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Form 4 Biology

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition of the Cell

Objective Questions

1 Which of the following substances contains magnesium and nitrogen?


Magnesium Nitrogen
A Amino acid Protein
B Amino acid Starch
C Chlorophyll Protein
D Chlorophyll Starch

2 In the human alimentary canal, carbohydrate is digested as shown below:

enzyme 1 enzyme 2
Starch Maltose Glucose

Which of the following accurately describes the enzymes involved in this process?
Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2
A Amylase Lipase
B Amylase Maltase
C Lipase Pepsin
D Amylase Ptyalin

3 Among the elements that are found in mineral salts, which of the following
element’s importance to humans is true?
Element Importance
A Iodine Synthesis of hormones
B Iron Blood clotting
C Sodium Synthesis of antibodies
D Calcium Formation of bones and teeth

4 An enzyme is a protein that is different from inorganic catalysts. The specific


action of the enzyme is related with
A protein molecules not having metal ions
B protein molecules having metal ions
C protein molecules do not dissolve in body fluids
D the outer surface of protein molecules having difference shapes

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5 Which of the following is represented by Figure 1?

Figure 1
A DNA
B Gene
C Nucleotides
D Nucleic acid

6 Which of the following substances will be used up first when a mammal is


suffering from hunger?
A Protein in the muscles
B Glycogen in the liver
C Protein in the blood
D Fat below the skin

7 The photosynthetic process will stop at temperatures above 60°C because


A the hormones in the plants are destroyed
B ATP cannot be formed
C cell respiration occurs too quickly
D the enzyme structure is denatured

8 Which chemical element combines to form starch and cellulose molecules?


I Carbon
II Hydrogen
III Nitrogen
IV Oxygen
A I and II only
B I, II and IV only
C I, III and IV only
D I, II, III and IV

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9 Enzymes are required by living things for
I food digestion
II DNA formation
III the entry of water into the cell through osmosis
IV the entry of salt into the cell through diffusion
A I and II only
B I, II and III only
C I, III and IV only
D I and III only

10 Which of the following statements is true?


I A gene consists of a chain of DNA segments
II A DNA molecule consists of a pair of polynucleotide chains
III Each gene is located on a certain locus in a chromosome
IV The base sequence in the DNA molecule can determine the type of protein
that will be produced by the cell
A I and II only
B II, III and IV only
C I, II and III only
D I, II, III and IV

11 Figure 2 shows a part of the DNA molecular structure. J, K, L and M are the basic
units in the DNA molecule.

Figure 2
Which of the following is represented by J, K, L and M?
J K L M
A Sugar Base Phosphate Phosphate
B Phosphate Base Sugar Phosphate
C Base Sugar Base Phosphate
D Phosphate Sugar Base Base

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Structured Question

The DNA molecule contains genes, which are the basic hereditary unit and can be
passed on from the parent to the child. Figure 1 shows a part of a deoxyribose nucleic
acid double helix molecule (DNA).

Watson-Crick DNA model

Figure 1

(a) (i) Where is the DNA molecule found in a cell?


(ii) Based on the figure of the DNA molecule, explain why the DNA molecular
structure is termed as Double Helix?

(b) The DNA molecule is built from basic molecules such as those shown in the
figures below.

Key: P = phosphate S = sugar N = nitrogenous base

(i) What is the name of the basic molecule that forms the DNA?

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(ii) Based on the basic DNA molecule diagram, what it’s the structure that
differentiates between the different types of molecules?
(iii) In the DNA molecule, the basic molecules are paired. Draw a pair of basic
DNA molecule.

(c) A sequence of basic molecules is identified to carry information for a certain


characteristic in an animal. What is represented by the sequence of the basic
molecules?
(d) Mutation occurs when the DNA structure changes.
(i) Mutation on which human cell can be passed on to the child?
(ii) State one factor that can cause mutation in humans.

Essay Question

(a) Explain the characteristics of enzymes that influence the action of the enzyme.
(b) Describe one experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the action
of a named enzyme.

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Answers

Objective Questions

1 C 7 D
2 B 8 B
3 D 9 A
4 D 10 D
5 C 11 D
6 B

Structured Question
(a) (i) Nucleus
(ii) DNA consists of 2 polynucleotide chains that are coiled together

(b) (i) Nucleotide


(ii) Type of nitrogenous base
(iii)

(c) Gene

(d) (i) Reproductive cell


(ii) Chemical substance such as the mustard gas

Essay Question
(a) • Enzymes accelerate biochemical reactions but are not changed at the end of the
experiment. As such, enzymes are required only in small quantities in the
body.
• The action of the enzymes is specific, that is each enzyme only catalyses
the reaction that involves certain substrates.
• Enzymes exhibit protein characteristics such as being sensitive towards
changes in temperature. Enzymes are destroyed at a temperature of 60°C and
the enzymatic action is stopped. At a low temperature of 10°C, the enzymatic
action is slow. Enzymes react at the maximum level at the optimum
temperature.
• The enzymatic action is influenced by the medium pH. Each enzyme
reacts at the maximum level at its optimum pH.
• The same enzyme catalyses the reverse reaction.
amylase
Example: Starch + water maltose

Maltose amylase starch + water

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(b) Purpose: To study the effect of temperature on the enzyme activity

Apparatus/Material: -

Procedure:
1 5 ml of saliva is collected and diluted by adding 5 ml of distilled water into
a small beaker.
2 Test tubes labelled P, Q, R, S and T are prepared. 5 ml of starch suspension
is poured into each test tube.
3 Each test tube is placed in the water bath at temperatures of 5°C, 28°C,
37°C, 45°C and 60°C.
4 After that, 1 ml of saliva solution is added into each test tube and the
stopwatch is started immediately. The content of each tube is stirred and a
drop of the contents is removed at 1 minute intervals to be tested with iodine
solution. This step is repeated until the iodine solution does not change
colour.

Result:
Time
Test (minute) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
tube Temperature

P 5
Q 28
R 37
S 45
T 60

Conclusion:
The action of the enzyme is influenced by temperature. Enzymatic action is
slow at low temperatures, and increases with the increase in temperature until
37°C. The enzymatic action is at the maximum at 37°C. After 37°C, the
enzymatic action decreases and stops at 60°C.