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Chapter 2

Review Related of Literature

The establishment of the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) primarily

focuses on its main goals: to instill the senses of nationalism and patriotism among the

youth, to prepare them for a noteworthy leadership and citizenship and utmost, to develop

leaders and militia of high-quality in the future ready to defend and stand up for the

betterment of the state and its people. The future of morale and safety of a nation lies on

the shoulders of our armed forces. It is vital even at a young age, being able-bodied for

such trainings to actively engage in our progress and emancipating safety of the nation

and the public’s development as well.

As a sub-field of Strategic Studies and Political Science, the study of civil-military

relations, focuses on the (Lovell, 1974) “threat posed by the military institution (the

existence of a large professional army) to the popular rule by a civilian government, and

to the individual citizen’s political and civil rights.”

The military program’s model was in parallel with that of the United States of America

which started in 1862 where it was instigated as an elective for college students.

(Changco & Santiago, 2013)

The pioneer unit of the ROTC was the University of the Philippines ROTC Unit or

the UP Vanguards which was established in 1922. Followed by the founding of the ROTC

units in National University, Ateneo de Manila, Liceo de Manila, and Colegio de San Juan

de Letran, until number of schools nationwide adopted the military program after the

endorsement of the Commonwealth Act No. 1.

As cited in Article VI, Section 35 of the Commonwealth Act No. 1 or the National

Defense Act of 1935, the concept of ROTC came into its being with only schools and

institutions designated by the President to maintain and establish a Reserve Officers’

Training Units, mandatory for every physically fit student to pursue a course of military

instruction designed to qualify him for a commission as a Third Lieutenant of reserve with

a power to choose where would he want to render service.

During the Second World War, the army reserves produced by the ROTC program

were first put into action. The ROTC cadets from the 33 colleges and universities who

have active units took part and were first seen in action during the Second World War.

Cadets from different Metro Manila units took part in the defense of Bataan, while in the

Visayas, 45 percent of the 75th Infantry Regiment of the US Armed Forces in the Far East

(USAFFE) were ROTC cadets of Silliman University.

In 1967, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Executive Order No. 59, making

ROTC a mandatory course in all colleges and universities with an enrollment of at least

250 male students. A noteworthy development during this period was a program called

“Rainbow Rangers-Sunday soldiers.” It provided an alternative to what was basically a

ceremony-centered ROTC training program. It exposed the cadets to small unit tactics,

unconventional warfare and home defense techniques.

The mandatory ROTC program was scrummed in the college level’s curriculum in

year 2002, after the reported death of a ROTC cadet Mark Wilson Chua, student of

University of Santo Tomas, allegedly killed by his co-cadets and upper-class men after

exposing corruption in the UST ROTC corps.

Following the passage of Republic Act 9163, an Act Establishing the National

Service Training Program (NSTP), unlike the ROTC, on the other hand, lets college

students to choose and complete at least one of its three components to be able to

graduate for a period of only two (2) academic semesters: the ROTC program, which

provides military training; Literacy Training Service (LTS), which provides training on

teaching basic reading and math; and Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS), which

involves students in activities contributing to community welfare, such as caring for the

environment, public safety, health, sports, and entrepreneurship, as defined in Section 3

of RA 9163.

“What is needed to support the Armed Forces is a citizen army of well-trained

reserves that can make life difficult for any invader. Just as the threat of war with Japan

served as an impetus for the build-up of our Armed Forces before World War II, let us use

the threats that come from bullies in the neighborhood to prepare our youth for the

defense of the homeland. It is time to restore the mandatory two-year basic ROTC military

training program that existed in the past. Whatever mistakes or abuses were committed

then should not be allowed to happen again.” Said Brig. Gen. Rolando Jungco,

Commander, Armed Forces of the Philippines Civil Relations Service (CRS).

Several bills were filed at the House of Representatives but none of them reached

second reading. Movements coming from the uniformed sector have been blabbing about

the reinstatement of the ROTC, until President Rodrigo Duterte’s 1st State of the Nation

Address came where he mentioned his stand that ROTC must be put back in to practice

and should be held mandatory for all college students.

It was then Valenzuela City Congressman now Senator Win Gatchalian filed and

sponsored House Bill No. 2338, which seeks to make Reserve Officers' Training Corps

(ROTC) mandatory to every male student in the tertiary education. He said that the bill

aims to optimize the students for service through appropriate physical and mental training.

He also exposed that he was also a product of ROTC in college. “We need to help them

develop their national spirit, and promote self-confidence and camaraderie. Our youth

should also be physically strong and alert without having to spend membership in a gym,”

Gatchalian said.

The ROTC program, according to the Organization of Generals and Flag Officers,

prepares male students for national defense and trains them with leadership skills and

the basics of military service in order to produce capable Armed Forces reservists.

The ROTC program, according to the Organization of Generals and Flag

Officers, prepares male students for national defense and trains them with leadership
skills and the basics of military service in order to produce capable Armed Forces
The Attitudes of Grade 12-HUMSS students in Philippine College of Criminology
regarding the implementation of the Mandatory Reserve Officers’ Training Corps


Arnado, Alyann Dominick

Alata, Jerome
Baclaocos, Carl Jeffrey
Cadayona, Dennise
Diocton, Angelika
Gaddi, France Adrian
Gamil, Jeremiah
Jabon, Joshua
Ramos, Mark Justin
Tabaloc, Angelo
Yamson, Junjie