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A CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND

PROJECT LEADERSHIP

by

Ivonne Bates

Copyright 2013

A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment


Of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership
UMI Number: 3577289

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study using the Emotional

Competence Inventory (ECI) survey instrument was to examine to what extent a relationship

exists between a project leader’s emotional intelligence (EI) and project success (Hay Group,

McClelland Center for Research and Innovation & Wolff, 2006). Literature reviewed found a

gap existed regarding relationships between emotional intelligence of a project leader and project

success. The survey sample consisted of project managers, project leaders, or other project

management designation. The survey sample contained 60 respondents self-identified within the

project management profession and others providing multi-rater reviews of survey participants.

The study, using the ECI, Spearman’s correlation, chi-square statistical analysis, and other

descriptive statistics was to examine relationships between the independent and dependent

variables. Results suggested no correlation between emotional intelligence of project leaders and

project success but do suggest emotional intelligence is a factor to consider within project

leadership.

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DEDICATION

I have many people to dedicate this dissertation to, as the journey was not one I took

alone. I had many supporters who kept encouraging me and provided that extra support needed

to make this happen. To some of my closet, dearest friends, I dedicate this dissertation to you all

in gratitude for always being a supporter and providing me with encouragement. I am grateful

for your words of wisdom in providing me the strength to continue pursuing my dreams. To my

daughters, Cassandra and Stephanie who are my constant reminders of the greatest gifts I have

been given in life. Your love and inspiration have guided me to be more than I ever thought

possible.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I want to acknowledge my first mentor, Dr. Andrew Edelman (who has passed away).

He was integral in the early phases of my dissertation and worked with me through proposal

approval. During my data collection, he unexpectedly passed away because of complications

with cancer that left an empty space for those lives he touched. His encouragement still rings

true and helped me through the last phases of the dissertation process with Dr. Carmel. Her

devotion in moving from committee member to mentor was a blessing in keeping me encouraged

to continue despite the loss.

There were changes in academic counselors and program changes throughout this

journey but thanks to Mr. Gentile, I could continue. I also want to acknowledge my other

committee members Dr. Frankenhauser and Dr. Ahmed who provided many insights helpful in

countless ways. I thank you all for the gifts of feedback provided throughout the journey.

There were many challenges during my doctoral journey. I moved from Ohio to Alaska,

Alaska to New Mexico, and New Mexico to Missouri. I thank my committee and School of

Advanced Studies representatives of University of Phoenix who helped me along the way to stay

the course. There were many throughout the process that provided me with support and advice

to complete the program. As my year four-residency professor kept saying - failure was not an

option!

v


TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................. x

LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................... xi

CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................................................... 1

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1

Background of the Problem ........................................................................ 2

Project Leadership ...................................................................................... 3

Problem Statement ...................................................................................... 5

Purpose Statement ....................................................................................... 6

Significance of the Study ............................................................................ 7

Nature of Study ........................................................................................... 9

Hypotheses and Research Questions ........................................................ 10

Theoretical Framework ............................................................................. 12

Emotional Intelligence Theories ............................................................... 13

Definitions of Terms ................................................................................. 14

Assumptions.............................................................................................. 16

Scope, Limitations, and Delimitations ...................................................... 16

Summary ................................................................................................... 17

CHAPTER 2 ..................................................................................................................... 19

Literature Review.................................................................................................. 19

Leadership and Management .................................................................... 20

Traditional Approaches ..................................................................... 22

Contemporary Perspectives of Leadership ............................................... 24

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Leadership Vehicles .................................................................................. 26

Emotional Intelligence in Practice ............................................................ 29

EI and Leadership ..................................................................................... 30

Management Intuition ............................................................................... 32

Charismatic Leadership ............................................................................ 32

Emotional Intelligence and Teams............................................................ 33

Leadership in Project Management .......................................................... 36

Project Management Methods ........................................................... 36

Capacity at an Organizational Level ......................................................... 38

Project Teams and Stakeholders ............................................................... 40

Project Success Factors ............................................................................. 43

Gaps Identified .......................................................................................... 44

Summary ................................................................................................... 47

CHAPTER 3 ..................................................................................................................... 52

Research Method .................................................................................................. 52

Research Design........................................................................................ 52

Variables ................................................................................................... 54

Population Sample .................................................................................... 56

Data Collection ......................................................................................... 57

Techniques and Rationale ......................................................................... 60

Appropriateness of Research Method ....................................................... 60

Conclusion ................................................................................................ 61

CHAPTER 4 ..................................................................................................................... 63

vii


Data Analysis ........................................................................................................ 63

Research Participants and Demographics ................................................. 64

Research Design and Method ................................................................... 67

Sample Size............................................................................................... 68

Variable Structure ..................................................................................... 69

Data Collection Procedures....................................................................... 71

Data and Statistical Analysis .................................................................... 71

Statistical Analysis............................................................................. 73

Hypotheses Examined ............................................................................... 83

Statistical Tests ......................................................................................... 85

Research Questions ................................................................................... 87

Emotional Intelligence Competence and Project Success ................. 88

Emotional Intelligence Competence and Project Size ....................... 90

Ethical Considerations .............................................................................. 93

Summary ................................................................................................... 93

CHAPTER 5 ..................................................................................................................... 95

Conclusions and Recommendations ..................................................................... 95

Problem and Purpose Summary ................................................................ 95

Summary of Issues .................................................................................... 96

Comparison to Literature Review ............................................................. 97

Discussion of Findings .............................................................................. 99

Inferences and Conclusions .................................................................... 101

Implications............................................................................................. 104

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Implications for Organizational Leadership .................................... 104

Implications to Project Performance ............................................... 105

Implications to Theoretical Framework and Research .................... 106

Adapting to Future Shifts. ........................................................... 106

Recommendations ................................................................................... 107

Summary ................................................................................................. 110

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 112

APPENDIX A: ECI PERMISSION................................................................................ 129

APPENDIX B: PROJECT METRICS INFORMATION ............................................... 131

APPENDIX C: PMI SURVEY LINKS PROGRAM ..................................................... 133

APPENDIX D – PMI APPROVAL AND WEB ADDRESS ......................................... 136

APPENDIX E: LETTER OF INTRODUCTION AND INFORMED CONSENT ........ 137

APPENDIX F: INFORMED CONSENT FOR 360-DEGREE REVIEWER................. 140

APPENDIX G: ECI INSTRUCTIONS .......................................................................... 142

APPENDIX H: SURVEY INSTRUMENT .................................................................... 143

APPENDIX I - GENERIC ALGORITHM ..................................................................... 146

APPENDIX J - RATEE SCORES PER RATER ........................................................... 147

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Leadership Models – Proposed Phenomena of Leadership Traits…….……………….13

Table 2 Variable Layout……………………………………………………….…………….…..55

Table 3 Job/Position or Title…………………………………………………….………….…...65

Table 4 Demographic Data of Age Levels……………………………………………….….…...66

Table 5 Descriptive Statistics of Educational Level…………………………………………..…67

Table 6 Skewness and Kurtosis Self Scores…………………………………………………...…75

Table 7 Norms and Descriptive Statistics Self Mean Scores…………………………….……....76

Table 8 Norms and Descriptive Mean: Self Rated and Others…..………………………………78

Table 9 Spearman’s Rho Correlation (ESA to INI) (N = 60).……………………………..…….80

Table 10 Spearman’s Rho Correlation (OPT to Project Success) (N = 60)..…………………...82

Table 11 Mean Scores for Project Success……………….………………………………...……84

Table 12 Chi-Square Test Statistics……………………………………………………..….……86

Table 13 Emotional Intelligence of Participants Meeting Project Success……….…….…...…..89

Table 14 Emotional Intelligence and Project Size Mean Scores……..…………..……….…….91

Table 15 Project Success and Project Sizes ..………………………………………..………….92

Table 16 Key Competencies (Self)…………..………………………………….……….….…….99

Table 17 Project Success Key Competencies ………………………………….………..….….100

x


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 A Model of Emotional Intelligence…..………………………………….…………….30

Figure 2 Variable Structure Breakdown..………………………………….…….….…………..70

Figure 3 Spatial Extent of Project Leadership……………………………….…………………102

Figure 4 Organizational Effectiveness in Balance…………………………………...………...108

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CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Emotional Intelligence (EI) has received a significant amount of attention through

research, education, media, and public awareness (Day, Therrien, & Carroll, 2005). Goleman

(1995) implied that emotional intelligence (EI) is a better predictor of success than the

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) by stating, "Much evidence testifies that people who are emotionally

adept - who know and manage their feelings well, and who read and deal effectively with other

people's feelings - are at an advantage in any domain of life" (p. 36). The general concept of

emotional intelligence suggests that one who manages and controls emotion to his or her

advantage has EI (Goleman, 1995).

The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the

Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatis, Goleman & Rhee 1999) was to examine whether a

relationship exists between a project leader’s emotional intelligence and project success.

Salovey and Mayer (1990) defined emotional intelligence as a form of social intelligence

involving monitoring one’s own feelings and emotions as well as those of others. The concept of

emotional intelligence introduces the thought that success is “strongly influenced by personal

qualities, such as perseverance, self-control and the ability to get along with others” (Gale, 2006,

p. 26).

Goleman (1995) shared that a strong IQ can set the baseline for success in life, but it is no

way a guarantee of prosperity. The intelligence quotient (IQ) measures the amount of

intelligence of individuals by testing an individual’s cognitive intelligence (McMullen, 2003).

Goleman (1995) stated in organizational settings, the intelligence quotient is less important than

emotional intelligence. McMullen (2003) posited, “We are now moving beyond the serial

1


thinking that IQ tests measures” (p. 459). Suggesting there is more dialogue on emotions that

proposes, unlike an IQ, EI plays an integral role in leadership theories.

The study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and

project success factors. Scope, cost, and schedule are the measures used for project success

factors in this study. The emotional intelligence competencies will assess how project leaders

manage and control emotions by using a survey instrument, such as the Emotional Competence

Inventory (ECI), inquiring about the emotional intelligence of project leaders (Hay Group et al.,

2006). Project manager is an identifier for someone who manages projects versus line or

traditional management (Richman, 2002). For this study, project leaders are those classified as

project managers, project directors, or other identifier for one who manages projects. Project

managers are different from frontline or traditional management positions (Richman, 2002).

The focus of this chapter is to introduce the problem statement, purpose statement,

background of the problem, and significance of the study describing the unique approach to the

problem. Included in this chapter are the research questions, hypothesis, and definitions. This

chapter also includes information regarding the theoretical framework for this study, along with

explanation of how the proposed research fits within other research in the field.

Background of the Problem

Organizations are using project management methods as a means to conduct business

(Richman, 2002). The role of project managers is an important element in providing a

transformation, whether the project is introducing new products or services (Richman, 2002).

Managing projects is about meeting the scope, cost, and schedule; maintaining balance while

trying to remain flexible to adapt to circumstances as they arise (Richman, 2002). Going through

the mechanics of managing projects is an important aspect of project management, however, "It

2


takes emotionally intelligent leadership to create resonance in an organization, then the more

such leaders there are, the more powerful that transformation will become" (Goleman, Boyatizis

& McKee., 2002, p. 225). The individuals leading projects have certain competencies to manage

projects and teams. Although such competencies exist in formal project management studies,

there appears to be a gap with respect to the social competencies of project management

practices in relation to project success.

Strohmeier (1992) posited project managers spend more than half their time interacting

with others, suggesting that there is a need for project managers to interact with people

frequently and building of relationships. The project manager is ultimately responsible for the

success or failure of projects, putting a high-demand on the interaction between the project team

and project leader (Sunindijo, Hadikusumo & Ogunlana, 2007). Project managers, often

considered the representative for a client, are responsible for implementing the needs defined

(Strohmeier, 1992). Not only should project leaders be proficient in the hard skills, but also

should be adept at the soft skills (Frame, 1994).

Project Leadership

“Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real

changes that reflect their mutual purposes” (Rost, 1993, p. 102). How followers respond to

direction set by leadership, focused on goals, and how followers relate to each other, are a few

factors to consider as predictors for project leadership success (Mclaughlin, 2006). Suggesting

the behavior of a leader affects the very people relied upon to get the job done. The impact one

has can be the difference that limits or excels in the accomplishment of projects.

Project leaders will require more sensitivity and responsiveness not only to their

stakeholders but must also be able to manage themselves, thus suggesting that effective

3


leadership implies understanding how leaders and followers influence each other (Yates, 1985).

“Although leadership has been dissected and written about for hundreds of years, the failure rate

for American business leaders is 50 to 60 percent. Clearly we still have a problem" (Daniels,

2006 as quoted by Mclaughlin, para. 2). Project leaders will benefit from creating an

encouraging and motivating environment, promoting the right behavior and atmosphere (Lewis,

2003).

A project manager is an individual responsible for the project and its deliverables, acting

as the customer’s single point of contact (Ward, 2000). Project managers control planning,

execution of activities as well as resources to ensure scope, cost, and schedule goals are

accomplished (Ward, 2000). Project leaders influence without authority (Cohen & Bradford,

1991). Project management is about facilitating of planning, scheduling, and controlling

activities critical to project success. The rational and emotional aspects of a project are further

complicated with relationships (Lewis, 2003).

Projects are inherently risky because of the nature of a project being a unique, temporary

endeavor with a definite beginning and ending (PMI, 2008). Project managers use hard skills of

cost and schedule control, measuring work performance, monitoring quality, and conducting risk

analysis as described in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®) (Ward, 2000).

The PMBOK® document includes practices applied and proven within the project management

profession (Ward, 2000). However, companies in the United States and government agencies

estimated $145 billion per year in failed and poorly managed projects (Field, 1997).

Managing projects is fundamentally about managing relationships (Sukhoo, Barnard,

Eloff, Van der Poll, & Motah, 2005). Goleman (1995) posited that emotional intelligence

competencies are learned abilities. Soft skills considered non-technical often are not considered

4


in managing of projects (Sukhoo et al., 2005). Nicolaides (2002) posited that students get good

grades through quantifiable metrics however, not increased because of dealing with a difficult

situation. Minimal training to cultivate soft skills is under-represented in graduate schools

(Nicolaides, 2002). Emotional intelligence can provide the framework for building the soft skills

needed to enhance sustaining relationships (Goleman, 1998), needed for project success.

Problem Statement

Emotional intelligence is significant to many fields; little research has been conducted on

emotional intelligence in the context of project leadership and project success. Previous studies

conducted on emotional intelligence of teams, students, and academics with little studies focused

on the project leader (Cote & Miners, 2006). The problem is that emotional intelligence, though

considered significant to many fields, is not in the context of project leadership and project

success. Research by Goleman, (1998, as cited in Turner, 2004) showed business performance

improved when leaders exhibit high levels of many or all EI competencies, particularly initiative,

empathy, mentoring, teamwork, self-confidence and achievement orientation. Cote and Miners

(2006) posited that studies on emotional intelligence and job performance are positively related.

Unless the shortcomings of project success are addressed, the project management industry will

continue to experience high rates of project failures. This quantitative descriptive research study

examined if the project leaders’ level of emotional intelligence supports the project leaders’

performance and results in more projects that are successful. Project success defined as scope,

cost, and schedule for this study further detailed in Chapter 3.

Ireland (2006) stated there is the need for project leadership to manage his or her personal

and social attributes before considered fully competent to lead others in serving as a project

leader. Kirby and Goodpaster (2002) presented several ideas regarding how we think, by

5


defining how our upbringing may have something to do with how we shape our emotions and

fears. Emotions can distort how we react to situations or problems and offer “a distinctive

readiness to act” (Goleman, 1995, p. 4). Emotions guide individuals in many directions.

Understanding and regulating emotions in self and others are the foundation of competencies as

defined by emotional intelligence (McShane & Glinow, 2005).

The quantitative descriptive correlational approach was chosen to determine whether and

to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables. A measurement

tool known as the Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI) 2.0 will serve as the survey

instrument to determine level of emotional intelligence (Hay Group et al., 2006). A multi-rater

tool, the ECI collects information from the participant and other individuals who observe their

work (Hay Group et al., 2006). This study administered to a population of project management

professionals or any person designated as a project manager, project leader, or individual who

manages projects. The research design did not capture any type of personal contact information

from respondents, directly or indirectly.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this quantitative descriptive research study is to examine if a relationship

exists between a project leader’s emotional intelligence and project success. According to Bliss

(2006), various studies have determined that emotional intelligence is very important in the

development of a leader’s ability to accomplish goals. Leaders who develop their emotional

intelligence have a greater opportunity of building successful relationships among peers,

subordinates, superiors, and customers (Bliss, 2006).

Several variables examined started with using emotional intelligence as the independent

variable, project success factors as the dependent variable and to strengthen the analysis included

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project size as the moderator variable. Population proposed for this study came from members

of the Project Management Institute (PMI), which is an organization that is an advocate for

project management (PMI, 2007). The survey was available through an online system and

posted on the PMI website to reach the most participants possible. In 2006, PMI membership

was 217,000 and grown to more than 315,000 in 2008 (PMI, 2007).

To further the understanding of how the project leaders emotional intelligence affect

project success, this study determined through statistical differences the relationship between

emotional intelligence competencies and project success. Use of a descriptive correlational

study is appropriate for the elements considered. With emotional intelligence labeled as an

elusive concept by some (Davies, Stankov, & Roberts, 1998), this study can bring to the

forefront an understanding of how it relates to a project leader.

Significance of the Study

This quantitative descriptive correlational research study examined, identified, and

determined areas within project management performance worth identifying as significant areas

to focus in the role of a project leader. Research indicated 39% of projects with budgets of over

$10 million failed and that in the industry of information technology (IT) found 64% of all

projects unsuccessful with the cost of these failures that significantly impact finances (Verma,

2007). It is imperative that the industry address shortcomings related to project failures.

Understanding the relationship of how emotional intelligence correlates to the success of a

project leader may provide means to introduce methods in development programs to reduce

project failures.

Organizations use project management, as a means to benefit the bottom line or keep

costs in line (Richman, 2002). The challenges for leaders in terms of converting implicit

7


thoughts into actionable objectives include (a) verbal and nonverbal communication skills, (b)

how information is filtered, and (c) how information is processed (Heylighen & Vidal, 2008).

Goleman (1995) addressed, “Many things people do at work depend on their ability to call on a

loose network of fellow workers” (p. 161). With the ability to create networks and build

relationships, today’s leaders are in need of the following emotional intelligence competencies

x Communicating or listening openly and sending convincing messages

x Managing conflict that entails negotiating and resolving disagreements

x Inspiring and guiding individuals and groups as a leader

x Initiating and managing change

x Collaborating and cooperating with others toward shared goals (Goleman, 1995).

With teams and empowerment as themes of management in modern business, research

shows “emotional intelligence [is] the skills that help people harmonize, should become

increasingly valued as a workplace asset in the years to come” (Goleman, 1995, p. 160). One

aspect of EI significance as it relates to leadership is the ability to build and handle relationships.

Handling relationships is about managing emotions in others, a skill used in interpersonal

effectiveness (Goleman, 1995).

Kouzes and Posner (2002) asserted that leadership is a relationship; relationships are the

connections or associations one has or is involved with such as partnerships, shareholders, or

boards. When there are a number of people involved in a project, many potential interactions

can take place, a team of four has six potential interactions within a team (Richman, 2002). With

the potential of six interactions for a team of four it emphasizes that clear communications is

essential in team dynamics, the larger the team the more potential interactions (Richman, 2002).

8


Projects in organizations vary in size and scope with some projects requiring large

resource commitments that increase risk, though most projects have a certain degree of risk to

manage (Richman, 2002). Ireland (2006) posited, “Project managers must be competent in

managing the human side of projects as well as the technical components” (p. 1). Project

managers oftentimes are more qualified to manage the technical aspects of the project than lead

the team to delivering a project in the best and most efficient manner (Ireland, 2006). This

quantitative descriptive research study aims to address the literature gap by examining the

relationship between emotional intelligence and project success. Researchers can gain more

understanding of which emotional intelligence competency may have the most positive impact

on successful project leadership. This study is significant to both project management and

project success. The understanding gained in this research study may serve as a means for

improving emotional intelligent abilities of project leaders. The results of this study may

contribute to establishing developmental programs for addressing needs relative to project

success.

Nature of Study

This quantitative descriptive research study examined if the project leaders’ level of

emotional intelligence supports the project leaders’ performance and project success, as defined

by scope, cost, and schedule. The construct of this study is Emotional Intelligence (EI) to

address competencies and correlation to project success. The foundation of emotional

competency being self-awareness, knowing one’s own abilities and limitations, provides for a

more solid understanding when interacting with others (Goleman, 1998). Using the Emotional

Competence Inventory (ECI), this study sought to analyze the level of emotional intelligence of

the participants using 20 social and emotional competencies organized into four main clusters (a)

9


Self-Awareness, (b) Self-Management, (c) Social Awareness, and (d) Social Skills (Goleman,

1998).

When information is effectively processed, “from several possible sampling frames”

researchers lay the foundation for devising “systems that will motivate continuous, incremental

improvements across all segments of the organization” (Scott, 2003, p. 372). The ECI

instrument referred to in this study is a multi-rater assessment tool. This tool measured the

variable of emotional intelligence of the participants using a multi-rater 360-degree design to

assess the emotional competencies of individuals who participate. Traditionally, project success

is when projects come in on time, on budget, and contains the required features and functions

(Nelson, 2006).

For the purpose of this study, project success factors are defined as meeting plus or minus

10% of the current financial commitment (budget), plus or minus 5% of current committed

baseline schedule (time), and meeting 100% of the project scope (required features and

functions). Nelson (2006) acknowledged that studies of IT projects by consultancy groups, such

as the Standish Group found in 2004, 29% of the projects were successful, suggesting that the

definition for success continues needing revision. Understanding how we will work together,

who we are and what we aspire to accomplish are critical areas when developing working

relationships with people (Wheatley, 2003). With respect to leadership effectiveness, the results

of the study expect to assist in the developing and determining the enhancers or hindrances of

project success.

Hypotheses and Research Questions

Understanding the relationship between the emotional intelligence of the project leader

and the success of projects posed the following research questions driving this study:

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1. What is the impact of emotional intelligence competence on project success, with

project success variables of cost, schedule, and scope?

2. What is the impact of emotional intelligence competence and project success on

different project sizes?

By using the data gathered from project management participates, the research questions stated

above were addressed. The independent variable measured used the ECI instrument to measure

the level of emotional intelligence competency of a project leader and determining what

relationship there is to project success, the dependent variable. The second question will

determine whether there is a relationship between a project leader’s emotional intelligence level

and project size, the moderator variable. The research questions yielded the following

hypotheses:

H10 – Project success is not directly related to emotional intelligence competence

H1a – Project success is directly related to emotional intelligence competence

H20 – Emotional intelligence competencies and project success are not directly related to

project size

H2a – Emotional intelligence competencies and project success are directly related to

project size

Results of this study define relationships between the four emotional intelligence clusters

(self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and social skills), project success factors

(cost, schedule, and scope), and three project sizes (small, medium, and large). Emotional

intelligence level help build the construct of the independent variable with project success

measures for the dependent variable and project size as the moderator variable. Each variable

11


used help to meet the objective of this study to test the stated questions or verify the answers to

the stated questions.

Theoretical Framework

Current theories provide understanding of leadership from many perspectives. Relating

some of the leadership models to the extent of leadership theories, we may find that with each

relation, the viewpoint of the observer, or in this case, the project leader will employ knowledge,

skills, and abilities to meet the challenge. The foundation of this research focused on project

leadership. Through the leaders’ vision, a mission is created, generating direction and hope,

enabling leaders to empower and involve others in achieving the mission (Fisher & Thomas,

1997). Leaders can use what they know and take what lessons learned from the environment to

decide on organizational missions and objectives.

When considering the theoretical framework for this study it was important to learn how

the various leadership theories fit within the extent of leadership influence and behavior as well

as organizational and project management theories. Project success is, “ambiguous, inclusive,

and multidimensional concept whose definition is bound to a specific context” (Ika, 2009, p. 7).

There is agreement on the importance and existence of project success factors with each

weighing heavily on the overall results. For this study, consideration of project success factors

were industry specific criteria as learned through project management literature.

The environment influences the conditions or circumstances in which one exists. For

example, use of a servant leadership style in developing relationships and changing behavior

may be warranted more than that of a transactional style. Review of the various leadership

theories may fit within the extent of leadership influence and behavior as depicted the table 1.

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Table 1

Leadership Models – Proposed Phenomena of Leadership Traits

Environment Relationships

Leadership Theories (Influences) (Behavior)

Situational Cultural climate Orchestrating

Crisis Authority Directive

Contingency Mechanistic Survival

Transformational Strategic Innovation

Transactional Divisional Tasking

Servant Servicing Empowering

Emotional Intelligence Theories

Previous studies examined the emotional intelligence competencies relevant to this study.

According to Cherniss and Goleman (2001), formal and informal relationships significantly

contribute to emotional intelligence (EI) in the workplace. Cherniss and Goleman (2001)

developed a two-part model of emotional intelligence and organizational effectiveness. Part one

showed the relationship between the leadership, HR functions, and the organizational climate

and culture; the second part of the model highlighted the relationship between individual and

group emotional intelligence, and organizational effectiveness (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001).

Maulding (2002) wrote, "Unlike IQ, emotional intelligence (EQ) can be learned" (p. 5).

McClelland (1999) reported that a beverage firm, which used standard hiring practices and later

based on emotional competence found the individuals outperformed their performance targets by

15% to 20%. The same report found that about 20% of those who did not exhibit emotional

13


competencies underperformed (McClelland, 1999). Goleman’s (1995) research found IQ to be

less predictive of success on the job. Goleman (1998) stated IQ accounts for as little as 4% to

10% and that when EQ, IQ, and technical capability were correlated, EQ proved to be twice as

important as the other two factors. Based on a comparison of the various studies on emotional

intelligence, the domains of emotional intelligence examined for this study are

x Self-awareness. Knowing one's emotions and recognizing a feeling as it happens;

intuition

x Self-management. Managing emotions, the ability of handling feelings so they are

appropriate; self-control

x Social-awareness. Recognizing emotions in others; empathy

x Relationship management. Handling relationships with others; sensing (Goleman,

1995).

Goleman (1998) posited that two different types of intelligence exist: Intellectual and

emotional. “Underlying characteristics of an individual that are causally related to criterion-

referenced effective or superior performance in a job or situation” (McClelland, as cited by

Spencer & Spencer, 1993, p. 9), meaning the underlying characteristics are those traits and

motives of individuals that predict behavior or performance. Goleman (1998) further proposed

intellectual information that is perceived, there exists an emotional component.

Definitions of Terms

For this study, the following are definitions for further understanding of terms used in

this study:

Emotional Intelligence. Ability to monitor and manage one’s feelings and emotions as

well as those of others’ to guide one’s thinking and action (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).

14


Empathy. Understanding feelings and perspectives of others and taking an interest in

their concerns (Sunindijo, Hadikusumo, Ogunlana, 2007).

Managing emotions. Understanding ones emotions and rather than suppressing

emotions, using that understanding to deal with situations productively (Myers & Tucker, 2005).

Motivation. Striving to improve and persevere faced with setbacks and frustration

(Goleman, 1998).

Self-awareness. Monitoring oneself, observing oneself in action, and influencing the

results of actions for greater effectiveness (Myers & Tucker, 2005).

Project Leader. Generally synonymous with project manager and person in charge of a

project (Ward, 2000).

Project management. The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to

project activities (Ward, 2000).

Project management body of knowledge (PMBOK®). An American National Standards

Institute (ANSI) standard that describes the various attributes of a project management method

(Ward, 2000).

Project Management Institute (PMI). Not-for-profit professional association dedicated

to advancing the discipline of project management (Ward, 2000).

Project scope. All work required to deliver a project’s specified features and functions

(Ward, 2000).

Relationship management. The ability to handle others’ feelings and emotions to

include competency of communications (Boyatis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999).

15


Assumptions

The first assumption is that the study would receive enough responses from research

subjects identified as project leaders to provide significant analysis of the variables. The second

assumption is that research subjects respond honestly in completing their survey. Last, there is

an assumption that the research subjects responded accurately about the project success as it is

defined in the instructions provided for the survey instrument.

Scope, Limitations, and Delimitations

The scope of this study focuses on project leadership and limited to the extent of

leadership as it pertains to the management of projects. Tannenbaum and Massarik (1957)

defined leadership as the “interpersonal influence, exercised in situation and directed, through

the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals” (p. 3). This

study further was limited by the responses of the intended participants and their honesty or

accuracy on answering of study instruments. Last, the studies validity is limited to the reliability

of the instrument used, discussed in more detail in Chapter 3.

According to Perrella (as cited by Bliss, 2006),

America is moving from a manufacturing economy to a value-added, service-oriented

economy. And at the heart of service are relationships: interpersonal relationships;

intergroup relationships; and interdepartmental relationships. The ascendance of work

teams in large organizations puts a new premium on relationship team skills (p. 1).

Project managers touch many areas of the organization. “A highly visible interactive

management style is not only essential to building and sustaining cooperative relationships, it

also allows project managers to utilize their most powerful leadership tool - their own behavior”

(Gray & Larson, 2001, p. 325). Possessing traits of an effective leader can translate into an

16


effective project manager. Emphasis being the number of people practicing project management

has grown.

Summary

Kouzes and Posner (2003) make the argument that leaders relate to workers whose

pattern of behavior, underlying motivations, and belief systems differ considerably from that of

other workers. Some leaders tend to embrace turbulence and the realm of uncertainty; they may,

as change agents, trigger within the framework of their domain, e.g., its context, waves of

instability, or currents of transformation (Chasman, 2003). Moreover, a leader’s working context

may be intellectualized, be rational or irrational, and unique in its origin or genesis (Chasman,

2003). This study was limited to the contextual elements most powerful in influencing a project

leader’s success of meeting scope, cost, and schedule of his or her projects. This study was

limited to a span of size between project sizes of small, medium, and large.

Few leaders can view themselves objectively the way others do. Most leaders need

independent feedback to gain greater insight into their behaviors and performance (Beagrie,

2005), suggesting there is value in an ability to converse with and build relationships with

people. Self-awareness may become the heart of professional development when learning to

understand and manage emotions described as the keystone of emotional intelligence (Goleman,

1995). Social skills are probably the most important component of all in leadership with the

requisite for being able to interact with individuals on any level (Myers & Tucker, 2005).

Boutros and Joseph (2007) asserted, “Trust is the house in which we live out our

relationships” (p. 38). Change starts from within and touches inside a person’s mind, heart, and

soul to be aware of one’s own behavior (Looman, 2003), providing a means of self-discovery,

which is the key to making the transformation and enabling project leaders to inspire the

17


commitment of project teams toward project success. Using such theories as emotional

intelligence, which deals with self-awareness, self-management, and other social relationship

management aspects, will provide an effective leadership style that would resonate throughout

the organization to create a positive emotional direction (Goleman, 1995). Project leadership has

an organic construction, which means that it does not work well with missing pieces.

Project leaders have the opportunity for being a catalyst for organizational change.

Project managers use the hard skills to manage the technical aspects of controlling project costs,

schedule, and scope (Ward, 2000). However, it is the influence, relationships, and

communications between project leaders and teams that provide input into the project for

attaining specific goals (Tannenbaum & Massarik, 1957). As noted by Goleman et al.., (2002)

assessing EI competencies help to identify individuals likely to succeed in a given role.

The basic qualities project leaders may exhibit are strong people skills, advanced

technical skills in their field and a working knowledge of their organization’s mission, culture,

and ethics statements. This does not ensure their success in all positions or on all projects;

however, it does provide a means to strike a balance. Knowing oneself is even more important

than knowing others, which should happen before connecting at the primal level (Goleman et al.,

2002). Further exploring the various aspects of project leadership and emotional intelligence,

Chapter 2 provides a literature review regarding emotional intelligence, leadership, and project

management profession.

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CHAPTER 2

Literature Review

Goleman (1995) implied that emotional intelligence could be a better determining factor

than IQ for a person’s success, opening up opportunities for research and understanding

regarding leadership and the management of workers. Managing one’s emotions is one of the

key principles of EQ espoused by Goleman (1995), another is being sensitive to the emotions of

others with self-awareness being the idea that one is in touch with the perceptions of others

regarding oneself.

Organizations are using project management methods to conduct business, making the

role of a project manager an important element in providing the transformation whether it is a

new product or services (Richman, 2002). However, there are still billions of dollars per year in

failed and poorly managed projects (Field, 1997). Project managers spend more than half their

time interacting with others (Strohmeier, 1992). This quantitative descriptive research study

examined if the project leaders’ level of emotional intelligence supports the project leaders’

performance and results in successful projects, as defined by scope, cost, and schedule.

Chapter 2 (Literature Review) is broken down into specific sections. Creswell (2002)

stated that a literature review containing highlights of studies captures the major themes to

provide contrast and comparative theoretical perspective of existing literature. Using this

approach, the following literature review organized into (1) leadership and management, (2)

emotional intelligence in practice, (3) leadership in project management, and (4) project success

factors; ending this chapter with gaps identified and summary.

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Leadership and Management

In the early 1900s, the perception of leadership was more about control or power

(Harrison, 1999). Before that, the perception focused more on heroism (Harrison, 1999). From

the 1960s to 1900s, there was a significant shift and focus on collaboration (Kouzes, 2003).

“Team leaders and team members must view information as power they want to share with each

other as opposed to power to be hoarded or protected” (Fisher & Thomas, 1997, p. 46). The

culture reflects the personality of the organizations and can enable others to predict attitudes and

behaviors of the organization. Gray and Larson (2001) defined organizational culture as, “a

system of shared norms, beliefs, values, and assumptions which binds people together, thereby

creating shared meanings” (pg. 20). Earlier definitions of leadership viewed the process as

influence, Stogdill (1950) put forward to consider leadership as the process of influencing the

activities of others in its efforts to meet goals.

The terms leadership and management often used synonymously do demonstrate

characteristic differences. Many studies conducted produced theories that defined characteristics

of leadership traits (George, Sims, McLean & Mayer, 2007). Management is the term often

associated with keywords such as administrative, decision-making, organization, and control

(Fiedeldey-Van Dijk & Freedman, 2007). However, George et al., (2007) claimed that studies

conducted regarding leadership have not produced a clear profile. Since 1990, there is renewed

attention about the distinction between leadership and management (Fiedeldey-Van Dijk &

Freedman, 2007). Pascale (1990) wrote that “managers do things right, while leaders do the

right thing” (p. 65), meaning managers think through a situation following policy, while leaders

think by following their intuition.

20


Emotional intelligence was introduced with the thought that success is “strongly

influenced by personal qualities, such as perseverance, self-control and the ability to get along

with others” (Gale, 2006, p. 26). Being the inspiration for a team requires self-control by the

project leader, which is a key characteristic of emotional intelligence - to motivate oneself

(Goleman, 1995). The most important aspect is to realize that identifying leadership

characteristics and competencies allows leaders to adjust their style of leadership to increase

their influence and ultimately to enhance the performance of their organizations (Gale, 2006).

Influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute their abilities for a higher cause is a

factor of leadership influence (Yukl, 2002).

Goleman (1998) suggested there are five domains of emotional intelligence, which are

(1) recognizing one’s own feelings as it happens, thus knowing one’s own emotions, (2)

appropriately handling one’s feelings by managing one’s emotions, (3) having emotional self-

control by motivating oneself, (4) having empathy by recognizing other’s feelings, and (5)

managing the emotions in others by managing relationships. McClelland (1973) posited that

building upon these domains or other competencies has proven most successful leaders as

distinguished, from those only good enough.

According to Kanter (1995), leaders must be integrators, diplomats, cross-fertilizers, and

deep thinkers. Leaders must be able to operate across boundaries, resolve conflicts, be able to

bring the best together and must be smart enough to see new possibilities and conceptualize them

(Kanter, 1995). Individuals are likely to achieve higher levels of achievement in project success

by understanding their own emotions and behavior as well as use that knowledge to relate to

others (Gale, 2006). When the project leader has high emotional intelligence, it can mean the

difference between projects being highly successful as opposed to one that provide mediocre

21


results (Gale, 2006). Salovey and Mayer (1990) were also instrumental in defining emotional

intelligence and the effectiveness of its use. Mayer (1999) further defined emotional intelligence

as perceiving emotions, integrating emotions into thought, and understanding and managing

emotions.

This section of the literature review focuses on varying frameworks that explore the

concepts and understanding of the various management theories. Research by Goleman (1998,

as cited in Turner, 2004) showed that business performance improves when leaders exhibit high

levels of many or all EI competencies, particularly initiative, empathy, mentoring, teamwork,

self-confidence, and achievement orientation (p. 29). According to Weiskittel (1999), action is

the ability to introduce strategies and change that lead others to produce results to meet the

organization’s goals, thus presenting a discussion for the process of learning to become a leader.

Traditional Approaches

According to Dawson (2003), “Leadership and management are two different things.

You lead people, and you manage projects” (p. 34). An effective leader is one who can get

others to do what he or she wants without telling him or her otherwise (Richman, 2002). With

each leadership or management model, there are points that contain similarities and differences.

Miller and Vaughan (2001) asked whether management theory was a conglomeration of the

theories or a balance between classical and contemporary. The perspective was that there has

been little change since 1990 with Miller and Vaughn (2001) stating, “Management is not an

exact science, but rather is a mix of art, scientific methodology, intuition, investigation, and most

of all, experimentation” (p. 11).

In the early days of manufacturing, working on assembly lines or increasing work hours

was a concept that evolved because of the need to mass-produce (Curry, 2003). Wren (2005)

22


stated, “The practices of the past are [still] the lessons of history for tomorrow” (p. 489). Cicmil

(1999) noted that the traditional view of management disciplines has its roots in the engineering

field with functions such as a monitoring and controlling process of supervising time, cost, and

quality objectives.

Adolphson and Baker (2005) posited intuition needs to be developed and to prepare

future managers their aesthetic senses as well as learned abilities to trust their feelings require

recognition. Blanchard (1999) held that “none of us is as smart as all of us” (p. 14). Effective

leaders help others to produce good results in two ways: (1) ensure goals are clearly defined and

(2) support, encourage, and coach people in every way possible (Blanchard, 1999). Producing

good results requires continual monitoring and dedication to cultivate strong relationships for

sustaining organizational excellence.

Organizational leadership must attract loyalty of its shareholders but without trust and

confidence, a leader has no followers (Faulhaber, 2002). The importance of building

relationships based on trust and integrity is through transparency and accountability within the

organization. According to Maccoby (2005) “leaders make decisions according to what most

benefits them and improves their quality of life, rather than what is best for customers,

employees, investors, and communities. All too often, fearful employees follow leaders who

stunt their moral development” (p. 59). Leaders make decisions that define the future, encourage

people to pursue the future and enable themselves and others to realize that future (Blohowiak,

2005). The foundational philosophers introduced a number of theories, which have stood the test

of time.

23


Contemporary Perspectives of Leadership

“Leadership in a learning organization starts with the principle of creative tension” (Fritz,

1989, as cited by Senge 1990, p. 7). Creative tension comes from establishing a vision and

seeing where an organization wants to be and learning how to use the energy to generate

movement toward their vision. Providing a framework for preparing managers and leaders

provides “a comprehensive framework for structuring the pre-service and in-service preparation

of all managers” (Adolphson & Baker, 2005, p. G1). One framework reviewed includes four

learning levels identified as technician, scientist, artist, and visionary (Adolphson & Baker,

2005). Each level contains a particular aspect that is a preparatory step to the next. The

technician, referred to as knowing the rules, has learned the basics such as the history of the

discipline (Adolphson & Baker, 2005). The scientist was identified as showing promise as at

this level the focus has shifted to one more conceptual, such as moving from a specific rule to a

class of similar rules (Adolphson & Baker, 2005). Further, up the pyramid, the artist is viewed

as competent and fills the gap between theory and practice (Adolphson & Baker, 2005). Finally,

the visionary accomplished after progressing through the preceding levels. The four levels of

learning provide a framework to leadership and project management in a way that describes the

same type of succession from basic leadership and management development to advanced skills

required of levels that are more senior.

The most relevant level to improving management practice comes at level three where

the authors’ described developing of intuition by stating, “Level three deals with subconscious

learning processes, in contrast to the conscious organization of information at level two”

(Adolphson & Baker, 2005, p. G3). Intuition needs to be developed and to prepare future

managers, their aesthetic senses as well as learned abilities to trust their feelings require

24


recognition (Adolphson & Baker, 2005). The key is to appreciate the abilities, develop, and

nurture these feelings consistently in the growth of leaders, which is the premise to

understanding emotions and behavior while using that knowledge to relate to others for

achieving high-level of project success (Gale, 2006).

Level four learning involves “risk, vulnerability and change…” (Adolphson & Baker,

2005, p. G5) and would require courage to achieve, going beyond intuition, and moving into

foresight. Adolphson and Baker (2005) defined terminology for level four as showing that

framing the problem in the right context will enable one to see the problem. When a project

management practitioner is preparing plans for a project, seeing the big picture is a skill needed

when working with teams and stakeholders. Adolphson and Baker (2005) offered their

framework as a means to enhance thinking. Gandossy and Sonnenfeld (2004) suggested the

success or failure of the organization “…depends on the quality of its leadership and, more

specifically, on the quality of the decisions made by senior leadership” (p. 38).

Leaders are people willing to step into the unknown, search for opportunities to grow,

innovate, and improve (Kouzes & Posner, 2003). Kouzes and Posner (2003) posited that

innovation comes from listening more than from telling. May (2001) posited

Leadership that teaches does not simply bend people against their will, dazzle them out

of their faculties, manipulate them behind their backs, or indoctrinate them without

illuminating. Rather, it widens the horizons against which colleagues see a given world

of practice and therefore opens a freedom to perform in new ways (p. 157).

As organizations continue to rely on teams for innovation and creativity and to be instruments

that promotes high performance organization (Latham & Vinyard, 2005), more approaches that

are conventional need explored.

25


Leadership Vehicles

Takala (2005) posited that leadership theories are vehicles of leadership and that research

is based on ideas that leadership involves a leader, followers, dominance, motivation, and

influence. Current theories consider leadership “as a process in which leaders are not seen as

individuals in charge of followers, but as members of a community of practice” (Takala, 2005, p.

45). Much literature has surfaced on transformational leadership that implies leaders require

emotional intelligence (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003). Dulewicz and Higgs (2003) further asserted

that IQ tests have failed to provide sufficient variance in success criteria in organizational

environments. Sashkin and Sashkin (2003) suggested credibility is important for

transformational leadership. Credibility relates to the leader’s integrity and is pivotal in being

able to engender trust among followers.

Leadership is an influence relationship. For leaders and followers to affect change under

a mutual purpose requires creating an atmosphere that is encouraging, motivating, and promotes

the right type of behavioral integrity (Rost, 1993). Ramlall (2003) suggested that there are

specific areas in which organizational leaders can address such matters that go beyond basic

expectations, such as

x the job itself - actual responsibilities an employee in their specific job;

x company's reputation - shared opinions by employees, analysts within the

industry, etc.;

x career development - advancement within the company;

x job security - low risk associated with working at the company;

x organizational culture - the way the company does business and how employees

are treated;

26


x challenge - getting the employees to perform more efficiently;

x training and development - opportunities offered for training and development;

x empowerment - encouraged to make decisions affecting their work; and

x attractive benefits - quality with relative low premiums.

All of the areas suggested above can affect the behavior throughout the organization.

Having conviction in what is said and practiced goes a long way to establishing the right

behavioral integrity. It is better to develop a tendency toward action and make something

happen by taking steps such as those suggested by Ramlall (2003). The behavior of consumers

has changed and influence decisions of businesses when looking for locations for production

faculties, or revising of human resources policies within an organization (Auger & Devinney,

2007). If a company is deeply integrated into the environment, they will need to respond to

those forces that may influence the economic extent.

Devising the means with which to implement strategy is an essential role for

organizational leaders. Organizations will benefit from creating their vision first. With a vision,

organizations can direct how to circumnavigate the environment served and create new realities

through innovation. Kouzes and Posner (2003) suggested that behaviors serve as a basis for

learning to lead within the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership model. Out of the 10

commitments of leadership, two practices stand out concerning vision: (a) model the way, and

(b) inspire a shared vision (Kouzes & Posner, 2003). Modeling the way provides for clarifying

personal values that are aligned with shared values of the organization, while inspiring the shared

vision promotes envisioning the future possibilities to enlist others in a common vision (Kouzes

& Posner, 2003). The behavior displayed between leaders and followers are important in

transforming elements of project leadership. To manage ones behavior, Cashman (2003) shared,

27


It’s important to note that true leadership doesn’t reside merely in techniques, or in

manipulating the circumstances in order to persuade people. It’s about showing up with

our life story, with whatever the triumphs, sorrows, and joys in our lives have taught us is

important, and integrating those experiences into our voice to serve others. When we speak

from that authentic place in us, we will automatically touch the hearts and minds of people,

remind them of what’s important, and catalyze them toward enriched vision and action (p.

4).

In many respects, it is the followers who give power to the leader, such as the example of

a charismatic leader like Martin Luther King, while the opposition would be Osama Bin Laden

(Takala, 2005), both charismatic leaders even though their outcomes differ. Charisma and other

mental activities have a role in leadership but carry with it an element of danger. Takala (2005)

posited a charismatic leader uses power over his or her follower, but it also means followers have

power over the leader. Leaders with abilities such as transformational, servant, and charismatic

leadership affect employees and followers’ emotional intelligence levels (Cherniss & Goleman,

2001). Posner (as cited in Kouzes, 2003) acknowledged that being an effective role model the

leader must earn the right and respect of followers through personal involvement and action.

With any type of behavioral characteristic such as charisma, it can be developed further,

such as the theory introduced by the Takala (2005), who identified some principles of morally

good charismatic leadership. “Emotional intelligence is the ability to sense, understand, and

effectively apply the power and acumen of emotions as a source of human energy, information,

connection, and influence” (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997, p. xiii). Using the power one achieves, as a

charismatic leader positively can avoid the element of danger that can make a good charismatic

28


leader go bad (Takala, 2005), suggesting the importance of leadership awareness with respect to

an individual’s own emotions and the emotions of others.

Emotional Intelligence in Practice

Salovey and Mayer (as cited in Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2008) defined emotional

intelligence under an ability-based mode, as the ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to

facilitate thought, understand emotions, and regulate emotions to promote personal growth. The

premise of the ability-based model helps one to navigate the social environment and make sense

of an individual’s emotions as a useful source of information (Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2008).

The model of emotional intelligence (Figure 1) provides the framework of five dimensions as

identified by Salovey and Mayer (1990).

Figure 1. A Model of Emotional Intelligence. Adapted from HRDQ, 2009.


Although there are a number of definitions for emotional intelligence, the qualities used in this

study are those as cited by Goleman (1995):

1. Knowing one’s emotions

2. Managing emotions

29


3. Motivating oneself

4. Recognizing emotions in others (p. 43).

Tubbs and Schultz (2005) argued that competencies are developed as opposed to in-born.

Mayer and Salovey (1999) described many areas of emotional intelligence as four areas of

capacities or skills. Each branch arranged specifically as it relates to the emotions from the

perceiving emotion to the most general to personality of managing emotions (Mayer & Salovey,

1999). The notion of the different types of intelligence is important from the perspective of

understanding and discerning emotional information (Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2008).

EI and Leadership

The literature review provided many aspects of leadership as well as a number of

definitions. “Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth”

(Burns, 1978, p. 2). As one might grapple with the concept of leadership, particularly the

challenge of analyzing leaders, realize that “The aura with which we tend to surround the words

leader and leadership makes it hard to think clearly. Good sense calls for demystification”

(Gardner & Gardner, 2003, p. 169). One vital approach to demystify leadership and our personal

leadership theories is to discuss them in behavioral terms.

Leadership traits, styles, and behaviors can be taught and acquired (Maxwell, 1993).

There is much to learn about growing from being a good leader to becoming a great leader.

“Transformational leaders rely on empathy to understand ‘followers’ thoughts, feelings, and

points of view” (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006, p. 53). Barbuto & Burbach (2006) presented results

of 80 official leaders and staffers to show that emotional intelligence of leaders share a

significant variance with self-perception, discussing five underlying factors developed from the

works of others as a measure of emotional intelligence. The five factors used are empathetic

30


response, mood regulation, interpersonal skill, internal motivation, and self-awareness (Barbuto

& Burbach, 2006). In each factor, a transformational leader relies on particular feelings,

thoughts, awareness, and emotional impact (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006).

Avolio, Bass, and Jung (1995) Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used to

measure transformational leadership. Bass (1985) noted that,

With the definitions of transactional and transformational leadership in mind, and

encouraged by the results of the pilot study of the conceptualization,…we set out to

analyze quantitatively (1) the transactional leader’s emphasis on exchange with followers

of benefits for compliance and (2) the transformational leader’s emphasis on mobilization

and direction of followers toward expanded, higher, or transcendental objectives (p. 195).

Focusing on the individual rather than the organization sets the principle-centered leadership

apart from transformational leadership. While an author like Steven Covey (2003) is tapping

into the heart, mind, and spirit of the individual, Bass (1999) deals more with capitalizing on an

individual’s personal growth and providing opportunities for employees to develop through

motivation.

Bass and Avolio (1990) acknowledged, "The transformational leader asks followers to

transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group, organization, or society; to consider

their longer-term needs to develop themselves, rather than their needs of the moment; and to

become more aware of what is really important" (p. 53). Gardner and Gardner (2003) stated that

leadership is about inducing a group to pursue an objective through the process of persuasion or

example. Leadership is about shaping constituents opinions and earning their favor and

allegiance (Tichey & Cohen, 2003). Leadership should be about a shared experience and if this

31


experience is successful, it should yield positive results in the leader’s self-development and in

the process, lead others toward achieving peak performance (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 72).

Management Intuition

“The structure and content of executive perceptions are considered using cognitive

mapping to isolate ‘intuitive’ elements within their individual decision schemas” (Clarke &

Mackaness, 2001, p. 147), which is the basis for exploring management intuition. By the use of

qualitative case studies, the authors used the results to construct cognitive maps for decision

schemas as it relates to management intuition. Intuition comes with many definitions. One such

definition familiar to many is that of being a hunch or instinct acquired without conscious

thought (Clarke & Mackaness, 2001).

“Organizations exist largely in the mind, and their existence takes the form of cognitive

maps. Thus, what ties an organization together is what ties thoughts together” (Weick & Bougon

as cited in Weick, 2005, p. 23). Cognitive mapping, used in management research, explores

individual perceptual schema, seen as a model of action-oriented thinking. Cognitive maps

“generally provide significant anecdotal evidence of executives bringing a substantial proportion

of these individual constructs to bear on given decisions” (Clarke & Mackaness, 2001, p. 164).

When challenged to make decisions or embark unexplored frontiers, intuition, which uses

reasoning can assist in generating alternatives (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003). In management,

cognitive mapping assists in problem solving, brainstorming, or planning where flashes of

insight often follow the exhaustive use of logic and reason (Clarke & Mackeness, 2001).

Charismatic Leadership

“Leadership is a distinctive activity that is concerned with principle – how we should be,

purpose – what we should do and people – how we work together” (West-Burnham, 2004, p. 3).

32


Leadership is about a reciprocal relationship between people. Kouzes and Posner (1990),

posited, it is not only about the leader but also about the followers. In surveys conducted by

Kouzes and Posner (1990), honesty was selected more often than any other characteristic.

Maxwell (1993) says individuals can accomplish this by “self-discipline, inner trust, and a

decision to be relentlessly honest in all situations…” (p. 44). Covey (2003) said that effective

personal management is dealing with issues that might not be urgent but are important.

Charismatic leaders are likely to be inspirational, but the dynamics involved can be

clearly different. The strong desire to identify with the leader characteristic of the charismatic

type is absent. Because leaders capture and articulate goals and visions held in common with his

or her followers (Bass & Avolio, 1990) characteristics like charisma are beneficial. An aspect of

charisma or inspiration is being able to provide vision while providing the workers with a sense

of purpose (Avolio, Bass & Jung, 1999). Being an inspirational leader is important in

developing devoted workers.

In the early 1900s, leadership was more about control or having power and before that,

the perception focused more on heroism (Harrison, 1999). From the 1960s to 1990s, there was a

significant shift and focus on collaboration (Kouzes, 2003). According to Maxwell (1993),

individuals should recognize and incorporate the value of the members of teams, commitment to

team members, integrity among team members, set a standard for these team members, and

establishing a positive influence over team members.

Emotional Intelligence and Teams

According to Cherniss and Goleman (2001), formal and informal relationships

significantly contribute to emotional intelligence in the workplace. Cherniss and Goleman

(2001) developed a two-part model of emotional intelligence and organizational effectiveness

33


with part one showing the relationship between the leadership, human resources functions, and

the organizational climate and culture. The second part of the model highlights the relationship

between individual and group emotional intelligence, and organizational effectiveness (Cherniss

& Goleman, 2001).

One aspect of EI that is significant as it relates to leadership is the ability to build and

handle relationships. Handling relationships is, “in large part, skills in managing emotions in

others….These are the abilities that undergird popularity, leadership, and interpersonal

effectiveness” (Goleman, 1995, p. 43). With teams and empowerment as themes of management

in modern business, emotional intelligence is the skill that people should become increasingly

aware of and valued in the workplace (Goleman, 1995).

Knowledge has become an important source and a leading factor for driving and

maintaining competitive advantage within most successful organizations (Nonaka & Nishiguchi,

2001). Teams are one of the most common and efficient means to creating knowledge within the

organization (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). When members of a team come together, the

combined knowledge can be “translated into action that makes a real difference in the

organization” (LaRue, Childs, & Larson, 2004, p. xiii). It is important to note that teams are

only as effective as the support that the organization provides for the teaming process (Opie,

2000). At project meetings when delivering status, teams can demonstrate the innovative aspects

of solutions provided to customers, thus instituting knowledge creation using the socialization

mode of accumulation (Nonaka & Nishiguchi, 2001).

With the ability to call on loose networks of fellow workers, many things people do

depends on creating networks and building relationships (Goleman, 1995). Suggesting there is

value that comes with the ability to converse with and build relationships with people of various

34


lifestyles. America has moved from a manufactured-based economy and shifted toward a more

service-oriented, value-added economy, with relationships at the heart of service (Bliss, 2006).

According to Bliss (2006), various studies have determined that emotional intelligence is

very important in the development of a leader’s ability to get things done. Therefore, leaders

who develop their emotional intelligence have a greater opportunity of building successful

relationships among peers, subordinates, superiors, and customers (Bliss, 2006). Today’s leaders

are in need of the following emotional intelligence competencies that include

x Communicating or listening openly and sending convincing messages

x Managing conflict, which entails negotiating and resolving disagreements

x Inspiring and guiding individuals and groups as a leader

x Initiating and managing change

x Collaborating and cooperating with others toward shared goals (Bliss, 2006).

The challenge is more about the skills and roles communications has in supporting the

organization and not about where it sits within the business (Pounsford, 2003). “Effective

leaders help others to understand the necessity of change and to accept a common vision of the

desired outcome” (Blagg & Young, 2001, para. 20).

To improve manufacturing productivity the management at Paws & Claws planned to

develop a system that analyzed cost of production as well as the potential for profit of the

different product mixes (Mankin et al., 1996, p. 4). The system intended known as the Strategic

Information of Continuous Improvement in Manufacturing (SICIM) (Mankin et al., 1996). The

system would enable teams to project costs, sales, and revenues for various product mixes. A

critical success factor in the project was not just the technology but also the need to empower the

teams with their new roles through training, team building, and managing the change process

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(Mankin et al., 1996). When all elements of the organizational structure are in synergy, there is a

greater propensity for organizational effectiveness, maintenance of the organizational boundaries

and the proper functioning of the task environment. “If teamwork is the key to effective

organizations, information is the key to effective teamwork” (Mankin et al., 1996, p. 7).

According to Bragg (1999), when a member of the team achieves his or her goals while the rest

of the team does not achieve the team goals, neither the individual nor team succeed.

Leadership in Project Management

Project Management Methods

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service with

temporary meaning the project has a start and end date (Ward, 2000). Unique means that the

project’s result is different from the results of other functions of the organization (Spinner,

1997). Project Managers (PM) facilitate projects using three dimensional performance

objectives consisting of time, cost, and quality or conformance to the project requirements

(Rosenau, 1998). Projects are inherently time bound and require careful planning to execute the

project objectives successfully. All projects have a project life cycle and require extensive

planning, monitoring, and controlling throughout its life cycle that require managing (Richman,

2002).

Organizations use projects in meeting the needs of their clients with project managers as

a direct link between the clients and owners (Richman, 2002). Project managers are the link to

develop effective projects that can encourage clients to continue business or create new business

(Richman, 2002). The Code of Ethics for the project management profession sets the ground

rules for conduct of “work in an ethical manner to earn and maintain the confidence of the team

members, colleagues, employees, clients, and the public” (Gray & Larson, 2001, p. 550). A

36


successful project can increase revenues while motivating employees. In addition, running a

successful project can allow managers to gain valuable knowledge, which add to the experience

factor among the contributors. “We have established that the culture cannot be changed unless

the practices that make up the organizational climate are changed and rewarded” (Crawford,

2002, p. 259). In the context of Project Management, starting with a methodology entails

establishing a set of new behaviors within the organization. Frame (1994) stated

Project managers should be proficient in such “hard” skills as the basics of contracting,

business finance, integrated cost/schedule control, measuring work performance,

monitoring quality and conducting risk analysis. They should also be adept at such “soft”

skills as negotiating, managing change, being politically astute, and understanding the

needs and wants of the people they deal with (including customers, peers, and staff (p. 9).

Horton (n.d) defined 13 traits that included communications, attitude, and integrity,

prescribed for individual improvement and organizational effectiveness. Managing projects is a

balance of managing the costs, schedule, and resources. Project managers touch different areas

of the organization. Gray and Larson (2001), put forward that building a cooperative and

sustaining relationship with a highly visible interactive management style is essential to allow

project leaders to use their most powerful tool for leadership; their own behavior. Project

managers must integrate four areas of knowledge and planning: cost, time, scope, and quality

(PMI, 2007). The project manager often is the point of contact for the customer providing

frequent interaction during the execution of the project. Ireland (2006), posited that literature in

project management provide “little or no attention to how people contribute to the success of

projects” (p. 65).

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Project managers, leaders, and CEOs may possess similar combinations of qualities that

bring them success in their positions. As noted by Dulewicz et al., (2005) using EI to assess an

individual’s competency helps to identify someone likely to succeed in a given role. In an article

about recognizing the value of project management as part of the organizational strategy, Hebert

(2002) provided an analogy of project managers to orchestra conductors. The project manager

like an orchestra conductor plays a primary role that has a human element. “Project leaders have

to orchestrate the projects, find the right musicians, determine who will play what, and most

importantly, energize the musicians, create synergies among them and ensure they achieve their

potential” (Hebert, 2002, p. 27). Project managers facilitate time, cost, and quality while

interacting on all levels of the organization, orchestrating the contributions of others (Gray &

Larsen, (2001).

Capacity at an Organizational Level

Huy (1999) postulated that research on the micro dynamic elements associated with

emotional intelligence led to an understanding of macro changes. The interaction of receptivity,

mobilization, and learning at the individual (micro) level correlated to the capability of fostering

change in an organization (macro) (Huy, 1999). According to Schein (as cited in Huy, 1999), the

emotional capability at an organizational level refers specifically to the managements “ability to

acknowledge, recognize, monitor, disseminate, and attend to its members’ emotions, and it is

manifested in the organization’s norms and routines related to feeling” (p. 325).

Scott (2003) asks what means organizations can use to induce participants to contribute

resources, or their best efforts in this case, in creating a sustainable organization. "An alternative

to attempting to change people who make up an organization is to change the structure of the

organization itself or the systems and practices that guide its activities" (Swanson, Territo, &

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Taylor, 2001, p. 640). Some choices made by top management about the design of the

organization often times constrain the decision-making process from being proactive to reactive

(Randolph & Dess, 1984, p. 115). Organizations can take advantage of a flexible structure that

allows change or takes advantage of new opportunities, but it can be a disadvantage, especially

when it affects people (Scott, 2003). Achieving organizational change is a managerial challenge

as well as a cognitive challenge (Goodman & Rousseau, 2004).

An organizational structure for a business to achieve the capacity would be one that is

adaptive. An adaptive organization may be a dream more than reality but could be adopted to

capture the creativity employees can offer and make organizations more competitive (Hellriegel,

Slocum & Woodman, 1992). In a quote by Paul Allaire, CEO of Xerox, he stated, “We’re never

going to out-discipline the Japanese on quality. To win, we need to find ways to capture the

creative, innovative spirit of the American worker; that is the real organizational challenge

(Hellriegel et al., 1992). To capture creativity and innovation, the structure of the organization

will require flexibility and determination of meeting the needs of the organization.

Flexibility is one common factor in the design of an adaptive organization (Hellriegel et

al., 1992, p. 707). An engineer, for example might lead as the project manager and next be a

support engineer as a team member for a project. To achieve flexibility, the adaptive

organization will need to adjust to changing networks of people, teams, projects, and alliances

(Hellriegel et al., 1992). With any type of management structure, there are problems that arise.

In a matrix organization for example, the method of implementation can cause problems and

perceived as costly. According to Knight (2001), “matrix organizations have been reported as

costly, cumbersome and bureaucratic, inhibiting technical achievement, overburdening top-

management, de-motivating employees and detrimental to their development” (p. 122). The role

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of leadership in implementing such an adaptive organization must approach creating a matrix

organization that works for rather than against the culture. Knight (2001), suggested such

methods as

x careful definition of organizational roles;

x modifying the organizational culture through training and organizational development;

x setting up practical guidelines and ground rules for operating the matrix; and

x creation of appropriate management systems to support it (p. 127).

Project Teams and Stakeholders

In a book titled, Real Dream Teams, four characteristics identified enabled leaders to

bring out the best in others (Fisher & Thomas, 1997), which we can adopt to work for most any

team. First, having a vision allowed leaders to understand the importance of the cause and view

the long-term or mountaintop view, which allowed them to see things differently from other

people (Fisher & Thomas, 1997). Second, most leaders must have the ability to communicate

their vision to others, much like Martin Luther King who communicated his “I Have a Dream”

speech, which is regarded as one of the most powerful and influential events communicated

(Fisher & Thomas, 1997). Third, through the leaders’ vision a mission is created, generating

direction and hope, enabling leaders to empower and involve others in achieving the mission

(Fisher & Thomas, 1997). Fourth, it is the characteristics leaders personify, such as dedication,

discipline, faith, self-motivation, and commitment that clearly makes a difference in inspiring

others to do their best (Fisher & Thomas, 1997).

The challenges for leaders in terms of converting implicit thoughts into actionable

objectives include (a) verbal and nonverbal communication skills, (b) filtering information, and

(c) processing information.

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An estimated 66-75% of a manager’s (leader’s) time is spent in interpersonal

communication … however, interpersonal relationships are contingent upon strong

communication skills . . . however, verbal communication is but a small portion of total

interpersonal interaction; the total amount of [nonverbal communication] NYC in

emotional interaction and interpersonal communication has been postulated to be

anywhere from 65% to 93% (Gentry & Kuhnert, 2005, pp. 181 - 182).

Interpersonal communication skills influence the dynamics, synergy, and motivation of the

group. Weick (2005) refereed to the leader’s ability to be objective (their personal bias and

limitations) as a lens, that is, a state-of-mind. For a team to be effective, many factors need met.

The team performance and team results provide a critical focus for assessing either partial or

overall organizational performance (Jones & Schilling, 2000).

If there is a lack of trust within the team, members will be less willing to cooperate.

Communication plays a key role in maintaining trust and collaboration (Henttonen & Blomqvist,

2005). According to Blomqvist (2001), “Trust has variously been argued to be a mechanism for

increasing the potential benefits of collaboration in collaborative relationships…” (as cited in

Henttonen & Blomqvist, 2005, p. 108). Not only does it benefit collaborative efforts but also

trust can become the most important element for developing an effective team (Henttonen &

Blomqvist, 2005).

With globalization comes a challenge of teams working apart that affects the nature of

group dynamics. Traditional prescriptions effective for traditional dynamics may be difficult to

apply in a virtual team environment (Henttonen & Blomqvist, 2005). Suggesting a team member

may find it difficult to identify with when geographically separated from one another. To

balance the needs of management without adversely affecting the bottom line will require finesse

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and creativity. Honesty from a leader in the virtual team establishes integrity (Morris, Marshall,

& Rainer, 2002), something worth taking into account when improving the communications

design.

While leaders are trying to implement change within the company culture, leaders can

take the following steps as presented by the Indian Tata Steel Company in their time of

redirection (Seshadri & Tripathy, 2006)

1. Take personal ownership in the change process.

2. Become a role model, demonstrate involvement, and invested time in the

process.

3. Create endless opportunities for communication at all levels.

4. Establish a sense of urgency to move to the desired state (p. 137).

To ensure change can happen without a crisis, understanding that “the leadership group can’t

transform individuals, but it can do much to foster their readiness to accept a transformation”

(Day & Jung, 2000, para. 20). Fostering readiness will spur the faith, trust, and collaboration

needed to make change happen.

Team leaders require new leadership competencies in a virtual environment. According

to Kirkman (2000), conflict and resistance occurs when employee experience “resistance

including violations of fairness, increased workload concerns, uncertain manager support,

unclear role definitions, and lack of team member social support” (p. 74). Kaplan-Leiserson

(2005), posited virtual team leaders would need special leadership competencies, including

sensitivities to “interpersonal, communications, and cultural factors, to overcome the limitations

of long-distance teaming” (p. 12). A consistent theme in the literature, is that of

communications, whether virtual or traditional teams.

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Project Success Factors

“Success depends on persuading hundreds or thousands of groups to change the way they

work, a transformation people will accept only if they can be persuaded to think differently about

their jobs” (Lawson & Price, 2003, para. 1). If success hinges on persuading people to change,

this indicates that making change becomes more of transforming the mindset of individuals

involved. According to Lawson and Price (2003), there are four conditions needed for changing

mind-sets, which are

1. A purpose to believe in

2. Reinforcement systems

3. The skills required for change, and

4. Consistent role models (para. 5).

Each condition, if met, provides a means to issues with fairness, trust, and collaboration.

The implications of this finding indicates when people believe in a purpose they are content with

their own individual behavior, otherwise they would suffer from cognitive dissonance if he or

she does not (Lawson & Price, 2003). Meeting this condition will build confidence, trust, and

comfort.

The literature reviewed found little to no operational construct for project success factors.

Several studies used constructs that defined specific elements that in some way included project

management measures as defined within the industry but also included other measures such as

customer involvement (Frank, Sadeh, & Ashkenasi, 2011). A similar model close to what is

defined in this study presented several variations using process efficiency, planning measures,

and the combination of the two (Basten, Joosten, & Mellis, 2011).

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Providing teams with the tools required to do their job is one aspect of managing a

project team that adds to the success of a project, establishing team dynamics using behaviors

and values in the early stages of forming the team is another (Fisher & Thomas, 1997). “One of

the skills of great team leaders is their sensitivity to their team members’ needs and their support

for them when they are in need” (Fisher & Thomas, 1997, p. 63). To regulate ones emotions

within the team is critical to success and the exercise of emotional intelligence is a valuable

resource to manage wisely (Cooke & Tate, 2005). Having the right people, in the right place, at

the right time, doing the right things does not happen by accident.

Developing project charters is a step used in steering the project as it defines the project

vision and create the foundation for all project members (Crawford, 2002). An element of the

project charter should include definition of what constitutes project success (PMI, 2008).

Description of who decides the project is successful or who signs off on the project are critical to

completing the project successfully (PMI, 2008). Other elements of project planning, such as

defining the scope and building on the documents needed are outputs to the tools and techniques

aspect toward successfully executing a project (PMI, 2008). The tools and techniques are the

methods and expertise needed of a project leader, but it is the interpersonal skills or soft skills

needed when working with teams (PMI, 2008).

Gaps Identified

Goleman (1995) posits the relationship between the two sides of the brain reveals much

about the relationship of thoughts to feeling; there was an emotional brain long before there was

a rational one. “Smart people don’t always make great leaders. If a person’s emotional

intelligence isn’t as high as their mental abilities, they may lack self-awareness and the ability to

44


tune into the needs of others” (Gale, 2006, p. 26). Suggesting there is more measures for success

of an individual in addition to his or her IQ.

A project that was commissioned by the Project Management Institute (PMI) examined

the practices of project management in all industries and sectors (Thomas, Delisle, & Jugdev,

2002), which found project failure dominated in all industries and sectors. Projects, defined by a

beginning and end are temporary endeavors (Gray & Larson, 2001). Having well defined project

objectives, time constraints, budgets, and vision are essential for delivery of project outcomes but

are temporal boundaries that requires initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing

processes (PMI, 2010). Accepting the limits and boundaries of the projects temporary endeavors

requires additional efforts to build teams to execute the project effectively, establish

relationships, and generate trust among team members and project stakeholders (Grabher, 2002).

Organizations are affected when a project fails by either not meeting a strategic objective

or loss of revenue because of wasted time and resources. Quantifying the impact project failure

has on organizations showed in one report that at least 30% of projects in the information

technology sector were canceled before completion and only 16% were completed on time and

on budget with 180% average cost overrun (Standish Group, 1994; Standish Group, 2004).

Results further indicated improvement of project success but only by 4% in 2003 (Standish

Group, 2003).

Arguments and discussions have centered on methods to enhance the hard process by

better testing, improved requirements, better design reviews. The research found projects failed

because of relationships, lack of stakeholder involvement, or poor management (Boehm, 1981).

Those responsible for executing projects need experience in managing and communicating

effectively to all levels of stakeholders, managing relationships, team commitments, leadership

45


as well as control over project objectives (McManus, 2007). One of the most important

competencies in project leadership is the ability to lead. According to Becerra-Fernandez,

Gonzales, and Sabherwal (2004), “knowledge sharing is the process through which explicit or

tacit knowledge is communicated to other individuals” (p. 373). The lack of defining qualities of

a leader, in research, has shown results in project failures.

Nonanka and Nishiguchi (2001) posited that conversion is a social process between

individuals and not confined to within an individual. In the socialization mode, the transfer of

knowledge is engineered through managers who lead by example. Project leaders may not have

formal power over project resources and rely on cultivating and influencing relationships to

achieve project objectives (Crawford, 2002). Project failures are attributed to a number of

factors that include not delivering project objectives on time or within budget (Thomas et al.,

2002). A number of other sources define project failures as

x Support from top management is lacking (Jiang & Klein, 1999);

x Not recognizing project is in trouble or denying a project is in trouble (James,

1997); and

x Stakeholder expectations not satisfied with results and considering a failure

(Lemon, Liebowitz, Burn, & Hackney, 2002).

Insight from other researchers highlight the importance of managing relationships but little

mentioned regarding use of emotional intelligence as a method for developing project leadership

skills to enhance project success.

Focus on the soft skills of project management is a gap that needs bridged between

controlling the project scope, schedule, and performance with managing relationships of project

stakeholders. Soldano (2000) identified reasons that project management education and training

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fails to meet the investment companies spend and the expected productivity not achieved. One

reason mentioned is that the techniques, tools, and principles are not transferred into the work

environment (Soldano, 2000). The failure of such training suggests there is a gap that affects the

effectiveness of project management training and how making the training more sustainable for

participants long after the lesson (Soldano, 2000).

A final scan for the literature review revealed published works that investigated how

emotional intelligence correlated with being successful at working in projects (Clarke, 2009).

Clarke (2009) summarized that research examining emotional intelligence in projects is minimal.

In another article regarding emotional intelligence, a survey conducted on 775 global leaders and

employees, reported that 23 percent use emotional intelligence as a leadership solution

(Swanson, 2012). Zhang and Fan (2013) surveyed 112 project managers in construction to

determine whether the project managers’ emotional intelligence relates to the performance of

their most recent project. There was strong positive correlation observed between many of the

emotional intelligence dimensions used in the study (Zhang & Fan, 2013). Despite more

literature that is as recent as 2013, there still lacked research investigating emotional intelligence

in the context of project success. The literature reviewed discovered gaps in information

regarding assessing the emotional intelligence of project leaders in terms of enhancing project

success.

Summary

Maulding (2002) wrote, "unlike IQ, emotional intelligence (EQ) can be learned" (p. 5).

Experience can strengthen emotional intelligence (Oster, 1998). Oster (1998) also found that

leaders consciously apply their internal values, ethics, and emotional intelligence to leadership

and achieve better results over leaders who do not. "Goleman purports that although a strong IQ

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can set the baseline for success in life, it in no way is a guarantee of prosperity" (Maulding,

2002, p. 4).

Kouzes and Posner (1987) noted the credibility of leadership follows a moral purpose of

trust and the hopes brought about. Emotional intelligence is gaining recognition as an important

aspect needed in the workplace and that studies have shown a high IQ is not a guarantee for a

successful life (Sunindijo, Hadikusumo, & Ogunlana, 2007). Empathetic emotions is a quality

that a transformational leader can use when trying to understand the feeling of others. Kouzes

and Posner (2003) stated, "When people feel good, they work at their best. Feeling good

lubricates mental efficiency, making people better at understanding information and using

decision rules in complex judgments, as well as more flexible in their thinking" p.

55). Organizational leaders helping employees feel good about the direction of the organization

and good about themselves are likely to have a successful organization.

The practice of management and leadership are challenged with such things as

containing costs, aligning the business requirements, maintaining compliance with regulations,

and a whole host of elements. To ensure change can happen without a crisis, understanding that

leadership can foster readiness of individuals to accept transformation will spur the faith, trust,

and collaboration needed to make change happen (Day & Jung, 2000). Relationship building is a

key aspect of leadership and project management. Project management is all about results;

however, for a project to progress successfully the project manager must be skilled at the various

stages of the project lifecycle (Gray & Larson, 2001).

Communication is the cornerstone that creates trust and confidence needed to transform

ordinary employees to action-oriented people who take risks to get the job done. Throughout the

literature review, it is present that project teams within organizations require new approaches,

48


heightened awareness, and specialized skills. Being prepared and planning appropriately are just

two approaches to initiating changes in leadership methods using emotional intelligence and

other learned intelligences. Continual management and training processes are concepts that will

help to sustain the change (Soldano, 2000).

Being a catalyst for change requires many skills. Not only does it come from within but

also from those around. The challenges for leaders are to create resonance in an organization,

which takes emotionally intelligent leadership to help with the organizational transformation

(Goleman et al., 2002). Project leadership is a subset of the project team responsible for the

overall activities of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, and controlling projects to close

(PMI, 2008). Tools such as a Gantt chart are monitoring techniques for providing an overall

picture of the current state of the project by using a network diagram (Meredith & Mantel, 2006).

Since the project leader is acting as catalyst for discussion and project generation among the

team members, it is imperative that together the team develop internal processes to achieve the

stated objectives from all angles.

Monitoring and influencing others for the benefit of the project are major tasks of the

project leader, which is where a gap exists in finding a link between project leadership emotional

intelligence and project success. The PMBOK® Fourth Edition describes the importance of

developing a team environment that provides good team leadership that promotes trust and open

communication (PMI, 2008). However, the literature to support the development of strong

leadership skills that involves emotional intelligence in project management to enhance project

success needs further exploration.

This chapter was a representation of the review of literature relative to the theoretical

framework for this study. Several major categories of literature covered included emotional

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intelligence, leadership and management, leadership in project management, and project success

factors. Nanus (2003) stated that a vision is a mental ideal or model of a future process.

According to Maxwell (1993), leaders should recognize and incorporate the value of the

members of teams, commitment to team members, integrity among team members, and

establishing a positive influence over team members. The literature also suggests emotional

intelligence will support the project leaders’ role by having a positive relationship to project

success.

Relationships are the connections one has with partnerships, shareholders, or boards.

Kouzes and Posner (2002) asserted, “Leadership is a relationship” (p. 32). Hoopes (2003)

argued that organizations cannot escape the traditional need to control (e.g., coerce) staff, but

there has been a greater need to balance this control with adaptive systems. Hoopes (2003)

commented on the modern management theories of “the benevolent, idealistic aspects of

leadership as taught in business schools” (p. 275). Traditional relationships within the

organization are changing and emotional intelligence is a skill becoming increasingly valued in

the workplace (Goleman, 1995, p. 160). This study was based on the model presented by

Goleman (1998) that focuses on (a) self-awareness, (b) self-management, (c) social awareness,

and (d) social skills.

Chapter 3 presents a description of the research methodology proposed in this

quantitative descriptive research study that examined if the project leaders’ level of emotional

intelligence supports the project leaders’ performance, resulting in more projects that are

successful. Project success as defined by scope, cost, and schedule. Chapter 3 is about the

appropriateness of the research design and other such details relative to the study population.

50


Information on the measurement instruments are included along with a description of the process

planned.

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CHAPTER 3

Research Method

To deliver more projects that are complex the use of project management increased to

meet the needs in the business world. Project management is the application of knowledge to

project activities to meet project goals and requirements, which is composed of five process

groups (PMI, 2008). The role of the project manager is to balance the competing project

constraints of schedule, cost, and scope as it was planned (PMI, 2008). A measure of project

success is by the quality of the product, timeliness of meeting the schedule, and within budget

compliance (PMI, 2008).

The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study examined

whether a relationship between a project leader’s emotional intelligence (EI) and project success

exists. The theoretical foundations examined are emotional intelligence and project

management. This chapter provides information on the survey instrument, the population, and

variables for the study. This chapter will also provide information regarding the methodology

used for the research study, along with defining the appropriateness of the methodology, data

collection process, and the rationale for the instrument selected.

Research Design

The blueprint for this research study was to determine the relationship between a project

leader’s emotional intelligence and project success. To determine if a relationship is present

among the variables, correlational descriptive research design was used. While this study is

about emotional intelligence of project leaders and project success, other similar type research

designs used similar methods. For example, in a correlational study regarding emotional

52


intelligence and job satisfaction the researcher used descriptive statistics and correlation to

analyze and examine the data (Agbolou, 2011).

After considering several instruments available that examine the emotional intelligence of

an individual, for the purpose of this study, the selected instrument was Emotional Competence

Inventory (ECI) with permission provided by the Hay Group (Appendix A). In addition, the

study included data collection of the participants’ most recent completed project specifics as the

project success factors and optional demographics (Appendix B).

Prior to starting data collection, approval was required from University of Phoenix

Academic Review Board (ARB) and Institutional Review Board (IRB). The approval letter from

the ARB/IRB required first to meet the guidelines of the PMI organization for academic research

(PMI, 2010). Participants for this study are project management professionals or any person

designated as a project manager, project leader, or other project management designation. The

approach for this study was not to capture any type contact information of respondents (directly

or indirectly). Access to the data was restricted with limitation to the researcher and

administrator for the electronic assessment tool. Permission to post a link to the survey onto the

PMI organization website was the next step to complete after approval from the University of

Phoenix ARB/IRB (Appendix C). The administration and roll out of the survey instrument was

accessible via Internet. Access to the survey was from a web link (Appendix D).

The research design was a quantitative descriptive correlational approach. Descriptive

research design determines whether and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or

more quantifiable (numerical) variables (Simon, 2003). The intent of this research study was to

measure the emotional intelligence competencies of a project leader to understand better, how he

or she handles others as well as him or herself. The research also intended to add to the body of

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knowledge in project management. Leedy and Ormond (2001) asserted that correlational studies

examine the level of difference between variables and frequency of behaviors.

For this study, correlation implies prediction but not causation. If a significant

relationship is found, it does not follow that one variable causes the other (Simon, 2003). Baron

and Kenny (1986) posited that further strengthening the relationship between the independent

(predictor variable) and a dependent (criterion variable), is a moderator variable to consider any

effects on the direction. The size of project, considered the moderator (strengthening) variable

for this study. “Specifically within a correlational analysis framework, a moderator is a third

variable that affects the zero-order correlation between two other variables” (Baron & Kenny,

1986, p. 1174).

Variables

When investigating cause-and-effect relationships, researchers are looking to what extent

one variable has in influencing the effect of another variable (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001).

According to Hein (2006), EI, the equivalent of EQ, is the innate potential to feel, use,

communicate, recognize, remember, learn from, manage, and understand emotions. Emotional

intelligence includes a person’s ability to perceive emotions. Using those emotions to promote

intellectual thinking and knowledge while developing and regulating emotions reflectively,

support emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2002). Tapping into one’s

EQ holds important answers to the understanding of how emotions govern thoughts, feelings,

and actions. It also answers how leaders and employees learn to be sensitive of situations and

how to ‘read’ other people as to avoid making snap judgments (Goleman, 1995). For this study,

emotional intelligence is the independent variable.

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With the inception of emotional intelligence, various instruments developed for assessing

of the construct exist. One such model introduced by Goleman (1995) focuses on four main

constructs (a) self-awareness, (b) self-management, (c) social awareness, and (d) relationship

management. Managing oneself, people, and the environment around oneself is the basis for this

study.

The variables used for this study reported by using tables, figures, charts, and other

statistical methods that significantly contribute to supporting conclusions made in the study. In

regression analysis, the predictor variable will be used to predict the value of the independent

variable, the criterion variable is the variable being predicted, also known as the dependent

variable with the strengthening variable being the moderator that affects the relationship of the

dependent and independent variables (Creswell, 2002). In this research study, the third variable

is to determine what affects there are on the correlation of two variables illustrated in Table 2.

Table 2

Variable Layout

Variable Instrument/Measure Purpose

Independent Emotional Intelligence ECI 2.0 Predictor variable

Competence

Dependent Project Success Factors Cost (+ - 10%) financial Criterion variable

Schedule (+ -5%) baseline

Scope (100%)

Moderator Project Size Small, Medium, Large Strengthening variable

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Emotional intelligence competencies served as the predictor variable. The instrument to

use for measuring the independent variable was the Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI).

The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI) is a measurement tool organized in the four clusters

of emotional intelligence (a) self-awareness, (b) self-management, (c) social awareness, and (d)

relationship management and includes measuring 18 competencies (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee,

1999). The dependent variable measured cost, schedule, and scope. Each attribute of the

dependent variable combined determined whether the project met the success factors. Each

factor recoded as the project success factor indicating yes or no.

Population Sample

Potential sources of primary and secondary information were from the project

management profession as well as previous studies conducted using similar instruments. The

Project Management Institute (PMI) is one organization within the industry that is an advocate

for the field of project management and is the leading not-for-profit member organization for

project management professionals (PMI, 2007). In 2006, PMI membership was approximately

217,000 and in 2008 grown to more than 287,400 members (PMI, 2008). The sheer number of

members in the organization served as a source of project management professionals as potential

survey participants. Using a population of 185,000, the sample size calculated should be 96,

with a 95% confidence level, a response percentage of 50% and margin of error of 10%.

Because it is not definite anticipating how people will answer, the choice was 50% worst-case

scenario. The research was based on a non-probability sampling method with random sampling

to reduce human bias in selecting participants.

Within the PMI organization, there are special interest groups and other such

demographics that could provide valuable information to the analysis of results. For example,

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there were approximately 22,000 PMI members listed as in the Information Technology (IT)

industry (PMI, 2007), allowing to further stratify the data by profession. Statistics also showed

that out of the membership in PMI there were approximately 185,000 members with Project

Management Professional (PMP) certification (PMI, 2007). Secondary sources for the study

could come from previous studies on emotional intelligence as it relates to leadership.

Data Collection

The instrument proposed to measure emotional intelligence was the Emotional

Competency Inventory (ECI), which measures the four clusters of emotional intelligence: Self-

awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management (Boyatzis,

Goleman, & Rhee, 1999). This instrument served as the tool for the predictor variable. The

inventory contains 72 questions in which emotional competency can be exhibited at one of four

levels (18 competencies times the four levels) and measures how well people perform tasks and

solves emotional problems (Hay Group et al., 2006). The ECI used in a number of studies where

research presented outcomes such as individual’s life successes, department performance, sales

performance that demonstrated the criterion and construct validity of the instrument (Hay Group

et al., 2006).

Another instrument considered for this study was the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator

(MBTI). The MBTI instrument is useful for identification and description of 16 distinctive

personality types, providing a basis for the preferences from participants (CAPT, 2010). The

ECI shows good construct to measure some of the MBTI dimensions but not all (Hay Group et

al., 2006). However, for purposes of this study, measuring of the emotional competencies was

more critical to the design over personality types. The purpose of this study focused on

emotional intelligence and not on personality types. Not using the MBTI does not influence the

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research or results because the primary focus is on EI. The MBTI, though considered, was not a

measure in this study.

Initial steps in the data collection process included informing participants that the study is

for research purposes only. Instructions to participants included that participation was voluntary

and that no one was under obligation to participate, found in the Letter of Introduction and

Informed Consent for participant (Appendix E) and similar for 360-degree raters (Appendix F).

Following their consent were instructions that participating in the research study is confidential

and their responses are anonymous. Once a participant consents to participating in the research

study, the next step in the data collection process began with instructions (Appendix G) followed

by the Emotional Competency Inventory (Appendix H). To ensure the highest response rate

possible, the survey availability was for 60 days after approval from PMI to post a link on the

organizations website.

The final step of the data collection process consisted of gathering results and initiating

data analysis. Survey Monkey, an online survey tool, facilitated the data collection. Analysis

planned by using a statistical processing system, such as the statistical package for the social

sciences (SPSS) (SPSS, 2003). The questionnaires from respondents addressing project metrics

along with all data collected examined as part of the design. The Spearman rank correlation

analysis performed to exhibit the link between emotional intelligence of project leaders and

project success factors. The Chi-square test used to analyze categorical data for hypothesis

testing. At the conclusion of the research study copies of the cumulative results provided to the

Hay Group as a condition for the use of their survey instrument.

Archibald (1976) posited that a project manager’s effectiveness depends on not only

skills and experience but also personal characteristics are necessary. To understand better what

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personal characteristics project leaders develop, emotional intelligence, and project success

information were collected in this study. Other data such as demographics collected per

participant. Information limited to such data as age, gender, job category, education, project

budget, project length, project scope, and years of project experience.

Ethical consideration for the design of this study resulted in ensuring that findings will be

anonymous. To ensure ethical considerations are approached properly, permission was obtained

from the organization containing groups of people targeted for the study, obtain permission from

individuals who will volunteer to participate, and when reporting results ensure information is

accurately presented. The use of the survey in this study is more rigid and provided for learning

from a large population.

Pinto and Slevin (1988) stated that project management literature defines the concept of

project success as ambiguous. Traditionally, definitions of project objectives are “quantifiable

criteria that must be met for the project to be considered successful” (Ward, 2000, p. 170). For

this study, project data collected by having participants indicate the range of project budgeted;

baseline schedule in days, and project scope met using a self-reporting questionnaire tied to the

survey. Decotiis and Dyer (1979) suggest that project success is multidimensional.

Pinto and Mantel (1990) identified three distinct aspects of project success that include

(1) the implementation itself, (2) the perceived value of the project, and (3) client satisfaction

with project deliverables; thereby consideration for the criteria of staying within budget, within

schedule, and meeting scope. The project data reported as successful if the budgeted costs

versus actual were within plus or minus 10% of the current financial commitment, schedule is

within plus or minus 5% of baseline versus actual, and 100% of scope is accomplished.

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Techniques and Rationale

The study proposed was available to members of the Project Management Institute (PMI)

soliciting participation in this research. After obtaining appropriate permissions and approvals, a

letter of instruction was provided as communications to potential participants to explain the

study presented on a web-based survey system. Aspects of the instructions included details of

expectations for his or her participation. Explanation that the study contributes to better

understanding of various factors related to project leadership and project success. The

instructions contained details on the locations for the survey explaining participation and

responses were anonymous and confidential, and that no individual results reported in the

finalized version of the study provided. The informed consent to participate in the research study

form was the first item presented to the participant before administering the survey.

Participants informed that the research study is voluntary and that no one was obligated

to participate. No one has access to the individual survey data except the person conducting the

survey. Each participant signed all authenticated consent forms used in this study. The

participant’s individual identity will be kept confidential during the results of this study and

remain confidential. There was no attempt made to associate answers to any participants, except

for data analysis purposes and participants’ awareness of the confidentiality of their responses

before administering any surveys.

Appropriateness of Research Method

Ormond (2001) stated there is power in using correlational research to examine

relationships for variables of dissimilar traits. The purpose of this quantitative descriptive

correlational research study was to examine the relationship between the emotional intelligence

of a project leader and project success. The use of the correlational descriptive research method

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served to correlate the data from the research proposed to indicate relationships between

variables and at no time show causation. The use of descriptive statistics summarized features of

the sample and measured variations in the data. For describing trends and explaining the extent

of relationship between variables, quantitative research is more appropriate (Creswell, 2002).

The expectation is that the research design and methodology were appropriate for this study to

determine the relationships of the variables defined as well as add to the body of knowledge for

project management.

Conclusion

“It takes emotionally intelligent leadership to create resonance in an organization, then

the more such leaders there are, the more powerful that transformation will become" (Goleman

et al., 2002, p. 225). A team provides a means for pooling diverse knowledge and skills from its

members to accomplish mutual goals, thus creating a synergy between all stakeholders. This

study may indicate there is an opportunity to add to the body of knowledge for project

management in the form of developmental programs that provide training for project leaders and

teams to stay in harmonious balance, thus creating a resonance within the organization that

grows and sustains the health of the organization for a lifetime.

The focus of this chapter was to provide the method for the research study. This study

examined the relationship emotional intelligence of a project leader has on project success. This

quantitative descriptive correlational research study measured the emotional intelligence

competencies of project leaders to examine if a relationship exists between project success

factors. According to Prabhakar (2005), “Good leaders do inspire confidence in themselves, but

a truly great leader inspires confidence within the people they lead to exceed their normal

performance level” (p. 53). Being able to do both envision the future and marshal the resources

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to exceed normal performance is a challenge all leaders face in establishing the right

management system to support and encourage a growing organizations. Chapter 4 reports the

analysis of data and provides statistical-based results. An overview of the purpose of the study,

hypotheses, research questions, and ends with a summation of findings.

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CHAPTER 4

Data Analysis

The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the

Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) (Boyatis, Goleman & Rhee, 1999) was to examine

whether relationships exists between a project leader’s emotional intelligence and project

success. Several variables examined started with using emotional intelligence as the independent

variable, project success factors as the dependent variable, and to strengthen the analysis was

project size as the moderator variable. The quantitative descriptive correlational approach

determines whether and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable

variables (Simon, 2003).

The literature review relative to the dissertation helped to crystallize the gap that this

study addressed. “A research design is the logic that links the data to be collected (and the

conclusions to be drawn) to the initial questions of the study” (Yin, 1994, p. 18). In a similar

correlational study regarding emotional intelligence and job satisfaction, the researcher used

descriptive statistics and correlation to analyze and examine the data (Agbolou, 2011).

This study involved two research questions.

1. What is the impact of emotional intelligence competence on project success with

project success variables of cost, schedule, and scope?

2. What is the impact of emotional intelligence competence and project success on

different project sizes?

The population as proposed for this study came from members of the Project Management

Institute (PMI), which is an organization within the industry that is an advocate for project

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management (PMI, 2007). The survey made available for 60 days through a link on the PMI

website to reach the most participants possible.

Analysis of the data conducted to examine if a relationship exists between the emotional

intelligence of a project leader and project success are within this chapter. Chapter 3 described

the method used in the research study with an explanation of the data collection process provided

more detail as well. Copies of permissions needed to use with the survey instrument and obtain

permission from PMI to link the survey found in the appendices.

Chapter 4 provides a detailed analysis and describes the research participates, the

research design, sampling, data collection procedures, and data analysis. Presented in the

chapter are the results from the study, a discussion of the results within the context of the

research questions, and conclusions regarding the relationship between the emotional

intelligence of project leaders and project success, ending with ethical considerations.

Research Participants and Demographics

Population for this study derived from members of the Project Management Institute

(PMI), which is an organization that is an advocate for project management (PMI, 2007). The

Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) measured self-reported emotional competence, based on

72 items reduced into 18 competencies and four clusters, using a five-point Likert-type scale (1

to 5). There is much debate on the level of measurement for Likert- scale data. As a result, the

ECI variable level of measure for this study is ordinal. Statistical data analysis performed using

descriptive and correlational methods to generate statistical conclusions. Both the dependent and

independent variables are nominal and ordinal respectively.

The total of participants that selected the agreement button to take the online survey was

74. Several demographics were included in the survey such as gender, age, job position,

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industry, and professional certifications. Demographic data collected further stratified for

understanding the type of participant in the study. Data regarding the job/position or title of the

participant that completed the demographics showed that over 43% were project managers with

32% as senior project managers (Table 3). The remaining 25% were less than a frequency of 10

or missing data.

Table 3

Job/Position or Title

Frequency Percent Valid % Cumulative %

IT Project Manager 4 5.4 7.1 7.1

Junior Project Manager 2 2.7 3.6 10.7

Project Manager 24 32.4 42.9 53.6

Senior Project Manager 18 24.3 32.1 85.7


Valid
Project Leader 6 8.1 10.7 96.4

Project Director 1 1.4 1.8 98.2

Project Executive 1 1.4 1.8 100.0

Total 56 75.7 100.0

Missing System 18 24.3

Total 74 100.0

Out of the participants that completed the survey, 44 indicated they were Project

Management Professional (PMP), where three participants had both PMP certification and

Professional Engineer (PE) license. Other measures showed the average years of experience of

the participants were 12 years with a maximum of 28 years and minimum of one year.

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Data regarding the category for age ranges revealed the number of respondents (n=60),

where 33% of the respondents indicated the ages 40 – 49, with the second most frequent

response in the 30 – 39 age range at 31% (Table 4). Additional demographics such as gender

reported that 68% of the participants were male and 32% were female. There were missing

responses in this data set. Of the 74 participants, 14 were missing or incomplete data.

Table 4

Descriptive Statistics of Age Levels

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative %

21-29 3 4.1 5.0 5.0

30-39 19 25.7 31.7 36.7

40-49 20 27.0 33.3 70.0


Valid
50-59 16 21.6 26.7 96.7

60+ 2 2.7 3.3 100.0

Total 60 81.1 100.0

Missing System 14 18.9

Total 74 100.0

Data in table five indicated achieving educational levels from associates to graduate

degrees. The question on the survey stated: What is the highest level of school you have

completed or the highest degree you have received? The results revealed that a number of

respondents attained higher education with graduate degrees at 60% of the total respondents with

the second highest level a bachelor’s degree at 27%.

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Table 5

Descriptive Statistics of Educational Level

Frequency Percent (%) Valid % Cumulative %

Some college no degree 1 1.4 1.7 1.7

Associates degree 7 9.5 11.7 13.3

Valid Bachelor’s degree 16 21.6 26.7 40.0

Master’s degree 36 48.6 60.0 100.0

Total 60 81.1 100.0

Missing System 14 18.9

Total 74 100.0

Research Design and Method

The research study encompassed examining if a relationship was present between a

project leader’s emotional intelligence and project success. The research was specific to project

management. Using the resources available through the Project Management Institute (PMI)

was a means to targeting project professionals. The research based on non-probability sampling

method using random sampling. The random type sampling used to reduce human bias in

selecting participants. This provides for a sample highly representative of the population being

studied (Simon, 2006). Participants accessed a link provided where anyone with access could

decide whether to participate or not.

Leedy and Ormrod (1985) asserted that researchers could make the sample size “as large

as is reasonably possible” (p. 276), to compensate for potential bias error in testing hypotheses.

Determining sample size and dealing with non-response bias in a quantitative survey design is

67


essential (Bartlett, Kotrlik, & Higgins, 2001). Using a population of 185,000, the sample size

should be 96, with a 95% confidence level, a response percentage of 50% and margin of error of

10%. Because it is not definite anticipating how people will answer, 50% was the worst-case

scenario.

Sample Size

The population, sampled randomly, is a non-probability sampling technique. The chance

exists that the population will not be completely represented with a non-probability sampling

(Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). However, because the samples for this study were limited to the PMI

group through a link on the PMI website, this type of sampling was a good fit. The members of

the PMI had the same access to the survey instrument and open to whoever happens to access the

link posted through the PMI website.

The sample size calculated for this study was 96. Though the data showed there were 74

respondents that agreed to participate in the survey, 14 were unusable, as many entries were

incomplete. The number of surveys analyzed was 60. The confidence level, expressed as a

percentage, for this study was 95%, with a margin of error, or the amount of error tolerated

within plus or minus 10. For example, if 45% of the sample population picks an answer and the

entire relevant population asked, there is confidence that between 35% (45 minus 10) and 55%

(45 plus 10) would have picked that answer. This will be the basis for the statistical analysis to

follow.

The research design is a quantitative descriptive correlational approach. Descriptive

research design determines whether and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or

more quantifiable (numerical) variables (Simon, 2006). The most common correlational analysis

for nonparametric variables is the Spearman rank correlation. This type of research design, used

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in previous studies, provides depth in study to determine the relationship between emotional

intelligence and other variables. The intent of this research study was to measure the emotional

intelligence competencies of a project leader to understand better, how this relates to project

success as defined by cost, schedule, and scope.

Variable Structure

Emotional intelligence (EI) is the innate potential to feel, recognize, manage, and learn

from emotions (Hein, 2006). The independent variable served as the predictor variable, which is

a cluster of four domains of human competencies: self-awareness, self-management, social

awareness, and relationship management (Goleman, 1998). The emotional intelligence

competency is the predictor variable and contains four attributes considered clusters in the ECI

survey, these attributes whose values are ordinal. The ECI represents a set of competencies

related to emotional intelligence and organized into clusters (Boyatizis, Goleman, & Rhee,

1999).

Project success is the dependent variable that requires a different level of measurement.

The attributes for this variable are cost, schedule, and scope, with parameters on response needed

for this variable provided. For example, cost measures as plus or minus 10% of the budget. The

response would require the participant to enter the estimated budget at the start of the project and

the cost or percentage of budget at completion of the project. This information would provide

the value for the cost attribute. The same provided for schedule where the respondent provided a

response to whether the project was ahead, behind, or on time. The scope was either an answer

of yes or no whether they met the project scope.

The final variable in the study is project size. Presented in the questionnaire was the size

of the project. This variable has three attributes: small, medium, or large. The value for the

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response provided was one of the three choices. Figure 2 shows a breakdown of the variables,

the attributes, and other characteristics of each.

Variables Structures

Emotional Project
Variables

Project Size
Intelligence Success
Attributes

Self Self Social Relationship Cost Schedule Scope Small Medium Large
Awareness Management Awareness Management

+-10%
Accurate Self Achievement Change Catalyst S
Empathy Budget
Assessment Orientation Conflict Management
Organizational M
Emotional Self Adaptability Developing Others
Awareness +-5%
Awarness Emotional Self- Influence
Service Orientation Schedule
Self Confidence Control Inspirational Leadership
Initiative L
Teamwork and
Values

Optimism Collaboration Yes or


Transparency No
1 = Never
2 = Rarely
3 = Sometimes
4 = Often
5 = Consistently Met/Not Met S/M/L
6 = Don’t Know
Measurement
Level of

Ordinal Nominal Nominal

Figure 2: Variables Structure Breakdown

To find correlation between the variables an online survey used to collect data was

provided. The data collected for emotional intelligence using the Emotional Competency

Inventory (ECI) 2.0 (Sala, 2002), contains 72 Likert-type questions and 360-degree survey.

Variables such as emotional intelligence are constructs or traits not directly observed. The use of

the ECI survey instrument provided the operational definition of the constructs of emotional

intelligence in this study. The questionnaire covered several characteristics of competencies.

For example, conscientiousness equals attention to detail, adaptability equals flexibility;

leadership equals persuasiveness, influence equals persuasiveness, along with a number of other

characteristics (Goleman, 1998). Though the literature review revealed little to no operational

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definition for project success, the use of industry specific criteria found in practice were main

indicators. Project management literature reflects a mindset that traditionally uses budget, time,

and performance as indicators of project success (Frank et al., 2011).

Data Collection Procedures

Prior to data collection, approval from University of Phoenix ARB and IRB were

required. Once approved by the ARB and IRB a request to the PMI organization submitted to

post a link to the survey on their website. After receiving approval from the PMI Organization, a

link to the survey from their website was posted and accessible via the Internet for 60 days.

From the link provided on the PMI website the first page presented to a potential

participant was a Letter of Introduction (Appendix E). This letter contained information about

the study and informed about what they understand about their participation in the study. If a

participant agreed, the individual would select the agreed button and next to continue with the

survey. Instructions for completing the survey provided prior to presentation of the first

questions. After several weeks of the survey on the PMI website results were not showing a

significant amount of participation. Constant monitoring of the survey site found that after

several days there were noticeable increases in the number of responses to the survey.

Data and Statistical Analysis

Data can be nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio, differing according to the levels of

measurement (McNeill, 1998). The level of measurement of the independent variable for this

study is ordinal and contains five attributes plus a Don’t Know option. The data are distinctive

and have an order of magnitude. Mean ratings on ECI by cluster or competencies reported in

tables and charts. Mean values were calculated for consistency with scoring as provided by the

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Hay Group technical manual where average item data are used for research (Hay Group et al.,

2006).

This descriptive correlational research involves collecting data to test hypotheses. If a

significant relationship were found, it does not follow that one variable causes the other (Simon,

2003). Inferential statistics allows researchers to generalize from the sample to the larger

population. However, “One of the real advantages of quantitative methods is their ability to use

smaller groups of people to make inferences about larger groups that would be prohibitively

expensive to study” (Holton & Burnett, 1977, p. 71; Cited in Bartlett et al., 2001, p. 43).

The dependent variable is project success factors, with three attributes defined as cost,

schedule, and scope. For this study, cost measures as plus or minus 10% of the budget, plus or

minus 5% of the scheduled baseline, and 100% scope. The information provided from the

participants determined, if they met the criteria for cost, schedule, and scope from a completed

project that equaled project success. For example, participants provided the projected budget at

the start of the project and the actual cost at completion of the project. This data determined if

they were plus or minus 10% of budget. Similar project metrics for the schedule and participants

asked if the project meet the scope.

Where a participant reported to have met cost, schedule, and scope as defined in this

study, the results where the responses meet all three criteria resulted in meeting project success

factors. Thus for project success it was met or not met, yes or no. The level of measurement is

nominal and contains two attributes. This variable was computed from cost, schedule, and scope

into one for the analysis to indicate whether a participant met all three criteria. This step

included changing the values into another before use by the statistical software. Computing,

which is similar to recoding allows the transformation of the data in order to collapse several

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variables into a variable. Once the data were transformed, results reported out of the 60 surveys

analyzed, 44 participants met all three criteria for project success or 73% of the participants.

A third variable, project size, served as the moderator variable to determine effects there

are on the correlation of the independent and dependent variables. Ormond (2001) stated there is

power in using correlational research to examine relationships for variables of dissimilar traits.

The purpose of the moderator variable was to determine whether it modifies the relationship

between the independent and dependent variables. The level of measurement for this variable is

nominal and contains three attributes. The values are small, medium, or large as selected by the

survey participants. This variable provided a common set of characteristics where each will

belong to one category and used to ascertain if relations between any of the variables emerge.

Statistical Analysis

Statistical methods and calculations for the analysis of the data accomplished using the

International Business Machines (IBM) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)

statistics software and Microsoft Excel. Scoring the ECI for research is different from scoring by

the Hay Group who uses this instrument as a feedback mechanism (Hay Group et al., 2006). For

the purpose of this study, average-item scores used and compared to average-item norms as

appropriate for the purposes of research. However, it is noted not to assume that one set of

competencies fits all situations, as there are many ways to analyze the results. It is simply not

about averaging the scores for all competencies in all clusters (Hay Group et al., 2006). A

generic algorithm used for this research study described in Appendix I as suggested in the

technical manual for the ECI instrument (Hay Group et al., 2006). A configuration that leads to

effective project leadership defined as a hypothesis regarding how the competencies apply in the

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context for this study. This algorithm, developed as a means to combine the competencies as it

relates to project leadership.

The survey was set up using instructions provided by the Hay Group where the ECI

scores were set up using a five-point Likert scale, plus a Don’t Know option (Hay Group et al.,

2006). The instructions included provided how the respondent should rate how frequently he or

she exhibit each behavior of himself or herself or the person he or she are rating (Hay Group et

al., 2006). The response of Don’t Know is not counted as a zero when averaging scores but

rather is considered missing data.

Scoring for the ECI based on the instructions in which several items evaluated and

presented in the following manner

x An average score calculated for each competency for self and each rater group separately

for each participant;

x Respondents that had two or more raters in a category will be included and presented in

tables to show average competency scores and others scores; and

x Responses with more than 25% of the questions left blank or answered Don’t Know will

not be used in analysis.

Carter (2006) posited that missing data becomes acute when the research employs

advanced statistical techniques and modeling methods. These advanced techniques require

extensive and complete data for successful analysis and correct interpretation of the results.

Howell (2009) stated that missing data handled by using several methods such as listwise

deletion, pairwise deletion, and mean imputation. For this study, the use of listwise deletion

handled missing data.

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Handlings of the missing data consisted of removing missing data from the data set

analyzed. Out of the data set, 14 surveys had some type of missing data or the majority of items

missing data. Several surveys started but stopped showing responses. In one case the pattern

started with all ones, indicating the participant Never observed any of the emotional intelligence

items but stopped after about a quarter of the way through. To minimize data errors or skewed

results 14 cases removed using listwise method.

Surveys that did not include pertinent information or partial data were eliminated with

completed surveys used to produce the results in this study. The survey measuring a project

leader’s emotional intelligence summarized into one variable ECI that contains 18 competencies.

The ECI tool is a multi-rater tool. The data from the participants as well as the raters’ average

scores for each competency are grouped separately (Appendix J). Eight of the 60 participants

received multi-rater reviews of two or more.

Computed were cost, schedule, and scope into the variable of project success factor. Cost

and schedule transformed based on the value of responses on whether the measures were within

the parameters presented in the survey. The average items scores for the ECI competencies

presented in Table 7 show the mean score and sample standard deviation.

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Table 7

Norms and Descriptive Statistics Self Mean Scores

Self-Mean Std. Deviation

Emotional Self-Awareness (ESA) 4.0708 0.70274

Self-Awareness Accurate Self-Assessment (ASA) 4.0458 0.52175

Self Confidence (SC) 4.2 0.51007

Emotional Self Control (ESC) 3.6875 0.53406

Transparency (TRAN) 4.2083 0.63807

Adaptability (ADAP) 4.05 0.67773


Self-Management
Achievement Orientation (AO) 4.1958 0.60557

Initiative (INI) 3.8208 0.62452

Optimism (OPT) 4.1958 0.72207

Empathy (EMP) 4.2625 0.63015

Social Awareness Organizational Awareness (OA) 3.8958 0.55672

Service Orientation (SO) 4.3875 0.72985

Developing Others (DO) 4.1167 0.71673

Inspirational Leadership (IL) 4.0917 0.77837

Relationship Change Catalyst (CC) 3.9083 0.64763

Management Influence (INF) 4.0875 0.68089

Conflict Management (CM) 3.5833 0.6455

Teamwork Collaboration (TMC) 4.275 0.50986

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Emotional intelligence has been suggested to strengthen the ability of individuals to

engage in social interactions and an underlying construct of social skills (Caruso & Wolfe,

2001). This led to the alternate hypothesis for this study: H1a – Project success is directly related

to emotional intelligence competence. One attribute that best describes an individual’s social

skills is the social awareness attribute. Empathy, which is a mandatory competency for social

awareness, identified as underpinning in how people handle relationships (Goleman, 1995).

The average item scores for eight of the participants and the total average score of multi-

rater reviews received for each ECI cluster and the corresponding competency is provided in

Table 8. Although the study is not scored for developmental purposes, the results from the eight

participants that received 360-degree feedback the average scores show that the self-reported

ECI rating are not significantly different from the scores by others but presents interesting results

for further study. For example, the score of empathy for self were 4.5313 and for others score

was 4.1705. The self-reported scores for empathy are in the high-range while the totals others

(raters) score are also in the high-range.

With further analysis of the scores for developmental purposes more explanations can be

derived through correlation between the self and total other ratings for each competency. The

research reported here explored the relationship between project success and emotional

intelligence that hypothesized the scores from emotional intelligence directly related for those

individuals meeting project success. Further analysis provided a breakdown of scores for those

meeting project success and not meeting project success found later in this chapter.

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Table 8

Norms and Descriptive Mean: Self-Rated and Others

Self (n=8) Others (n=22)

ECI 2.0 Cluster Competency Mean SD Mean SD

Emotional Self-Awareness 4.5625 .51322 4.4432 .50552

Self-Awareness Accurate Self-Assessment 4.1563 .49888 4.0114 .78101

Self Confidence 4.4688 .33905 4.3409 .53755

Emotional Self Control 3.8750 .29881 4.0568 .37743

Transparency 4.4063 .58152 4.3864 .59625

Adaptability 4.5625 .41726 4.2159 .56850


Self-Management
Achievement Orientation 4.5313 .38816 4.3523 .57040

Initiative 4.2188 .48985 4.1818 .68653

Optimism 4.6250 .46291 4.4886 .53160

Empathy 4.5313 .60412 4.1705 .72533

Social Awareness Organizational Awareness 4.2188 .36443 4.2500 .92582

Service Orientation 4.6563 .39950 4.5909 .36633

Developing Others 4.2500 .70711 4.1364 .75090

Inspirational Leadership 4.3750 .62678 4.1477 .70567

Relationship Change Catalyst 4.3125 .43814 4.3068 .44942

Management Influence 4.3125 .71651 4.1023 .90521

Conflict Management 3.7500 .56695 3.7386 .56420

Teamwork Collaboration 4.4063 .37649 4.2386 .55890

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Correlation measures the strength of the relationship between variables and regression

used to predict the dependent variable from the independent variable (Keppel & Zedeck, 1989).

The Spearman’s rank-order correlational coefficient for the average items for the ECI

competency for the self-reported data was calculated to determine the relationship between

emotional intelligence competencies and project success. Correlation coefficients provided for

all average items using a level of significance of 0.01 and 0.05. The data in table 9 shows a

positive correlation between the independent variable attributes. There were strong, positive

correlations between all competencies but not between the competencies and project success.

The correlation is significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed) is indicated by the double asterisk (**) and

the correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) is indicated by a single asterisk (*).

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Table 9

Spearman’s Rho Correlation (ESA to INI) (N = 60)

ESA ASA SC ESC TRAN ADAP AO INI

ESA 1

ASA .465** 1

SC .592** .543** 1

ESC 0.104 .394** .411** 1

TRAN .550** .581** .532** .335** 1

ADAP .564** .420** .608** .257* .494** 1

AO .588** .528** .661** .258* .496** .494** 1

INI .595** .374** .551** 0.084 .361** .756** .471** 1

OPT .543** .502** .603** .451** .487** .521** .604** .553**

EMP .758** .677** .688** 0.244 .593** .597** .748** .541**

QA .327* .411** .500** .414** .503** .514** .511** .364**

SO .293* .587** .514** 0.219 .506** .391** .583** .355**

DO .563** .582** .714** .313* .482** .486** .657** .514**

IL .622** .591** .679** .378** .440** .547** .674** .633**

CC .506** .557** .587** .430** .503** .526** .630** .589**

INF .509** .451** .710** .362** .452** .629** .601** .709**

CM .537** .386** .658** .287* .381** .592** .444** .492**

TMC .292* .562** .605** .352** .419** .349** .623** .353**

PS 0.014 0.004 -0.118 -0.03 0.084 -0.065 -0.113 -0.027

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The use of correlation coefficients provides data on how much of a variation as

related to the variables. Though the relationship is not perfect, it does help to assert if

unsuspecting correlations need further assessment. This leads to providing a general

understanding of the data. For example, the correlation coefficient or r ranges from -1.0 to +1.0.

The closer the results of the coefficient within the range, the closer the two variables are related.

If r were close to zero, there is no relationship between variable, though if positive means as one

variable gets larger the other gets smaller, while negative means as one gets larger, the other gets

smaller. Table 10 further provides the correlation coefficients for ECI and project success,

showing r close to zero with no relationship between project success and any of the emotional

intelligence competencies.

The analysis of the data performed used SPSS version 20.0 and Microsoft Excel to

answer the research questions from this study. Descriptive statistics used to understand better

the project success variable and provide a basic makeup of the data to determine if further

analysis required. Overall reports were positive but no correlation between EI and project

success discovered.

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Table 10

Spearman’s Rho Correlation (OPT to Project Success) (N = 60)

OPT EMP OA SO DO IL CC INF CM TMC PS

ESA

ASA

SC

ESC

TRAN

ADAP

AO

INI

OPT 1

EMP .598** 1

QA .430** .444** 1

SO .415** .548** .533** 1

DO .533** .665** .493** .657** 1

IL .686** .704** .420** .569** .720** 1

CC .547** .557** .497** .490** .626** .720** 1

INF .607** .552** .687** .457** .726** .704** .650** 1

CM .438** .584** .495** .291* .608** .599** .447** .649** 1

TMC .448** .443** .526** .668** .690** .583** .589** .662** .417** 1

PS -0.123 -0.065 0.055 -0.031 -0.015 0.008 -0.084 -0.045 -0.033 -0.16 1

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Hypotheses Examined

The research questions yielded the following hypotheses:

H10 – Project success is not directly related to emotional intelligence competence

H1a – Project success is directly related to emotional intelligence competence

H20– Emotional intelligence competencies and project success are not directly related to

project size

H2a – Emotional intelligence competencies and project success are directly related to

project size

For the purpose of this study, project success factors are defined as meeting plus or minus

10% of the current financial commitment (budget), plus or minus 5% of current committed

baseline schedule (time), and meeting 100% of the project scope (required features and

functions). Based on these criteria as reported by the 60 participants, 47% of the participants

were within plus or minus 10% of budget, 67% indicated within plus or minus 5% of schedule

and 77% met 100% of the scope.

Results of the participants that indicated meeting the cost, schedule, and scope for project

success were 73% with 27% not meeting all criteria for project success. Budgets reported ranged

from large projects at $450,000,000 to small projects at $80,000, with lengths of project

schedules from three years to two months. Table 11 provides ECI mean scores for project

success and not project success to show the distinctions of average item scores.

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Table 11

Mean Scores for Project Success

Not Project Success Project Success

Emotional Self-Awareness 3.95 4.11

Accurate Self-Assessment 3.98 4.07

Self Confidence 4.19 4.20

Emotional Self Control 3.67 3.69

Transparency 4.03 4.27

Adaptability 4.02 4.06

Achievement Orientation 4.16 4.21

Initiative 3.80 3.83

Optimism 4.14 4.22

Empathy 4.17 4.30

Organizational Awareness 3.80 3.93

Service Orientation 4.34 4.40

Developing Others 4.03 4.15

Inspirational Leadership 4.02 4.12

Change Catalyst 4.00 3.87

Influence 4.00 4.12

Conflict Management 3.59 3.58

Teamwork Collaboration 4.31 4.26

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Of the participants that resulted in meeting project success factors as defined in this

study, the overall average ECI score for participants were 4.08 with the maximum score of 4.40

and minimum of 3.58. Included in the survey were instructions on how best to respond to the

statements. For example, if a person never carefully listens to others when speaking, fill in

never. If the participant is truly honest about their evaluation of themselves this data are good.

To further analyze the emotional intelligence of the participants the use of the others score

showed the overall average score for those participants who met project success was 4.11 with a

maximum score of 4.38 and minimum of 3.87.

Statistical Tests

The dependent variable is a nominal level of measurement considered categorical. The

sample contains those that met project success and those who did not met project success. There

is one sample in this study. The chi-square test of independence was a statistical analysis run on

the data. The use of chi-square provides measures of association in descriptive statistics used on

nominal data (Neuman, 2003). This test is a nonparametric statistical test.

The purpose for the chi-square test is to determine if the two variables are independent of

each other and whether observed values deviate significantly from expected values (George &

Mallery, 2003). The variables being categorical meant the only descriptive statistics are

frequencies, percentages, and sums while meeting all assumptions to conduct the test. The chi-

square test informs whether to reject the null hypothesis, the symmetric measure provides

measures for strength of any association. Table 12 is a breakdown of each variable analyzed, the

chi-square statistic, degrees of freedom (df), and significance. The point of statistics is to help

with decisions about study outcomes. In this study, the results reflected evidence to accept the

null hypothesis.

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Table 12

Chi-Square Test Statistics

Statistics

ESA F2 (9, N = 60) = 4.545, p = .872

ASA F2 (8, N = 60) = 5.423, p = .712

SC F2 (8, N = 60) = 10.491, p = .232

ESC F2 (9, N = 60) = 7.435, p = .592

TRAN F2 (9, N = 60) = 9.199, p = .419

ADAP F2 (8, N = 60) = 10.188, p = .252

AO F2 (7, N = 60) = 13.315, p = .065

INI F2 (10, N = 60) = 7.096, p = .716

OPT F2 (10, N = 60) = 21.043, p = .021

EMP F2 (8, N = 60) = 11.594, p = .170

OA F2 (9, N = 60) = 6.441, p = .695

SO F2 (9, N = 60) = 10.880, p = .284

DO F2 (10, N = 60) = 13.973, p = .174

IL F2 (10, N = 60) = 13.015, p = .223

CC F2 (11, N = 60) = 16.002, p = .141

INF F2 (9, N = 60) = 10.412, p = .318

CM F2 (11, N = 60) = 10.777, p = .462

TMC F2 (8, N = 60) = 8.433, p = .392

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The Chi-square test of independence looks at whether the patterns of frequencies are

random with project success being the variable of interest. The assumption for the chi-square

test is that the expected value for each cell is five or higher and none less than one. The chi-

square value is a single number that add up the differences between the actual data and expected

data if there is no difference (Simon, 2006). From the results of the test, data supports the null

hypothesis and rejects the alternative hypothesis. If p > 0.05 then accept the null hypothesis,

meaning for this study, there is no relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and

project success.

Research Questions

The statistical evidence that emerged from the data regarding the norm of ECI aligned

with the Hay Group’s average items scores showed the competencies were in the medium to

high-range as described in the ECI Technical Manual (Hay Group et al., 2006). The research

results for ECI are based on the average-item scores regarding whether a person is competent in

each level. Results provided suggest there is a positive relationship between emotional

intelligence and project success but no correlation.

The research conducted to enhance the understanding of the relationship between the

emotional intelligence of the project leader and the success of projects, posed the following

research questions driving this study:

1. What is the impact of emotional intelligence competence on project success, with

project success variables of cost, schedule, and scope?

2. What is the impact of emotional intelligence competence and project success on

different project sizes?

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Emotional Intelligence Competence and Project Success

The first research question examined the relationship between the emotional intelligence

competence of a project leader and project success. The research alternate hypothesis (H1a)

stated that project success is directly related to emotional intelligence competence. The average

items scores for ECI of those meeting all elements of project success factors showed results of

overall average mean of 4.07 and that 73% of participants met project success factors. Average-

items scores of participants that did not meet all project success factors fell within medium

average range with a small percentage in the high average items range.

Additional descriptive statistics showed many of the participants did meet project scope

but did not meet cost or schedule. In most cases for those who did not meet project success

criteria, participants met two of the three attributes for project success. With the data not

providing statistical evidence of a correlation between a project leader’s emotional intelligence

and project success, the results failed to accept the alternate hypothesis. The results of the

average-item scores of the participants meeting all factors for project success demonstrated their

falling within medium to high-level range in all competencies (Table 13).

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Table 13

Emotional Competencies of Participants Meeting Project Success

N = 44 Valid Listwise Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

Emotional Self-Awareness 3.00 5.00 4.1136 .57429

Accurate Self-Assessment 3.25 5.00 4.0682 .46494

Self Confidence 3.50 5.00 4.2045 .38607

Emotional Self Control 2.75 4.75 3.6932 .49960

Transparency 2.75 5.00 4.2727 .51098

Adaptability 3.25 5.00 4.0625 .52861

Achievement Orientation 3.50 5.00 4.2102 .46048

Initiative 2.50 4.75 3.8295 .58013

Optimism 2.75 5.00 4.2159 .52438

Empathy 3.25 5.00 4.2955 .44875

Organizational Awareness 3.00 5.00 3.9318 .52927

Service Orientation 2.50 5.00 4.4034 .62463

Developing Others 3.00 5.00 4.1477 .56114

Inspirational Leadership 2.75 5.00 4.1193 .67015

Change Catalyst 2.50 5.00 3.8750 .61592

Influence 3.00 5.00 4.1193 .54849

Conflict Management 2.50 4.75 3.5795 .58263

Teamwork Collaboration 3.25 5.00 4.2614 .43118

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Emotional Intelligence Competence and Project Size

The second research question examined the relationship between the emotional

intelligence competence of a project leader and project size. The research alternate hypothesis

H2a is emotional intelligence competencies and project success are directly related to project size,

the additional measure used as a moderator variable. For this study, size of the project was

included to determine if this variable influences the strength of the relationship between the other

two variables (Baron & Kenny, 1986).

The maximum average-item score per project size resulted in 4.55 and minimum is 3.52

for participants meeting project success. The results showed service orientation was highest

scored item for large project size and conflict management for medium sized project the lowest

scored item. When similar calculations performed for scores of participant not meeting project

success factors per project size, the maximum average-item score was 4.66 and minimum was

2.67, showing that service orientation for a medium-sized project was highest scored item and

influence the lowest for a small project. Again, the data did not provide statistical evidence of a

correlation between a project leader’s emotional intelligence and project size. The results failed

to accept the alternate hypothesis. A review of the project size and average-items scores for each

competency is in Table 14. Overall, service orientation was highest scored competency in this

study (italicized terms used to emphasis the competencies that stood out in results).

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Table 14

Emotional Intelligence and Project Size Mean Scores

Project Success Not Project Success


Project Size
Small Medium Large Small Medium Large

Emotional Self-Awareness 4.23 4.02 4.11 3.42 4.16 3.95

Accurate Self-Assessment 4.11 4.02 4.09 3.17 4.28 4

Self Confidence 4.21 4.14 4.27 3.67 4.41 4.15

Emotional Self Control 3.7 3.66 3.73 3.67 3.56 3.85

Transparency 4.41 4.19 4.23 3.08 4.22 4.3

Adaptability 4.21 3.94 4.05 3.33 4.28 4

Achievement Orientation 4.16 4.08 4.41 3.33 4.38 4.3

Initiative 3.93 3.67 3.91 3.17 4.03 3.8

Optimism 4.32 4.11 4.23 3.5 4.31 4.25

Empathy 4.43 4.11 4.38 3.5 4.53 4

Organizational Awareness 4.02 3.67 4.14 3.25 3.97 3.85

Service Orientation 4.32 4.34 4.55 3.5 4.66 4.35

Developing Others 4.11 4.09 4.25 3 4.47 3.95

Inspirational Leadership 4.18 3.92 4.29 3.25 4.31 4

Change Catalyst 3.77 3.73 4.14 3.17 4.19 4.2

Influence 4.16 3.94 4.29 2.67 4.41 4.15

Conflict Management 3.64 3.52 3.59 3.25 3.94 3.25

Teamwork Collaboration 4.2 4.19 4.41 3.42 4.53 4.5

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Results of descriptive statistics showed that out of the total participants who met project

success the size of the projects were closely distributed. Participants that met project success

factors reported 14 small and 14 large project sizes, while the remaining reported medium.

Table 15 is a breakdown of project success factors as they relate to the project size

Table 15

Project Success and Project Size

Not Project Project Total

Success Success

Count 3 14 17

Small % within Project Success 18.8% 31.8% 28.3%

% of Total 5.0% 23.3% 28.3%

Count 8 16 24
Project
Medium % within Project Success 50.0% 36.4% 40.0%
Size
% of Total 13.3% 26.7% 40.0%

Count 5 14 19

Large % within Project Success 31.3% 31.8% 31.7%

% of Total 8.3% 23.3% 31.7%

Count 16 44 60

Total % within Project Success 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

% of Total 26.7% 73.3% 100.0%

The moderator variable, proposed to determine if there was an effect on the direction or

strength of the relationship between the independent variable (ECI) the predictor and the

dependent variable (project success) the criterion, had no effect. Within the framework of

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correlational analysis, the third variable like a moderator, affects the zero-order correlation

between two other variables (Baron & Kenny, 1986). The first tests demonstrated no correlation

between emotional intelligence and project success. Conducting similar analysis to include

project size found no correlation between emotional intelligence and projects success with

project size. Because this study was not about causation, conducting further statistical testing

ended.

Ethical Considerations

To ensure the utmost confidentiality for this study anonymity was essential when setting

up the survey. The system used for conducting the survey provided the means to ensure that

participants were anonymous and personal data not collected regarding the participant.

Confirmation prior to anyone taking the survey was a requirement for informed consent. The

survey would not be presented unless the participant agreed; otherwise, the participant would be

presented with a salutation for their consideration to participate.

Summary

Emotional intelligence, suggested as an explanation for variations in the extent to which

competencies are not necessarily innate skills, are rather an alternative form of intelligence that

can be learned with sufficient motivation (Goleman, 1995). To understand whether a

relationship exists between the variables, analysis using statistical tools presented results to

substantiate findings. Chapter 4 provided the research data and results associated for analyzing

data presented in various tables and figures. Leedy and Ormond (2001) stated there is power in

using correlational research to examine relationships for variables of dissimilar traits. Archibald

(1976) posited that a project manager’s effectiveness depends on not only skills and experience

but also personal characteristics are necessary.

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The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study was to examine

the relationship between the emotional intelligence of a project leader and project success. The

use of the correlational descriptive research method served to correlate the data from the research

to indicate relationships between variables and at no time show causation. The expectation was

that the research design and method would be appropriate for this study to determine the

relationships of the variables defined as well as add to the body of knowledge for project

management. The results of the statistical tests provided there were correlations present among

the ECI attributes however; the analysis showed there were no conclusive correlations to project

success. Emotional Intelligence did not demonstrate significant correlation to the other variables

studied, showing little significance for rejecting the null hypotheses. Results from the analysis

provide the basis for suggestions and recommendations provided in chapter 5.

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CHAPTER 5

Conclusions and Recommendations

The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the

Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) was to examine whether a relationship exists between a

project leader’s emotional intelligence and project success. This chapter presents a summary of

findings, discussions of implications, and recommendation for future research. This chapter

presents a summary of the data as it relates to the hypothesis and research questions. Included in

this chapter are implications and followed by recommendations for future research.

The literature reviewed provided many references on traits and competencies regarding

management or leadership success. Few showed direct significance that such characteristics

were significant to project success (Geoghegan & Dulewicz, 2008). Finishing the chapter is a

discussion of the implications to organizational leadership, project performance, and theoretical

framework.

Problem and Purpose Summary

The literature reviewed found there is a gap in applying emotional intelligence

competencies in project leaders to motivate and empower others using emotional intelligence.

The gap is in not considering development or training of emotional intelligence of project leaders

in support of project success. Managing one’s emotions is one of the key principles of EI as

espoused by Goleman (1995). There is more to just managing the project, project managers

must lead people (Dawson, 2003). Project managers facilitate projects using several

performance objectives defined in this study as cost, time, and scope (Rosenau, 1998).

Emotional intelligence competencies such as initiative, empathy, and teamwork have shown

improvement in business performance when leaders exhibit high levels of emotional intelligence

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competencies (Turner, 2004). The primary driver for this study stemmed from the gap in project

leadership literature relating emotional intelligence and project success.

The theoretical framework for this study is emotional intelligence competencies of self-

awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management (Goleman, 1998).

“In order to learn a new and better leadership, we need better role models, people who connect

fundamental values to work” (Rosen, 1996, p. 16). This research study examined whether the

relationship exists between a project leader’s emotional intelligence and project success.

Summary of Issues

The key elements of the research used descriptive and correlational statistics to interpret

findings. This study was not about establishing a causal relationship. This study included

assessment of whether the emotional intelligence of project leaders attributed to project success.

One possible threat to the internal validity of this study design is how to control extraneous

variables that could affect the data by non-responses. Another possible threat is using only the

project leaders’ perception versus other individuals’ perceptions such as the customer or client.

This is a social research and conducted in human contexts where people will react to

what affects them. One threat to the external validity of the study design was that the population

under review might not want to participant in an online survey that takes more than 20 minutes

to complete. Also, only targeting PMI members raises the possibility of another question of

external validity. It is Giacomini’s (2000) contention that “data collected and analyzed on the

first members of the sample influenced the collection of information on subsequent members” (p.

141). With an online survey, the benefit is convenient to participants but difficult for researchers

to monitor.

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The ECI measures 18 constructs, which is a significant number of variables that make up

emotional intelligence. The sample size may be a factor in not experiencing significant enough

results to show conclusively a strong correlation. However, there is enough evidence not to

reject the null hypotheses. Meaning, support that the use of project leaders’ emotional

intelligence is or is not related to project success was not evident.

Comparison to Literature Review

From the results of the participants, one element high on the list is empathy, noted as

critical to successful leadership. Working with others presents challenges and opportunities to

manage through the right balance of technical and social abilities. Project leadership presents

many challenges technically as well as socially. This presents many opportunities as well.

When reviewing trends for the project management profession most of the practices

involve technical competencies. For example, in a survey where organizations use a wide

variety of programs to drive their projects the top five practices found were

1. Change management

2. Risk management

3. Project Management Office (PMO)

4. Program management

5. Standardized project management practices (PMI, 2012).

Of all the items on the list, there is minimal mention of social competencies as a strategy or trend

in helping to drive projects. The survey reported a significant decrease in the practice of formal

talent management to develop project managers (PMI, 2012). Other factors may attribute to the

decrease, such as cutbacks or economic effects, but there were no data to support why the

differences.

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According to McCann (2007), meaningful conversation consists of sharing ideas than of

winning arguments. The author believed that a leader should make staff members feel at ease

when sharing his or her feelings and ideas. McCann (2007) merged different elements of

communication into a framework, which consists of

(a) listening empathetically, (b) speaking to clarify and develop an understanding, (c)

asking meaningful questions as part of inquiry, (d) acting with data to make an

appropriate decision, (e) sharing responsibility to implement a decision and analyze the

results, and f) organizing meetings to focus on critical questions (p. 50).

Peter Drucker, (as cited by Clarke, 2007) believed that "A decision is a judgment; It is a

choice between alternatives” (p. 48). The author stated that CEOs often make decisions that are

unnecessary and unwarranted. Leaders should focus more on the important decisions in addition

to constantly paying attention to urgent decisions. Clarke (2007) stated that leaders make dumb

decision because of the lack of background knowledge for what they are making decisions. The

author further stated a need for leaders to be more flexible and admit when his or her decisions

were wrong or no longer applies to a particular situation.

Leaders need visionary skills, adaptability skills, team-building skills, and

communication and decision-making skills to remain successful. Leverich (2007) stated that the

skills needed to make an effective leader are “the ability to influence, communication and

listening skills, decision-making, passion, commitment, accountability, ability to face challenges

and consistently doing it right” (p. 8). There are many other skill sets needed to remain

successful in today’s society. Other such points to consider are leaders need to remain honest

and ethical in today’s business world, which is full of temptation.

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Discussion of Findings

During this study of how emotional intelligence of a project leader relates to project

success, several key competencies identified as the top five resulted. Of the top five

competencies is service orientation, which is an alternate manifestation based on ECI algorithm.

The service orientation competency measures involve how an individual makes him and herself

available to customers or clients, how he or she monitor customer or client satisfaction, how he

or she take personal responsibility for meeting customer needs, and how matched he or she are to

customer or client needs to services (Hay Group et al., 2006). This research allowed only to

calculate scores based on average-items. In this case, most scores fell in the medium to high-

range competency levels from the average item scores calculated. Empathy, identified as

underpinning in how people handle relationships (Goleman, 1995), was scored in the high

averaged scores range. Table 16 is a breakdown of the competency and emotional intelligence

clusters from results of participants that met project success factors as defined in this study.

Table 16

Key Competencies (Self)

Competency Cluster ECI Algorithm

Service Orientation Social Awareness Alternate manifestation

Empathy Social Awareness Mandatory

Transparency Self-Management Antagonistic

Teamwork Collaboration Relationship Management Must also have

Optimism Self-Management Must show

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The ECI model is not intended as an administrative tool but more for developmental

purposes (Hay Group et al., 2006). The research from this study was not about providing

individual feedback; it was more about how emotional intelligence competencies of project

leaders relate to project success. Project managers spend more than 50% of their time

cooperating with others (Stohmeier, 1992). The literature reviewed demonstrated that effective

project leaders handle stressful situations, control emotions while getting along with other people

to influence a successful outcome of projects.

A study conducted using project success identified factors, such as communications and

problem solving as important (Pinto & Slevin, 1988). Effective communications is an example

of a soft skill project managers require to convey complex ideas and to articulate clearly tasks for

the team to move toward project goals (Belzer, 2005, as cited by Sukhoo et al.). Using these

performance factors for project success from the study, shows the competencies as it applies to

emotional intelligence for this study along with the cluster and algorithm (Table 17). Comparing

these competencies shows importance in relationship management and self-management.

Table 17

Project Success Key Competencies

Competency Cluster ECI Algorithm

Influence Relationship Management Mandatory

Emotional Self-Control Self-Management Mandatory

Conflict Management Relationship Management Must also have

Teamwork and Collaboration Relationship Management Must also have

Adaptability Self-Management Antagonistic

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One research defined that the top five needed skills for project management as it related

to emotional intelligence are communication, persuasive leadership, conflict management,

change management, and adaptive personality (Gonzalez, n.d). Of the five identified, three of

the five were key project success factors as defined in this study. Comparing the key

competencies to the top five as scored by the participants, none of the results matched. When

compared to the project success factors defined by the study, only one competency was in

common, teamwork collaboration.

The competency of teamwork and collaboration appeared on both lists. Teamwork and

collaboration are consistent with a skill needed in project management. Project human resources

management, as defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®), identifies

skills required when managing and developing project teams to ensure high productivity. Some

components of teamwork and collaboration from a project leadership perspective begin with

basic team development with phases described as forming, storming, norming, and performing

(Tuckman, 1965; as cited by Lewis, 2003). Each phase of team development requires some form

of relationship that translates to an outcome that ultimately produce results. The results for this

research study suggest that certain emotional intelligence competencies like teamwork and

collaboration are within the mid-to-high-level of average-scores. There were significant

correlations between the types of emotional intelligence competencies but as it relates to project

success, there was no correlation.

Inferences and Conclusions

This study focused on the emotional intelligence of project leaders and project success.

The discoveries realized from the research highlighted the relationship between the variables

require further definition for a correlational study. Project leaders develop projects, manage

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teams, and produce positive outcomes that draw from many angles; depending on which angle

and when, presents challenges for project leaders. This led to a conclusion for developing the

spatial extent to project leadership.

To take this discussion further, many angles come from a spatial extent, the boundary that

includes all instances contained within space, which in this study is about projects. This is

further limited to the spatial extent of leadership as it pertains to projects. The bounding

coordinates of those limits, are about generating and conceptualizing solutions in all areas of

project management. This extends to the range, limited only by the space and time occupied as

depicted in figure 3.

Environment

Success Tim
me
Space and Time

Up Observe
and
Down

Failure

Side to side
d
ar Listen Feedback
kw r
B a c
a de
d Le
d an
war
For
am Relationships
Te

Figure 3: Spatial Extent of Project Leadership © February 2008, Ivonne Bates

The boundary project leaders face is contained within four dimensions that encompass

the environment and relationships established throughout time. The first dimension is the

forward backward movement along an axis. Another way of interpreting this dimension is the

102


back and forth or give and take interaction between two objects, such as representing a

relationship between the project leader and team member. Tannenbaum and Massarik (1957)

defined leadership as the “interpersonal influence, exercised in situation and directed, through

the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals” (p. 3). The

second dimension, viewed as a side-to-side movement, represents listening, and feedback or

together on the same plane moving in the same direction, such as with communications.

The third dimension represents an up and down movement, which can be viewed as

taking the good with the bad, success and failures, or highs and lows. For example, in a

relationship, there are experiences where emotions shift up or down, happy or sad, and excited or

disappointed. When in this dimension emotions can run high or low at any given time. Use of

emotional intelligence self-management capability is a factor of maintaining control. The fourth

dimension is that of space and time.

The fourth dimension viewed from the position of the observer, such as movement of an

object in space that change at a fixed rate but in many directions. Concerning the environment,

project leaders can use what they know and take lessons learned from the environment to decide

on meeting strategic directions and objectives. Because this can come from many directions,

being successful begins with mastering oneself in all dimensions and dealing with all emotions.

The environment considers the conditions or circumstances in which one exists. For

example, the environment that surrounds a project leader regarding economic impacts, public

values, or client needs. Although the dimensions are all-around us, the spatial extent to which

project leaders occupy needs consideration when managing and controlling projects. “For a

given time and situation, one perspective may be more helpful than others” (Bolman & Deal,

103


2003, p. 309). Relationships are the connections or associations one has or is involved with such

as stakeholders or teams.

Working through the many dimensions of managing projects requires technical expertise

and emotional competencies. Depending on the time and situation, the project leader would

choose a frame or understanding of others’ perspective most effective for the situation. Relating

some of the leadership models to the spatial extent of project leadership, we may find that with

each relation, the viewpoint of the observer, or in this case, the project leader will employ

knowledge, skills, and attitudes to meet the challenge.

Implications

Implications for Organizational Leadership

Even though results from this study indicated the emotional intelligence of project leaders

did not relate to project success, organizational leaders can use the information as a means for

discussing leadership theories in behavioral terms within the project management realm. Critical

to the success of any organization, private or public, is to be responsive to the customers’ needs.

The needs of the customer can change; the organization recompenses the knowledge to adjust

those demands with innovation. In addition, an effective organization addresses a customers

need is sometimes forgotten when an organization grows too quickly. As noted by Scott (2003)

A major theme of recent popular literature is the central, and often overlooked,

importance of the customer. While such advice begs the question as to which of many

possible types of customers a particular business should get, keep and stay close to, it

does contain an important truth that some contemporary organizations and executives

seem to have forgotten (p. 345).

104


By changing the approach, aligning the business and project management process, a Firm

can reinvent them self to increase responsiveness to their clients. Levitt (1986: xxii as cited in

Scott, 2003) asserts that: "The purpose of a business is to get and keep a customer" (p. 345). For

an organization to be effective at maintaining the pace, processes need continually monitored and

enhanced for sustaining consistent organizational leadership.

Implications to Project Performance

The implication of this research study may be important to project leaders who might be

interested in the use of emotional intelligence as a predictor for project success. The outcome of

meeting the objectives will help to build credibility for the project organizations ability to serve

customers and improve the reputation for achieving more project success. Basten, Joosten, and

Mills (2011), implied keeping project plans is not the only criteria to project success.

Considering other factors that involve the customer should also be included as measures for

project success.

“Leaders make decisions that define the future, encourage people to pursue the future,

and enable themselves and others to realize that future” (Blohowiak, 2005, para. 8). Project

performance affects the bottom line as an investment organizations make to using projects for

reasons such as expansion of services, enhancements of technical infrastructure or for

implementing new processes. Leadership is a distinctive activity that is concerned with

principles, purpose, and people (West-Burnham, 2004). In all cases, successful completion of

projects provides positive effects on return on investments, meeting project goals, and meeting

project stakeholder expectations for any organization.

105


Implications to Theoretical Framework and Research

Managers cannot monitor what they do not pay attention to nor will be able to give

attention to ensuring results, without some level of measuring and monitoring. “Achieving

organizational change that produces results is not just a managerial challenge; it is a cognitive

challenge, too” (Goodman & Rousseau, 2004, p. 7). An organization would need to realize and

authorize substantial investment to accomplishing changes in processes and methods for

managing projects. Leveraging capability and efficiency will make organizations more

successful in meeting their project clients’ needs.

Adapting to Future Shifts. In an article by Kaplan and Norton (2005), the authors

indicate that there are disconnects in most companies between strategy formulation and strategy

execution. Hoopes (2003) argued that organizations cannot escape the traditional need to control

(e.g., coerce) staff. The key to delivering excellent service and remaining at the top lies in

continued structure and process improvements. Process improvement can only happen when the

structure allows an efficient flow of these processes. “Business processes should be

continuously optimized through the application of relevant technologies and carried out by high-

performance teams” (Feurer et al., 2000, p. 23). A company’s organizational structure impacted

by various throughputs, such as the environment, people, resources, and information (Scott,

2003) create the need for maintaining continuous harmonious balance.

Continued research to define a theoretical construct for project success factors

requires further consideration. The literature reviewed for this study provided good concepts

with which to draw from but offered little in the way of a solid foundational construct that is

reliable and valid for project success. There is a broad understanding of project success and the

prevailing construct of project success as defined by the PMBOK® still remains true throughout

106


the project management industry. Project success possibly defined differently throughout the

various industries may be too elusive to quantify. To make a shift for the future, perhaps the

question is not to focus on what defines project success. Perhaps the focus shift is on what

defines project failures and how to minimize the effects.

Recommendations

As the organization experiences growth and “structural complexity” (Scott, 2003, p. 124),

there becomes a greater need for the organization to develop strategic alliances with its

environment to develop and maintain effectiveness. Instead of solely existing as a problem-

solving entity, the project management entity can focus on service support and service delivery

to help advance the overall organizations goals and mission.

One recommendation is for further research regarding the variable project success for

improved quantifiable measures. Correlational studies work better with quantifiable numbers as

opposed to categorical. Project success, depending on stakeholder perspective can be subjective.

Establishing capabilities to improving the definition of project success will improve future

research studies, including this one, recommended for repeat as quantifiable project success

factors are established.

Within the process of project management lie alternatives to enhancing project success.

Helping people remain in continuous harmonious balance by having emotional intelligence skills

in the workplace is a valuable asset to maintaining balance for years to come (Goleman, 1995).

This means providing a continuous process whose lifecycle never ends, like a mobius loop,

where an organization continually delivers a sustainable project community by inserting

emotional intelligence within the project management methods (Figure 4).

107


Emotional Intelligence

Selff--Awareness
Social Awareness Problem Solving
Conflict Management

Organizational Effectiveness
in continuous harmonious balance

Relationship Management Selff--Management


Influence Project Leaders Project Leadership
-

Figure 4: Organizational Effectiveness in Balance © August 2007, Ivonne Bates. Adapted from

Goleman, (1995)

Mersino (2007) found very few sources linking emotional intelligence and success in

project management. Project failures cost organizations money, from hundreds to millions of

dollars. Another recommendation in the evolution of project management is developing tools to

apply emotional intelligence training and development for project leaders. Using developmental

tools is a supportive and facilitating method to providing award winning project management

within an organization. Gonzales (n.d.) stated there is a bright future for the direction of research

of emotional intelligence skills of a project manager. Besides employing best practices for

practical project management methods, use of behavioral methods, such as emotional

intelligence competencies are another means to practical application for improving chances of

achieving project success.

Staying in harmonious balance enables project leaders to build strong and resilient project

teams for a mission-ready multi-skilled and diverse workforce. Building support, revitalizing

commitment, and aligning project success with organizational goals are a recipe for sustainable

108


fitness to maintain resilience in an organization. Though emotional intelligence is not a tangible

commodity, it is a teachable, learned skill (Gonzales, n.d.). Additional research will add even

more to the project management body of knowledge for inclusion of methods to employ for the

human resources element of project management.

Results of this study invoked other questions regarding the relationship between a project

leader’s emotional intelligence and project success. Another type of research that includes a

mixed-method of research where there are more data collected from participants may create a

more thorough analysis of the impact emotional intelligence has on project success by changing

the sampling technique to increase response rates or including qualitative questions. Further

development, such as adding emotional intelligence competencies into the project management

body of knowledge is a factor for consideration regarding behavioral affects in successful

completion of projects.

In addition to providing for more behavioral affects into project management studies,

further research will bridge the gap between project leadership, project success, and emotional

intelligence. Another recommendation for continued research consideration is to include more

probing question. Such questions for future research are

x What emotional intelligence competencies make a difference to enhancing

project success?

x What impact does emotional intelligence competency training have on project

success?

x What impact does project size have on emotional intelligence competency of

project leaders?

109


Summary

A number of positive results from this study demonstrated good levels of emotional

intelligence with those that met project success factors. The participants that met all factors for

project success had high average item scores of emotional intelligence competencies. Use of

emotional intelligence can be effective in project leadership if there is awareness by

organizational leaders. When organizations foster an environment of open communication, this

allows open dialogue, diverse contribution to decision-making and problem solving. This

approach is beneficial because it allows organizations a wider talent pool to pull from which

promotes growth.

The emotional competency inventory (ECI) measured the emotional competencies of

individuals, providing self-assessments and some that involved raters to provide a 360-degree

review. The average scores provided a means to understanding where an individual’s emotional

intelligence competency lies as compared to average item scores provided by the instrument.

Communications is just one factor in the overall scheme of project leadership, but it is one of the

most used channels when dealing with project teams and stakeholders. According to Callahan,

Dworjun, Fort, and Schipani, (2002), “Corporations that do not foster communications within the

firm …are more likely to be faced with external disclosures and their consequences” (p. 215).

Other considerations are to address project success factors in different contexts that provide

researchers and practitioners with empirical data. Bringing forth a project success construct

within the project management industry will enhance the field and prevent this topic from being

something other than ambiguous.

The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study was to examine

the relationship between the emotional intelligence of a project leader and project success. The

110


use of the correlational descriptive research method served to analyze the data from the research

to indicate relationships between variables and at no time show causation. The descriptive

statistics used to understand the project success variables provided the basic makeup of the data.

Though there were no significant correlations found relating all the variables, the results

provided a high confidence that emotional intelligence is a factor for consideration when dealing

with project leadership and project success.

111


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Appendix A: ECI Permission

From: Elizabeth Nolan<Elizabeth.Nolan@haygroup.com>


Date: Mon, Apr 11, 2011 at 6:02 AM
Subject: RE: ECI Research Proposal
To: Ivonne Bates <indiabravo@email.phoenix.edu>

Hi Ivonne,

I am attaching the following documents:

1. ECI 360 Version- This is a copy of the ECI 360 rating booklet. You may print or copy this
document as needed for your research.

2. ECI Self Version- This is a copy of the ECI Self rating booklet. You may print or copy this
document as needed for your research.

3. ECI Scoring Instructions - This document contains the instructions necessary for you to calculate
the ECI scores.

4. ECI Scoring Key - This contains the scoring key (list of items for each competency and cluster)
for the ECI. Use this document to create variables in your statistical program for each ECI
competency and cluster score.

5. The ECI 2.0 Technical Manual.

We look forward to hearing about your results. When you have completed your study please email or
send a hard copy of your research paper or publication to the following address:

ESCI Research Contact (ESCIResearch@haygroup.com)


Hay Group
116 Huntington Ave.
Fourth Floor
Boston MA 02116

Please let me know if you have any questions.

Best Regards,

Elizabeth

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From:Elizabeth Nolan
Sent: Thursday, March 31, 2011 4:39 PM
To:Ivonne Bates
Subject: RE: ECI Research Proposal

Hi Ivonne,

Thank you for your patience. I have reviewed your responses to my previous questions and am happy to
approve your request. Regarding whether you would prefer the ECI 2.0 or the ESCI, the ESCI is intended
to measure emotional and social competencies. Several of the items were updated from the ECI to
remove repetitive or psychometrically weak items. I have attached a brief summary of the update,
which you can review at your convenience. Please note that some small changes have been made to
the ESCI since this technical note was written in order to further strengthen the soundness of the
instrument. There 12 clusters remain the same, but the instrument now only has 68 items.

Please review and let me know at your convenience which you would prefer. I will be happy to send you
the instrument when you have made your decision.

Please let me know if you have any questions.

Best regards,

Elizabeth

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Appendix B: Project Metrics Information

Based on the project activities you have worked please use a specific example of a project to
complete the following items:

1. Projected budget estimated at the start of the project: $ ____________________

2. Project actual cost (or percentage of budget) at completion of project: $ _____ % ________

3. Based on the completion of your project was it ahead or behind schedule? On-time, Ahead or
Behind

4. If your project was on time, skip to #6, otherwise, how many days was your project schedule
(Project length). # Days _____________

5. How many days was the project schedule ahead or behind? Ahead # ____ Behind # ______

6. What size do you consider your project? Small or Medium or Large

7. Did your project meet the scope? Yes or No

8. How many years of Project Management experience do you have? Years_____/Months_____

9. What is your job/position or title: _________________________

10. Professional Certifications?1 = Project Management Professional (PMP) 2 = Professional

Engineer (PE) 3 = Other: _______________________

11. In order to get a well-rounded evaluation of emotional intelligence we need three to five
people who you work with to provide feedback on your emotional intelligence. You will need to
create a unique ID and then email each person a copy of the link below. Once they follow the
link below they will be presented with instruction on how to proceed. They will need your
unique identifier so the data will be linked to your results for analysis.

What is your unique identifier?

Please use combination of letters and numbers.

Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey. Your participation will be helpful to my
research and add to the body of knowledge in emotional intelligence and project management.

Sincerely,

Ivonne Bates

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360degree Reviewer*

Please be sure to provide your unique identifier to your reviewers along with the link below.

https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/IV2012DMOLR2

Optional:

Demographic information has its own individual scale for recording purposes.

1. Education:

1 = High School Diploma/General Education Diploma (G.E.D)

2 = Associate (2-year) Degree

3 = Bachelor (4-year) Degree

4 = Graduate (Master’s) Degree

5 = Post Graduate (Doctoral/Ph.D) Degree

6 = Other (Fill in) ___________________

2.Gender: 1 = Male 2 = Female_____

3. Age: 1 = 18-25 2 = 26-30 3 = 31-35 4 = 36-40 5 = 41-50 6 =51-60 7 = 61+____

4. Ethnicity: 1 = Caucasian 2 = Hispanic/Latino 3 = African American 4 = Asian American 5 =

Native American 6 = Other (fill in) _______________

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Appendix C: PMI Survey Links Program

http://www.pmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Surveys-How-to-Post.aspx

Interested in posting a survey link to PMI.org, but not sure how to get started? If you have an

academic research survey that is for the purpose of advancing the Project Management Body it

may be able to be posted to PMI.org.

After a two year review of submitted surveys, the Survey Links Program has been revised and

the program has been re-launched as of 1 December 2010.

PMI will consider surveys that meet the following guidelines:

o Research question and accompanying survey must advance the body of

knowledge in project management. Research question must be original.

o The survey must be judged as meeting the highest standards of survey

construction and its language must be grammatically correct.

o A letter of approval from the university/organizational Institutional Review Board

(IRB) or Committee on Human Subjects must accompany the survey. If the

university/organization does not require IRB/Human Subjects clearance, a letter

from the chief grants administrator stating such must accompany the survey.

o The letter of introduction to the survey must include a statement of confidentiality

and clearly describe how the data will be protected.

o Posted survey cannot capture directly or indirectly the contact information of

respondents, including email addresses.

o The survey cannot be used for commercial gain nor can it be perceived as such.

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PLEASE NOTE: If a survey is rejected because of the failure of the researcher to advance

knowledge in project management, the survey cannot be re-submitted; if rejected due to sub-

standard questionnaire design, it may be resubmitted only once and will be assigned to the same

reviewers. All decisions are final.

To Submit an Application:

x The application and all supporting documents will be submitted electronically to the

Research Coordinator at research.program@pmi.org

x As part of the application the researcher must complete and submit the following required

documents:

o PMI Survey Links Application

o PMI Survey Links Agreement

o A copy of the survey questions in Microsoft Word Format

o Proof of required ethics clearance or document stating absence of university

policy

o If student, written approval of the survey by dissertation/thesis advisor

o All surveys must be alignment with PMI’s Survey Links Policy

Survey Links Review Process

o The application and all supporting documents are submitted electronically to the

Research Coordinator at research.program@pmi.org

134


o At the time of application, the academic researcher will sign an agreement to

make the survey findings available to PMI membership and to confirm that he/she

has agreed, if asked, to include questions from PMI in the survey.

o The Manager of Academic Resources and two members of the Academic Member

Advisory Group will evaluate the survey and supporting documents. Reviewers

will make a decision whether to post or reject the survey application. There is no

appeal process. All decisions are final.

o If accepted, a link to the survey will be posted within 30 days on www.pmi.org.

The link will remain active for a period of sixty (60) days. The academic

researcher may request to have the Survey Link removed before the end of 60 day

period by contacting the Research Coordinator at research.program@pmi.org

135


Appendix D: PMI Approval and Web Address

On Tue, Feb 28, 2012 at 8:46 AM, Deedra Grandelli <Deedra.Grandelli@pmi.org> wrote:

Hi Ivy,

I just wanted to bring to your attention that your survey link is posted on PMI.org.
http://www.pmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Surveys-Tell-Us-What-You-Think.aspx

Deedra
Deedra Grandelli
Research Coordinator

Academic Resources Department


Project Management Institute
14 Campus Boulevard
Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA
Ph: +610.356.4600 ext. 7123 / Fax: +610.355.1656
Internet: www.pmi.org

From: Deedra Grandelli


Sent: Friday, February 24, 2012 12:00 PM
To: 'Ivonne Bates'
Subject: RE: PMI Survey Link Application
Hello Ivy,

I apologize that it took so long for your survey to be evaluated; however, I do have good news. The
Review Committee has accepted your survey. I will send the information to the appropriate department
to be displayed onto PMI.org. This may take 1 business day to display so I suggest checking on Monday.

Please let me know if you should have any questions.

Regards,

Deedra
Deedra Grandelli
Research Coordinator

3 Please consider the environment before printing this email.

136


Appendix E: Letter of Introduction and Informed Consent

Dear Project Leader,

My name is Ivonne Bates and I am a student at University of Phoenix, working on a

research project as part of my requirements for a Doctoral of Management degree. I am

conducting a research study entitled, A CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF EMOTIONAL

INTELLIGENCE AND PROJECT LEADERSHIP. The purpose of this research study is to

examine if a relationship exists between a project leader’s emotional intelligence and project

success.

Your participation will involve questionnaires regarding your emotional intelligence as

well as other demographic information about your most current completed project. There is no

time limit but the study should take no more than 30 minutes. Your participation in this study is

voluntary and anonymous.. If you choose not to participate or to withdraw from the study at any

time, you can do so without penalty or loss of benefit to yourself. The results of the research

study may be published but your identity will remain confidential, your name will not be

disclosed to any outside party, and your results will be maintained in confidence. In this

research, there are no foreseeable risks to you.

To quantify further the results of my study you will be asked to provide email addresses

for up to five individuals that have direct working knowledge to provide a 360o review. Self-

ratings alone are good for developmental feedback, having reviewers provide for more valid and

reliable measures of emotional intelligence for research purposes. Reviewers can be peers, direct

reports, and supervisors, preferably several with different perspectives. The reviewers will be

provided with an introductory letter describing their participation and whom they will be rating.

They will not see any of your results and will have their own set of questions as it pertains to

137


you. Statistically the results from your 360-degree reviewers will be linked back to yours and

used in the overall analysis. Tabulations of the data will continue to remain anonymous.

Although there may be no direct benefit to you, a possible benefit your participation is

the research benefits by adding to the body of knowledge in emotional intelligence and project

management. The intent of this research study is to measure the emotional intelligence

competencies of a project leader to understand better, how he or she handles others as well as

themselves.

As a participant in this study, you should understand the following:

1. You may decline to participate or withdraw from participation at any time

without consequences.

2. Your identify will be kept confidential except to those you permit as

reviewers

3. Ivonne Bates, the researcher, has thoroughly explained the parameters of

the research study and all of your questions and concerns have been

addressed.

4. Data will be stored in a secure manner. The data will be held for a period

of three years and then destroyed.

5. The research results will be used for publication.

Please answer each statement as honestly as possible. There is no right or wrong answers.

Answering each question and completing the demographics survey will help provide the data

needed to analyze results for this study. If you have any questions concerning the research study,

please call or write me at 440-773-0872 or indiabravo@email.phoenix.edu.

“By signing this form you acknowledge that you understand the nature of the study, the potential
risks to you as a participant, and the means by which your identity will be kept

138


confidential. Your signature on this form also indicates that you are 18 years old or older and that
you give your permission to voluntarily serve as a participant in the study described.”

Signature of the participant _____________________________ Date _____________

Thank you for your participation,

Sincerely,

<Signature>

Ivonne Bates (Ivy), PMP

139


Appendix F: Informed Consent for 360-degree Reviewer

Dear _______________,

My name is Ivonne Bates and I am a student at University of Phoenix, working on a

research project as part of my requirements for a Doctoral of Management degree. You have

been identified by (Ratee’s Name), to participate as a reviewer of his or her emotional

intelligence. I am conducting a research study entitled, A CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND PROJECT LEADERSHIP. Your participation will

involve questionnaires regarding your assessment of (Ratees’ name) emotional intelligence as

well as other demographic information about yourself. There is no time limit but the study

should take no more than 30 minutes. Your participation in this study is voluntary and

anonymous. If you choose not to participate or to withdraw from the study at any time, you can

do so without penalty or loss of benefit to yourself. The results of the research study may be

published but your identity will remain confidential, your name will not be disclosed to any

outside party, and the results will be maintained in confidence. In this research, there are no

foreseeable risks to you.

The intent of this research study is to measure the emotional intelligence competencies of

a project leader to understand better, how he or she handles others as well as themselves.

Although there may be no direct benefit to you, the possible benefit your participation is the

research intends to add to the body of knowledge in emotional intelligence and project

management.

As a participant in this study, you should understand the following:

1. You may decline to participate or withdraw from participation at any time

without consequences.

140


2. Your identify will be kept confidential except to those you permit as

reviewers

3. Ivonne Bates, the researcher, has thoroughly explained the parameters of

the research study and all of your questions and concerns have been

addressed.

4. Data will be stored in a secure manner. The data will be held for a period

of three years and then destroyed.

5. The research results will be used for publication.

Please answer each statement as honestly as possible. There is no right or wrong

answers. Answering each question and completing the demographics survey will help provide

the data needed to analyze results for this study. If you have any questions concerning the

research study, please call or write me at 440-773-0872 or indiabravo@email.phoenix.edu.

“By signing this form you acknowledge that you understand the nature of the study, the potential
risks to you as a participant, and the means by which your identity will be kept
confidential. Your signature on this form also indicates that you are 18 years old or older and that
you give your permission to voluntarily serve as a participant in the study described.”

Signature of the participant _____________________________ Date _____________

Thank you for your participation,

Sincerely,

<Signature>

Ivonne Bates (Ivy), PMP

141


Appendix G: ECI Instructions

Instructions:
The following statements reflect work-related behaviors and relationships. Think about
the interactions you’ve had with your co-workers (particularly those that you nominated to rate
you) over the last several months, and use the scale below to indicate how frequently you’ve
shown each behavior listed below.

It should take you less than 20 minutes to complete this questionnaire. Each item in the
questionnaire describes a work-related behavior. Think about how you’ve behaved over the
previous several months. Then, use the scale below to indicate how frequently you have
exhibited each behavior.

An example survey item:


Please carefully respond to each survey item below.

In the above example, fill in the circle that best indicates how frequently you exhibited
this behavior. For example, if you never carefully listen to others when they are speaking then
fill in, Never. If you infrequently listen carefully to others, then fill in, Rarely. If you listen
carefully to others about half of the time, then fill in Sometimes. If you listen carefully most of
the time, then fill in Often, and if you listen carefully very frequently (i.e., all the time or nearly
all the time) and consistently, then fill in Consistently.

Please try to respond to all of the items. If for some reason an item does not apply to
you or you have not had an opportunity to exhibit any particular behavior then choose, Don’t
know.

Thank you for your participation.

142


Appendix H: Survey Instrument

143


144


145


Appendix I: Generic Algorithm

Project Success ECI Algorithm Cluster Competency

Algorithm

1 Mandatory Relationship Management Influence

Self-Management Emotional Self-Control

Must also have Relationship Management Conflict Management

Teamwork and

Collaboration

Antagonistic Self-Management Adaptability

2 Mandatory Self-Awareness Accurate Self-Assessment

Emotional Self-Awareness

Self Confidence

Social Awareness Empathy

Must Show Self-Management Initiative

Optimism

Should have one Relationship Management Change Catalyst

Inspirational Leadership

Antagonistic Self-Management Transparency

3 Must Show Self-Management Achievement Orientation

Alternate Social Awareness Organizational Awareness

manifestation

Service Orientation

Should have one Relationship Management Developing Others

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Appendix J: Self Scores per Rater

Self ESA ASA SC ESC TRAN ADAP AO INI OPT EMP OA SO DO IL CC INF CM TMC Rater
1 4.25 5 4.75 4 4.5 5 5 5 5 4.25 5.25 4.75 4.75 5 4.75 5 4 4.75 Peer
1 4.25 5 4.75 4 4.5 5 5 5 5 4.25 5 4.75 4.5 5 4.75 4.75 4 4.75 Mgr
2 5 4.5 5 4.25 5 5 4.75 4.75 5 5 4.75 5 5 5 5 5 4.5 5 Peer
2 5 4.5 4.75 4 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 5 5 4.25 5 4.75 5 4.5 5 4.75 4.75 Peer
3 5.25 4.5 4.5 4.5 5.25 4 4 4.25 4.25 4.75 4.25 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.25 4.25 3.25 4.75 Peer
3 3.75 3.5 4.5 4.25 3.75 4 4.25 3.5 4.25 4.75 4.75 4.25 4 4 4 3.25 3.75 3.75 Peer
3 3.75 3.75 3.75 3 4.75 3.25 4 3.25 4 3.75 3.5 4.25 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 4 4 Mgr
3 4.25 4.25 4.5 4 3.75 3.5 4.25 3.25 4.75 4.5 4.25 4.25 4.75 3.75 4 4 3.5 4.25 Peer
3 4.5 5 4.5 4.25 5 4.5 5 4.5 4 5 4.5 4.75 4.75 4.25 4.75 4.25 4 4.75 Peer
4 5 4.75 5 4.25 5 5 5 4.5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4.75 4.75 Client
4 5 4.5 4.75 4 5 4.75 5 5 5 5 4.25 5 4.75 5 4.5 5 4.5 4.5 Direct
Report
5 4.5 2.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 4 3.25 3.25 3.75 3.75 2.25 4.5 3.25 3.25 3.75 2.25 3 3.5 Peer
5 4.5 2.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 4 3.25 3.25 3.75 3.75 2.25 4.5 3.25 3.25 3.75 2.25 3 3.5 Mgr
5 4.5 2.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 4 3.25 3.25 3.75 3.75 2.25 4.5 3.25 3.25 3.75 2.25 3 3.5 Peer
5 4.5 3.5 4.25 3.75 4.25 4 4.25 3.5 3.75 3.25 4.75 4.25 4.75 3.5 4.25 3.75 2.75 4.25 Peer
6 3.25 3.25 4.25 4.25 3.5 4 4.25 4.25 3.75 3.25 4.25 3.75 3.5 3.5 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.25 Peer
6 4 4.75 4.5 4.25 3.5 4.5 4.25 4.25 5.25 4.5 4.25 5 4.25 4.5 4.5 4.25 3.75 4.5 Peer

7 5.25 5 5 4.75 5.5 4.75 5 4.25 5 5 5.75 5 5 5 5 5 3.5 5 Peer


7 4.5 3.75 5 4.75 4.5 4.25 4.5 5.5 4.75 4 4.5 5 4 4 3.75 4 3.25 4.5 Direct
Report
8 4.25 3.5 3.5 4 4.25 3.5 4.25 4.25 4.5 3.25 4.5 4.25 3 3.5 4.5 4.5 3.75 3.75 Client
8 4.25 3.5 3.5 3.75 4.25 3.5 4.25 4.25 4.5 3 4.5 4.25 3 3.5 4.25 4.5 3.75 3.75 Mgr
8 4.25 3.5 3.5 4 4.25 3.5 4.25 4.25 4.75 3 4.5 4.25 3 3.5 4.25 4.5 3.75 3.75 Direct
Report

147