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Angel selects three cards at random from a pack of 52 cards.

Find the probability of drawing:

(i) 3 spade cards.


(ii) one spade and two knave cards
(iii) one spade, one knave and one heart cards.

Solution:

Total no. of ways of drawing 3 cards = n(S) = 52 C3 = 22100

(a) Let A1 = drawing 3 spade cards.

Since there are 13 Spades cards in a pack of cards,

No. of ways of drawing 3 spade cards = n(A1) = 13 C3 = 286

n A1 
P A1  
286

Therefore, ns  22100

(b) Let A2 = drawing one spade and two knave cards

No. of ways of drawing one spade card = 13C1 = 13

No. of ways of drawing two knave cards = 13C2= 78


Since drawing a spade and 2 knaves should occur together,
No. of ways drawing one spade and two knave cards = n(A2) = 13×78 =1014

n A2  1014
P A2   
Therefore, ns  22100

P A2  
507
Hence, 11050

(c) Let A3 = drawing one spade, one knave and one heart cards
No. of ways of drawing one spade, one knave and one heart cards is
n(A3) = 13C1× 13C1 × 13C1 = 13 × 13 × 13
n A3  2197
P A3   
Therefore, ns  22100

In the Annual sports meet, among the 260 students in XI standard in the school, 90 participated
in Kabadi, 120 participated in Hockey, and 50 participated in Kabadi and Hockey. A Student is
selected at random. Find the probability that the student participated in (i) Either Kabadi or
Hockey, (ii) Neither of the two tournaments, (iii) Hockey only, (iv) Kabadi only, (v) Exactly one
of the tournaments.

Solution:

n(s)=260

Let A : the event that the student participated in Kabadi

B : the event that the student participated in Hockey.

n A  90 nB  120 P A  B  50

n A 90
P  A  
ns  260

nB  120
P B   
ns  260
n A  B  50
P A  B   
ns  260

(i) The probability that the student participated in either Kabadi or Hockey is

P A  B  P A  P A  PA  B

90 120 50 160 8
    
260 260 260 260 13

(ii) The probability that the student participated in neither of the two tournaments in


P A  B   P A  B  By De Morgan' s law  A  B  A  B
 1  P A  B
8 5
 1 
13 13

(iii) The probability that the student participated in Hockey only is

PA  B   PB   P A  B 

120 50 70 7
   
260 260 260 26

(iv) The probability that the student participated in Kabadi only

PA  B   P A  P A  B 

90 50 40 2
   
260 260 260 13

(v) The probability that the student participated in exactly one of the tournaments is

PA  B   A  B   PA  B   PA  B 


70 40 110 11
   
260 260 260 26

A pair of dice is rolled and the faces are noted. Let

A: sum of the faces is odd, B: sum of the faces exceeds 8, and

C: the faces are different then find (i) P (A/C) (ii) P (B/C)

Solution:

The outcomes favourable to the occurrence of these events are

A = { (1,2), (1,4), (1,6), (2,1), (2,3), (2,5), (3,2), (3,4), (3,6)

(4,1), (4,3), (4,5), (5,2), (5,4), (5,6), (6,1), (6,3), (6,5) }

B = { (3,6), (4,5), (4,6), (5,4), (5,5), (5,6), (6,3), (6,4), (6,5), (6,6) }

C = { (1,2), (1,3), (1,4), (1,5), (1,6), (2,1), (2,3), (2,4), (2,5), (2,6),

(3,1), (3,2), (3,4), (3,5), (3,6), (4,1), (4,2), (4,3), (4,5), (4,6),

(5,1), (5,2), (5,3), (5,4), (5,6), (6,1), (6,2), (6,3), (6,4), (6,5) }

Since A and B are proper subsets of C, A  C  A and B  C  B

n A 18 1
P A   
ns  36 2

nB  10 5
PB    
ns  36 9

nC  30 5
PC    
ns  36 6
Here

Since, A  C  A . Hence,

P A  C   P A  
1
2

P B  C   P  B  
5
9

Hence, the probability for the sum of the faces is an odd number given that the faces are different
is

P A | C  3
P A | C   
PC  5

Similarly, the probability for the sum of the faces exceeds 8 given that the faces are different is

PB | C  4
PB | C   
PC  15

In the experiment of rolling a pair of dice, the events A, B and C are defined as A : getting 2 on
the first die, B : getting 2 on the second die, and C : sum of the faces of dice is an even number.
Prove that the events are pair wise independent but not mutually independent?

Solution:

1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 


2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 
 
3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 3,6 
S  , n( S )  36
 4 ,
1  4 ,2  4 ,3 4 ,4  4 ,5  4 ,6  
5,1 5,2 5,3 5,4 5,5 5,6 
 
6,1 6,2 6,3 6,4 6,5 6,6

The outcomes which are favourable to the occurrence of these events can be listed below:
A = { (2,1), (2,2), (2,3), (2,4), (2,5), (2,6) }
n(A) = 6

P A  
6 1

36 6

B = { (1,2), (2,2), (3,2), (4,2), (5,2), (6,2) }

n(B) = 6

P B  
6 1

36 6

C = { (1,1), (1,3), (1,5), (2,2), (2,4), (2,6), (3,1), (3,3), (3,5),

(4,2), (4,4), (4,6), (5,1), (5,3), (5,5), (6,2), (6,4), (6,6) }

n (C) = 18

PC  
18 1

36 2

A  B  2,2

n A  B  1
P A  B  1
P A  B   
ns  36

A C  2,2, 2,4, 2,6

n A  C   3
P A  C  3
P A  C   
ns  36

A  B  C  2,2

n A  B  C   1
P A  B  C  1
P A  B  C   
ns  36

The following relations may be obtained from the probabilities


PA  B  P A PB
1 1 1
 
36 6 6

PA  C   P A PC 


3 1 1
 
36 6 2

PB  C   PB PC 


3 1 1
 
36 6 2

PA  B  C   PA PB PC 

1 1 1 1
  
36 6 6 2

The above relations show that when the events A, B and C are considered in pairs, they are
independent. But, when all the events are considered together, they are not independent.

A random variable X has the following probability mass function

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
P(X = x) a 3a 5a 7a 9a 11a 13a

(i) Find the value of ‘a ’

(ii) Find the c.d.f F(x) of X


(iii) Evaluate : (a) P X  4 (b) P(X < 5) (c) P(3 ≤ X ≤6)
Solution
(i) Since P (x) is a probability function


i.e.  P( x )  1
i 1
i

6
 P( x )  1
x0
 a  3a  5a  7a  9a  11a  13a  1
49a  1
1
a
49

(ii) Distribution function of X.

x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 3 5 7 9 11 13
P (x ) 49 49 49 49 49 49 49

F ( x)   P( xi ) 1 4 9 16 25 36 49
1
49 49 49 49 49 49 49

iii  ( a ) P( X  4 )  P( X  4 )  P( X  5 )  P( X  6 )
 9a  11a  13a
 33a
 1 
 33   
 49 
33

49

( b ) P( X  5 )  1  P X  5  1   X  5   X  6
 1  11a  13a 
 1  24a
1
 1  24 
49
24 25
 1 
49 49
( c ) P( 3  X  6 )  P( X  3 )  P( X  4 )  P( X  5 )  P( X  6 )
 7 a  9a  11a  13a
 40a
 1 
 40 
 49 
40

49

132. The events A, B and C have probabilities P A   , PB   and PC   . Furthermore,
1 1 1
2 3 4

A  C   , B  C   and P A  B  
1
. Find :
6


a  P  A  B  
b PA  B c  P  A  B   d  PA  B e PA  B  C 
Solution


a  P  A  B    1  PA  B  1  16  56
b  P A  B   P A  P A  B   1  1  1
2 6 3

c  P  A  B    1  PA  B  1  PA  PB  PA  B
1 1 1 2 1
 1      1 
2 3 6 3 3

d  P A  B  P A  B  1
3
A random variable X has the density function e x , x  0. Show that Chebychev’s

inequality gives P X  1  2 
1
and show that actual probability is e 3 .
4

Solution.

First, we calculate the mean and variance of X.


By definition,
 
  EX    xf xdx   x e
x
dx  2  1
 0

   x
 
EX 2 2
f x dx   x 2 e  x dx  3  2
 0

Hence, the variance of X is given by

 
 2  Var X   E X 2  E  X 2  2  1  1

2
By Chebychev’s inequality gives P X    C   
C2
Taking C = 2, we have

2
P X  1  2 
1

C2 4
The actual probability is equal to
P X  1  2  1  P X  1  2

 1  P 2  X  1  2
 1  P 1  X  3

   
3 3
 1   e  x dx  1   e  x 0  1   e  3  1  e  3
0
Calculate the mean deviation about mean of the distribution with pdf

2 x 3 0  x 1
f x   
22  x 3 1 x  2
Solution
 1 2
EX    xf xdx   x .2 x dx   x .22  x dx
3 3

 0 1

1 2
  2 x dx   2 x 2  x 3 dx
4

0 1

3 2
 x5   2 x2  x 4  2
22  x 4
 2      dx
 5  0  4 1 1 4

2
2 1  22  x 5  2 1 1
       1
5 2   20  5 2 10
1

E X   1

 2
Mean deviation about mean = E X  E  X     X  EX  f xdx   X  1 f xdx
 0
1 2
 x 4 x5 
 2

   2x  1
2  x 4 
2
   2  x  dx
2 4
 4 5    4  4
0 1 1

2
1 1  2 2  x 5 
 2    0   
4 5  4  5  1

2 1 1 1 1 1
     
20  2 5  10 10 5

Mean deviation about mean = E X  E  X    1


5
Let X be a continuous random variable with the p.d.f

62  x x  1 for 1  x  2


f x   
 0 otherwise

19
Show that the geometric mean G, of X is given by 16G  e6

Solution.
By definition, the geometric mean, G, is given by

log G   logx f x dx

2
  log x 62  x x  1dx
1
2
 6 log x 2  x x  1dx
1

 
2
 6 log x 3x  x 2  2 dx
1

Using integration by parts, we have


 2 2 
  3x 2 x 3    3x 2 x 3  1  
log G  6log x   2 x       2 x  dx
 

  2 3  
1 1  2 3  x  

  12 8  3 1 
2
3x x 2  
 6log 2   4   log1   2       2 dx 
  2 3  2 3  1  2 3  

  
2
    3x
2
  x3
 2 x 
8
 6 log 2 6   4   0   
  3    4 9 1 
 
  8    12 8  3 1  
 6log 2 2        4      2  
  3    4 9  4 9  

   2   8   27  4  
 6log 2    3   4     2  
  3   9   36  

  2    8   23  
 6  log 2     1    2  
 3    9   36  

 2     17   23  72  
 6   log 2     
 3    9   36  
 2     17    49  
 6   log 2     
 3    9   36  
 2     17 49 
 6   log 2    
 3    9 36 

 2     68  49 
 6   log 2   
 3    36 
 2     19 
 6   log 2   
 3    36 
 2   19 
 6   log 2  
 3   36 
19
log G  4 log 2 
6
19
log G  4 log 2 
6
19
log G  log 2 4 
6
19
log G  log 16 
6

log16 G  
19
6
19
16G  e6