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Chap 2

An aircraft equipped with fixed and moveable surfaces, or aerofoils, which

provide stability and control.

Fixed aerofoil

• Wings or mainplanes

• Horizontal stabiliser or tailplane

• Vertical stabiliser or fin

Wings – provide enough lift for the aircraft.

Empennage – tail section, including stabilisers, elevators and rudder.

Horizontal stabiliser (Tailplane)

• Used to provide longitudinal stability

• Attached to the aft portion of fuselage

• Mounted on top, mid-point or below the vertical stabiliser

• Conventional horizontal stabiliser placed aft the wing, set at a smaller or

negative angle of incidence with respect to the wing chord line. (retain
aircraft attitude)

• Small downward force on tail, depending on the side of the stabiliser and
the distance from CG to counter act the force produce by the wing.

T-Tail Arrangement

• Tailplane and elevator on top vertical stabiliser


• Pitch control not affected by the turbulent air from the wing.

• Makes the vertical stabiliser and rudder control more effective, due to end
plate effect.


• High angle of attack, pitch control non-effective and cause engine flame
out. (stick push system to prevent)

• Empennage structure heavier than normal.

Vertical stabiliser (Tail Fin)

• Aerofoil forward of the rudder.

• Provide directional (vertical) stability.

Single engine propeller causes the airflow hitting the FIN and creating a
YAWING action, therefore some FIN is offset to correct it.

Moveable control surfaces

• Primary Control (manoeuvre the Aircraft)

o Elevators (Pitch)

o Ailerons (Roll)

o Rudder (Yaw)

o Roll spoilers that assist Aileron (Roll)

• Secondary Control (affect the drag and lift, assist primary control)

o Flaps & Slats (High lift devices)

o Tabs (Trim control)

o Spoilers (Speed brakes & Lift dumpers)

Spoilers can be used as primary or secondary or combination of both.

Roll Control – Ailerons

• Provide lateral (roll) control

• Movement about longitudinal axis

• Attach to hinges at trailing edge of the wing & near the wing tip

• Upgoing aileron, reduce lift, causing wing to go down. (lower drag)

• Downgoing aileron, increase lift, causing wing to go up. (increase drag)

Radio frequency (RF) is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 30 kHz to

300 GHz.

Low frequency or low freq or LF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range
of 30 kHz–300 kHz.
Medium frequency (MF) refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of
300 kHz to 3 MHz.

High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz.

VHF (Very high frequency) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to
300 MHz.

Ultra high frequency (UHF) designates a range of electromagnetic waves

with frequencies between 300 MHz and 3 GHz (3,000 MHz).

Super high frequency (or SHF) refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range
of 3 GHz and 30 GHz.

Extremely high frequency is the highest radio frequency band. EHF runs
the range of frequencies from 30 to 300 gigahertz.

Air Data Computer (ADC)

Control Display Unit (CDU)

Flight Management Computer (FMC)

Track angle error (TKE)

(VOR/LOC) VHF Omni directional Radio Range Localizer

True airspeed (TAS)

All frequencies between 112.00 and 117.95 MHz (High Power VORs)

Odd frequencies between 108.00 and 111.95 MHz (Terminal VORs)

• Demand mode – Flight crew transmits

• Polled mode – Ground station transmits

RUNAWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR): The RVR is the maximum distance in the
direction of take-off or landing at which the runway or the specified light or
markers delineating it can be seen from a height corresponding to the
average eye-level of pilots at touchdown.

VOR stands for Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Range

provides bearings to radio frequency transmitters
in a compatible frequency range (190-1759 Khz)

Distance Measuring Equipment. A system that

LVDT - Linear Variable Differential Transducer

Traffic collision avoidance system or traffic alert and collision

avoidance system (both abbreviated as TCAS) is an aircraft collision
avoidance system designed to reduce the incidence of mid-air collisions
between aircraft.

Ground proximity warning system (GPWS) is a system designed to alert

pilots if their aircraft is in immediate danger of flying into the ground or an

118-137 MHz is VHF frequency.

112-118 MHz is VOR frequency.

Less than 112 MHz odd decimals are ILS.

trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS)

engine pressure ratio (EPR)

wavelength of C band radar is 4 – 8cm

ILS marker beacon frequency 75 Mhz

Component Maintenance Cockpit (CMC)

Control Display Unit (CDU)

CVR (cockpit voice recorder)

Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)

The inflatable tube of the de-icer boots is made of rubberised


How is rain repellent stored on an aircraft? Self pressurised


What is the correct way of measuring the windshield wiper

force prior to adjustment? With a spring tension scale
Twin contact tread tyres are fitted to the nose wheel to assist
in preventing nose wheel shimmy

The anti-skid ARMED signal comes from

a switch in the cockpit

Tubeless tyres are stored


Fuse plugs in aircraft wheels are

for tyre overtemperature protection

The visible angle of a white tail navigation light is


The angle of a runway turnoff light is


American made crew oxygen cylinders are

green in colour with a RH thread

If an aircraft suddenly drops pressure at 14, 000 ft

masks drop automatically

The critical altitude for oxygen requirement is approximately

25,000 ft

What is the principle of an O2 generator?

Sodium chlorate and iron mixed by an electronic detonator

What type of compressor is used on a pneumatic system?

Positive displacement type

An aircraft condition monitoring system

stores information for long term error analysis

On the ground, spoilers/speedbrakes deploy to


In normal flight, if the control column is pulled back, a servo tab fitted to the
elevator will
move down

Spoiler panels are positioned so that when deployed

pitch trim is not affected
TCAS antenna is a
directional antenna

The output of an INS can be fed to

attitude indicators

A TCAS blade aerial is

a 1-band omnidirectional array

Ram Air Turbines have variable fan blades to

maintain a constant speed

On a split bus electrical system, during normal operation, the bus tie breakers are
always open in flight

An AC generator used with a CSD

needs a voltage controller to maintain voltage with increasing load (Constant Speed

Trip signals for a GCR are

differential protection and undervoltage (Generator control relay)

Battery charging procedures can be found in ATA

Chapter 24 Section 31

If an aircraft has no battery charger, the battery is charged by

constant voltage

Stick shaker stall warnings should be activated at

1.05 VS

The yaw damper

augments aircraft stability

A yaw damper gain

decreases with speed

Asymmetric flap operation is prevented to keep to a minimum the tendancy of


A wing mounted stall warning vane

moves up at impending stall

An increase in aspect ratio will

cause VMD to be reduced
Geometric washout means that
the tip of the wing has less angle of attack than the root

With a drop in ambient temperature, an aircraft service ceiling will

not be affected

If IAS is doubled, by which of the following factors should the original CL be

multiplied to maintain level flight?

If VS is 100 kt in straight and level flight, during a 45 bank turn VS will be

119 kts

What must happen to the CL when flaps are deployed while maintaining a constant
IAS in straight and level flight?
Remain constant

An aeroplane has a stalling speed of 100 kt in a steady level flight. When the
aeroplane is flying a level turn with a load factor of 1.5, the stalling speed is
122 kt

The angle of attack at which an aircraft stalls

remains constant regardless of gross weight

The stall speed in a 60° banked turn increases by the following factor

What is the percentage increase in stall speed in a 45o bank turn


In a level turn with 60° lateral bank, the load factor is 2.0 and the stall speed
increases by
40 %

At the same weight, with the CG at its forward limit

VS is higher, the stalling angle is unchanged

If the straight and level stall speed is 100 kt, what will be the stall speed in a 1.5g
122 kts

Air above approximately Mach 0.7 is


At speeds greater than mach 1, airflow in the boundary layer is

What happens if you reduce the curvature of the leading edge?
Advance the shock wave formation

An aircraft experiences a large loss of lift and a big increase in drag in straight and
level flight, what would be the most probable cause?
Aircraft reached its critical mach number

Mach Number is defined as

TAS divided by local speed of sound

Open phase sensing on a current transformer

is detected on generator neutral circuit

Before operating generators in parallel, their voltages should be matched to prevent

overloading the generator drive and shearing of splines

Aerodynamic heating
increases as a function of airspeed

ATA zone 500 is the

left wing

ATA zone 330 is the

left horizontal stabiliser

Zone 320 under the ATA system is

vertical stabiliser

Where is Zone 323?

Between front and rear spar of vertical stabiliser

ATA Zone 100 is

lower fuselage

The bonding lead to a remote aircraft component must be

0.5 in wide

In the ATA 100 zonal system the passenger entry door will have a designation of

Most radio aerials are


Secondary bonding is usually provided with

18 AWG
How is the radome protected from lightning strike?
Diverter strips

The cross sectional area of a secondary conductor must be not less than
18 SWG for a single wire

What are buttock lines?

Measurements from the centre line

The Airworthiness Notice that refers to structural surveys is

Notice 89

Where are wing stations measured from?

Butt Line (BL)

If a redundant structure fails it becomes


The measurement of the fuselage perpendicular to horizontal plane measured in

inches from bottom of the fuselage is
water line

What is the water line?

The datum from which vertical locations refer

The optimum atmospheric conditions for painting aircraft is

between 60oF and 77oF with less than 75% relative humidity

1. Which frequency is used to achieve line of sight radio communication?


In an IRS system you would expect to find

Ring laser gyros

What would be the purpose of an input from an inertial reference system being
connected to weather radar?
To provide stabilisation for the radar antenna

VHF frequency is
108 - 136 MHz

A radial is referenced
From a beacon

How is the next database on the FMC activated?

Manually, on the ground

In autopilot with THS in motion, the

Auto Trim is inhibited

How can a pilot over-ride the auto-throttle?

Manually through a clutch on the throttle levers

There are two FMS installed on the aircraft. If one FMS fails during flight
the failed FMS has a blank screen

To obtain an accurate GPS fix, the GPS receiver must be in line of sight of
4 satellites

A Mode C transponder gives the following info:


When will the decision height aural warning sound?

At decision height

Before the aeroplane is moved from the loading pier, the pilot must
insert the latitude and longitude of the pier into the INS

The Inertial Navigation System computes distance from acceleration by

two successive integrations

In an IN system, the output of the accelerometer is linear because of a

force balance system

The type of gyro generally used in an IN system is a

rate integrating gyro

To prevent gimbal lock on the stable platform it is normal to use

four gimbals

When the inertial platform is torqued to perform like a Schuler pendulum

the platform oscillates with respect to the local vertical

Transport Rate compensation is achieved by

the platform being torqued by a computed torquing signal

Flight management control system (FMCS) utilises


Vertical projected separation between seat rows must be

3 inches
Engine fire bottle pressure at 70°F is
600psi +/- 25

A Systron-Donner fire detection system uses

helium gas

Lavatories must have, in the disposal container

Freon extinguisher with black ball markings indicating when discharged

What test is carried out to ensure serviceability of a squib?

A continuity check

Toilet fire detection issues can be found in

AWN 83

Dutch roll is eliminated by

the yaw damper

On the ground, spoilers/speedbrakes deploy to


A yaw damper gain could be fitted with

decreased sensitivity for increased speed

In an aircraft system employing balance tabs, the installation of external ground

locks between the control surface and the balance tabs
would prevent the movement of the control column

A wing mounted stall warning vane

moves up at impending stall

Rudder 'Q' limiting

restricts rudder movement with increase in airspeed

Active load control uses

ailerons and spoilers

A bonded waffle doubler, as well as acting as a skin strengthener, also acts as a

tear stopper

What is important about the air entering a dry air pump?

It must be filtered

How do oxygen cylinders show over pressure?

Green rupturing disc
In a continuous flow oxygen system, oxygen is supplied
when the mask is plugged into the socket

American made crew oxygen cylinders are

green in colour with a RH thread

Oxygen cylinders are removed for overhaul and tested

every 4 years

What colour is the strobe light on the PORT wing?


A white navigation light, as viewed in the horizontal plane, will be at least

20 candela

A white steady light is required

of at least 3 candelas, at the rear of the aircraft 70 degrees either side of dead astern

How many floor path lights can you fly with unserviceable?

What is the arc of a landing light?


The visible angle of a white tail navigation light is


Wing navigation lights must be visible through which angle?


Upper and lower strobe lights are coloured


Escape route lighting must not have more than

20% obscured

How many escape path lights are allowed to be inoperative?


The angle of a runway turnoff light is


A rotating beacon must have a minimum light rating of

20 candelas
Storm lights are usually fluorescent lights that are switched on
to reduce the effect of lightning on the pilot's sight

The minimum aquaplaning ground speed is

Your Answer:8.6 times the root square of the tyre pressure in psi

Excessive wear in the shoulder area of an aircraft tyre is an indication of


A restrictor in the landing gear hydraulic retraction and lowering system is

positioned in the
landing gear up line

Tubed tyres are stored

horizontally, up to 4 in total with the smallest at the top

In which ice detection method, the activation of warning system is through

accumulation of ice on a probe projected into the airstream?
Ice accretion method

At what pressure and temperature is deice fluid applied?

70°C at 100 PSI

A variable angled pump starts at

maximum stroke

What type of valve prevents pressure from building up until a demand is placed in
an open-center hydraulic system?
A selector valve

Phosphate Ester hydraulic fluid requires which kind of seals?

Butyl Rubber

The control of hydraulically powered emergency electrical generator frequency is by

angle of swashplate

A shuttle valve is used for

change over from main to auxiliary system in the case of failure

When carrying out an insulation check on a fuel probe, what is the Maximum
voltage to use
250 V

Fuel crossfeed valves are operated by the

Pressure refuelling is carried out at
40 PSI

A shroud vent and overboard drain would normally be found on

the APU fuel feed

A check valve is fitted to a fuel jettison system to

prevent the dumping of the outer tanks

With hydraulic ram operated flying controls, when the pressure is reduced to zero,
the flying control surfaces

Automatic trim systems on some aircraft installations are actuated with two speeds
of operation. Operation at high speed is used during
flaps down

What is the purpose of a differential Frise aileron?

To increase the drag to increase the rate of yaw and turn

Stick shaker activates at a speed which is above the stalling speed by


A tab which assists the pilot to move a flying control by moving automatically in the
opposite direction to the control surface is called a
geared balance tab

Engine fire bottle pressure at 70°F is

600psi +/- 25

Engine wing firebottles should be charged with nitrogen at 15°C to

600 psi

A fire that can be put out by a crew member in a cargo bay is in a

class B compartment

The minimum vertical projected separation between seat rows is

3 inches

The minimum passenger aisle width for an aircraft with a seating capacity of 20 or
more is
15 inches

What is the minimum distance between a seat cushion and the seat in-front of it?
7 inches
Inspection proof testing of seat-belts is carried out to

Where the aircraft passenger seating capacity exceeds 149 but less than 200 then:
2 megaphones are required

In a level turn with 60° lateral bank, the load factor is 2.0 and the stall speed
increases by
40 %

Stalling speed in a 15° bank level turn is 60kt. The stalling speed in a 45° bank level
turn will be
70 kts

An aeroplane has the following flap settings: 0°, 15°, 30° and 45°. Slats can be
selected too. Which of the above selections will produce the greatest negative
influence on the CL/CD ratio?
Flaps from 30° to 45°

Deploying a Fowler flap, the flap will

move aft, then turn down

The stalling speed in IAS will change according to the following factors?
May increase with altitude, especially high altitude, will increase during icing conditions
and will increase when the c.g. moves forward

Why is Vmcg determined with the nosewheel steering disconnected?

because the value of Vmcg must also be applicable on wet and/or slippery runways

A wing's leading edge would have provisions and linkages for slats and
leading edge flaps

Wing skin on a large transport aircraft is made from


A cantilever wing is a
usual airliner wing

A spar web will take loads in


The web of an 'I' beam takes mainly which type of load?


One purpose of a rib is to

maintain the correct contour of an aerofoils covering
ATA chapter for Nacelles/Pylons is

The fin helps to give

directional stability about the normal axis

The method employed to mass balance control surfaces is to

attach weights forward of the hinge line

The minimum seat loading weight is

170 lbs

What is the maximum allowable concentration (by volume) of carbon monoxide in

occupied aircraft compartment?
0.005% (50 p.p.m)

Inwards relief valves usually open at a negative differential pressure not exceeding
1.2 p.s.i.

What is the minimum cabin air mass flow?

0.5 lbs per minute per person

The inward relief valve is usually set to operate at a cabin differential of

-0.5 PSI

How much air is required for the Flight Deck?

10 cubic feet/minute

If a reduction in pack outlet temp is demanded, the temperature of the air at the
outlet of the ACM compressor will
remain the same

The erection system on a directional gyroscope has

a switch on the inner gimbal controlling a motor on the outer gimbal

Speed of an HMG is controlled by a