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CELL MODIFICATIONS THAT LEAD TO  Hemidesmosome

ADAPTATION  Protein filaments interlock with filaments of the


adjacent cell which forms a dense intermediate line
Kinds of Cell Modifications between the cells
a. Apical Modifications (top)
 Found beneath the zonula adherens
b. Basal Modifications (bottom)
 Cytoplasmic face is connected to microfilaments
c. Lateral Modifications (sides)
extending into the cytoplasm

APICAL MODIFICATIONS LATERAL MODIFICATIONS


 Microvilli  Tight junctions (zonula occludens)
 Also called brush/striated border  A band near the apical surface forms a seal,
 Finger-like cytoplasmic extensions of the apical appearing to be fused
surface which increase surface area for  There is 15-20 nm space between epithelium cells
absorption  Tight junction occludes/separates the compartments
 Numerous, often regularly arranged, and found  Adhering Junctions (Zonula Adherens)
in absorptive epithelia  the actin filaments which make up zonula adherens
 Cilia maintain integrity of the cell to better bind
 Motile, function in movement  found just beneath the tight junction
 Beats in a coordinated rhythmical wave-like  cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton
movement of materials over the surface  Gap Junctions
 Appear as short hair-like structures or  connexons of one membrane aligns with connexion
projections of adjacent membrane so that hydrophilic material
 Each cilium is connected to a basal body and can be transported
extends from the free surface  important in cell communication
 Core is composed of microtubules arranged in a  adjacent cells are 2-3 nm apart
specific manner  Desmosome (Maculs Adherens)
 Can be found in the lining of the trachea  Protein filaments interlock with filaments of the
(windpipe) or in the Fallopian tube adjacent cell which forms a dense intermediate line
 Stereocilia between the cells
 Long microvilli that function in increasing  Help to resist shearing forces and are found in
absorption simple and stratified squamous epithelium
 Non-motile
 Found in sensory cells in ear and male SPECIALIZED MODIFICATIONS
reproductive tract  Nerve cells or neurons are very specialized cells
 Does not have the true characteristics of the true of the nervous system. Since an electrical signal
cilia or flagella needs to travel relatively long distances to parts
 Flagella of the body, nerve cells have specialized
 Are also concerned with movement structures called dendrites, which received an
 Same axial structure with cilia but much longer electrical signal from another neuron, and axons,
which transmit an electrical signal to another
 Present in tail of the spermatozoa
neuron.
BASAL MODIFICATIONS  Muscle cells are made up primarily of a pair of
 Basal Infoldings special proteins called actin and myosin which
 Often found in epithelium that are known to allows the muscle to contract.
transport fluid (kidney)  Red blood cells are anucleate, and thus are
 Will often see mitochondria in the basal produced from bone marrow, but contain large
infoldings, suggests that active transport is amounts of haemoglobin to transport oxygen
occurring throughout the body.
 Very important in epithelial polarization and  Sperm cells are haploid and contain a flagellum
stability in order to swim through the vagina.
 Support the epithelium and also functions as a  Plant cells have large amounts of the organelle
passive molecular sieve or ultrafilter chloroplast, which allows the cell to undergo
 If basal lamina is destroyed (trauma, infections, photosynthesis. Plant cells are also covered by a
burns), the epithelium will not be repaired but cell wall.
substituted with a scar (connective tissue)