SSRs. The Russo-Finnish War (1939–1940) added territory to the Karelian
SSR set up on March 31, 1940; the annexation of Bessarabia and Bukovina from Romania became part of
the new Moldavian SSR on Aug. 2, 1940; and the annexation of the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia,
and Lithuania in June 1940 created the 14th, 15th, and 16th Soviet republics. The Soviet-German
collaboration ended abruptly with a lightning attack by Hitler on June 22, 1941, which seized 500,000 sq
mi of Russian territory before Soviet defenses, aided by U.S. and British arms, could halt it. The Soviet
resurgence at Stalingrad from Nov. 1942 to Feb. 1943 marked the turning point in a long battle, ending in
the final offensive of Jan. 1945. Then, after denouncing a 1941 nonaggression pact with Japan in April
1945, when Allied forces were nearing victory in the Pacific, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan on
Aug. 8, 1945, and quickly occupied Manchuria, Karafuto, and the Kuril Islands.

DISSOLUTION OF USSR:

Gorbachev's promised reforms began to falter, and he soon had a formidable political opponent agitating
for even more radical restructuring. Boris Yeltsin, president of the Russian SSR, began challenging the
authority of the federal government and resigned from the Communist Party along with other dissenters in
1990. On Aug. 29, 1991, an attempted coup d'état against Gorbachev was orchestrated by a group of hard-
liners. Yeltsin's defiant actions during the coup—he barricaded himself in the Russian parliament and
called for national strikes—resulted in Gorbachev's reinstatement. But from then on, power had
effectively shifted from Gorbachev to Yeltsin and away from centralized power to greater power for the
individual Soviet republics. In his last months as the head of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev dissolved the
Communist Party and proposed the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which,
when implemented, gave most of the Soviet Socialist Republics their independence, binding them
together in a loose, primarily economic federation. Russia and ten other former Soviet republics joined
the CIS on Dec. 21, 1991. Gorbachev resigned on Dec. 25, and Yeltsin, who had been the driving force
behind the Soviet dissolution, became president of the newly established Russian Republic.
At the start of 1992, Russia embarked on a series of dramatic economic reforms, including the freeing of
prices on most goods, which led to an immediate downturn. A national referendum on confidence in
Yeltsin and his economic program took place in April 1993. To the surprise of many, the president and
his shock-therapy program won by a resounding margin. In September, Yeltsin dissolved the legislative
bodies left over from the Soviet era.

The president of the southern republic of Chechnya accelerated his region's drive for independence in
1994. In December, Russian troops closed the borders and sought to squelch the independence drive. The
Russian military forces met firm and costly resistance. In May 1997, the two-year war formally ended
with the signing of a peace treaty that adroitly avoided the issue of Chechen independence.

Russia:

The Russian Federation is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the
Commonwealth of Independent States. It occupies most of eastern Europe and
north Asia, stretching from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in
the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the
Caucasus in the south. It is bordered by Norway and Finland in the northwest;
Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, and Lithuania in the west; Georgia
and Azerbaijan in the southwest; and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North
Korea along the southern border.

GOVERNMENT:

Constitutional federation.

HISTORY OF RUSSIA:

Tradition says the Viking Rurik came to Russia in 862 and founded the first Russian dynasty in
Novgorod. The various tribes were united by the spread of Christianity in the 10th and 11th centuries;
Vladimir “the Saint” was converted in 988. During the 11th century, the grand dukes of Kiev held such
centralizing power as existed. In 1240, Kiev was destroyed by the Mongols, and the Russian territory was
split into numerous smaller dukedoms. Early dukes of Moscow extended their dominion over other
Russian cities through their office of tribute collector for the Mongols and because of Moscow's role as an
administrative and trade center.

In the late 15th century, Duke Ivan III acquired Novgorod and Tver and threw off the Mongol yoke. Ivan
IV—the Terrible (1533–1584), first Muscovite czar—is considered to have founded the Russian state. He
crushed the power of rival princes and boyars (great landowners), but Russia remained largely medieval
until the reign of Peter the Great (1689–1725), grandson of the first Romanov czar, Michael (1613–1645).
Peter made extensive reforms aimed at westernization and, through his defeat of Charles XII of Sweden at
the Battle of Poltava in 1709, he extended Russia's boundaries to the west. Catherine the Great (1762–
1796) continued Peter's westernization program and also expanded Russian territory, acquiring the
Crimea, Ukraine, and part of Poland. During the reign of Alexander I (1801–1825), Napoléon's attempt to
subdue Russia was defeated (1812–1813), and new territory was gained, including Finland (1809) and
Bessarabia (1812). Alexander originated the Holy Alliance, which for a time crushed Europe's rising
liberal movement.

Alexander II (1855–1881) pushed Russia's borders to the Pacific and into central Asia. Serfdom was
abolished in 1861, but heavy restrictions were imposed on the emancipated class. Revolutionary strikes,
following Russia's defeat in the war with Japan, forced Nicholas II (1894–1917) to grant a representative
national body (Duma), elected by narrowly limited suffrage. It met for the first time in 1906 but had little
influence on Nicholas

President:
Dmitry Medvedev (2008)
Prime Minister:
Vladimir Putin (2008)
Land area:
6,592,812 sq mi (17,075,400 sq km)
Total area:
6,592,735 sq mi (17,075,200 sq km)
Population (2010 EST.):
139,390,205 (growth rate: –0.5%)
Birth rate:
11.1/1000
infant mortality rate:
10.3/1000
Life expectancy:
66.1; density per sq mi: 21
Capital and largest city (2003 EST.):
Moscow, 10,672,000 (metro. area),
10,101,500 (city proper)

Monetary unit: Russian ruble (RUR)

CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES

USSR was divided into following states:

• Armenia
• Azerbaijan
• Georgia
• Kazakhstan
• Kyrgyzstan
• Mongolia
• Tajikistan
• Turkmenistan
• Uzbekistan

Some are explained below:

AZERBAIJAN

Azerbaijan is a largest country in the South Caucasus


region of Eurasia.Azerbaijan was the first successful
attempt to establish a democratic and secular republic
in the Muslim world. Azerbaijan has diplomatic
relations with 158 countries so far and holds
membership in 38 international organizations.

PAKISTAN–AZERBAIJAN RELATIONS:

Pakistan-Azerbaijan relations are the foreign relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the
Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Relations date back when both nations were part of the Persian Empire and
the countries have the same cultural traditions in common especially because of deep Turanian and
Persian influences in the two countries. Between the two states were established when the republic of
Azerbaijan became independent following the collapse of the USSR. Trade and cooperation has steadily
grown between the two nations, with several summits being held on how to improve trade between the
two nations.

UZBEKISTAN

Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is one of


the six independent Turkic states. It is a doubly landlocked
country in Central Asia, formerly part of the Soviet Union. It
shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north,
Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and
Turkmenistan to the south. Pakistan-Uzbekistan relations are
the foreign relations between Pakistan and Uzbekistan.
Relations between the two states were established when the
republic of Uzbekistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR, the relations between the
two countries were initially strained by the situation in Afghanistan which both countries border as they
supported different factions Afghan factions.

TAJIKISTAN

Tajikistan is a mountainous landlocked country in


Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south,
Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and
People's Republic of China to the east. Tajikistan also
lies adjacent to Pakistan and the Gilgit-Baltistan
region, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor.
Pakistan–Tajikistan relations are the foreign
relations between Pakistan and Tajikistan. Relations
date back when both nations were part of the Persian
Empire at one time, so much to an extent that both are
Sunni and the countries have the same cultural traditions in common especially because of deep Turanian
and Persian influences in the two countries. Between the two states were established when the republic of
Tajikistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR. Trade and cooperation has steadily
grown between the two nations, with several summits being held on how to improve trade between the
two nations. Although relations between the two countries had been strained by the situation in
Afghanistan which shares a border with both countries. It has further strained by the establishment of
Indian military base at Ayni Air Base in Tajikistan.

TURKMENISTAN

Turkmen is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until


1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR).
Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states. It
is bordered by Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the
south and southwest, Uzbekistan to the east and northeast,
Kazakhstan to the north and northwest and the Caspian Sea
to the west.Pakistan–Turkmenistan relations are the
relations between Turkmenistan and Pakistan. Relations
between the two countries were established after
Turkmenistan became independent from the Soviet Union.
Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognise the independence of Turkmenistan in December 1991.
Formal diplomatic relations were established on 10 May 1992, close links have been established between
the two nations. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of Turkmenistan's independence in 2001 Pakistan
issued stamps bearing the flag of Turkmenistan.

ARMENIA

Armenia is a landlocked mountainous country in the


Caucasus region of Eurasia. Situated at the juncture of
Western Asia and Eastern Europe.A former republic of
the Soviet U nion, Armenia is a unitary, multiparty, democratic nation-state with an ancient and historic
cultural heritage

Armenia-Pakistan relations are extraordinarily poor owing to numerous disagreements. The main issue is
Armenia's invasion and occupation of Azerbaijan territories including Nagorno-Karabakh. Pakistan has
supported territorial integrity of Azerbaijan during and after the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Pakistan also
opposes Armenian irredentist claims against Turkey and Azerbaijan. Pakistan's do not recognize the 1915
Genocide and maintains that during the war large number of Armenians and Muslims were killed.
Armenia's has friendly relations with India, and its recognition of Kashmir belonging to India has also
damaged the relations with Pakistan. Pakistan is also the only country that does not recognize Armenia.
Pakistan has cultural, ethnic, historical and religious ties with Azerbaijan and Turkey. Pakistan has close
military ties with Azerbaijan, trains Azerbaijani armed forces and plans to sell its JF-17 fighters to
Azerbaijan.

EUROPEAN UNION

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political


union of 27 member states which are located primarily in
Europe. Committed to regional integration, the EU was
established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993 upon the
foundations of the European Communities With over
500 million citizens ,the EU generated an estimated 28%
share (US$ 16.5 trillion) of the nominal and about 21%
(US$14.8 trillion) of the PPP gross world product in
2009.

The EU has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member
states, and ensures the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital including the abolition of
passport controls by the Schengen Agreement between 27 EU states.It enacts legislation in justice and
home affairs, and maintains common policies on trade agriculture, fisheries and regional development
Sixteen member states have adopted a common currency, the euro, constituting the eurozone.Although
there has been a large degree of integration between European Union member states, foreign relations is
still a largely inter-governmental matter, with the 27 members controlling their own relations to a large
degree. However with the Union holding more weight as a single bloc, there are at times attempts to
speak with one voice, notably on trade and energy matters. The High Representative of the Union for
Foreign Affairs and Security Policy personifies this role.

Pakistan has also good foreign relations with many countries such as Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon,
Oman, United Arab Emirates, Syria, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, Sirilanka,
Vietnam, Egypt, Romania, Serbia, Cuba, New Zealand, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Malta, Hungry, Ireland and
many other countries.

Foreign Policy of Pakistan in 2010

In modern times no state can avoid its participation in International arena. Every state have to proceed
with certain policies and these policies are discussed in foreign policy of the state.
Pakistan, after passing 62 years, is unable to compose a perfect foreign policy. Since the inception of
Pakistan, the foreign policy of the state has been revolving around the ambitions of India. Pakistan signed
many pacts with U.S.A to increase her power to tackle Indian hegemony in the region. Additionally, she
tasted the conditional friendship of U.S.A and made a bond with time-tested friend, China. The relations
with Muslim states remained constant whereas Pakistan kept on acquiring the membership of many
regional organizations. The current democratic regime of Pakistan is carrying hopes of the masses for the
better future. Thus the foreign policy should not clash with the sentiments of masses. The government of
Pakistan should keep it in mind that every country, great or small, is supposed to keep its national interest
supreme over its international relationship. In 2010 Pakistan should ponder on following issues.
1- She should balance national interest with public sentiments.
2- She should enhance strategic and pragmatic ties with China.
3- A dignified peace with India should be ensured.
4- Pakistan must adopt an external agenda especially driven out by economic interests.
5- She should play positive role in the matters of Muslim world.

“It is impossible to make an overnight change in the foreign policy as it is made on the bases of
long term strategic interests by keeping in view the regional and global conditions.”