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Elastic plastic n2 n1

buffer coating

n2 < n1

Fiber materials:
• Glass:
– SiO2 and oxide dopants (GeO2, P2O5 & B2O3)
• doping concentration changes n1 and n2
Much lower attenuation and higher bandwidth
• Plastic:
– Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA POF) or
Perfluorinated polymer (PFP POF) Symbol
Durable and inexpensive parts 1
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Figure 2-10 from Gerd Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
SMF: MMF:
• Only 1 mode of propagation • Many propagating modes
offer a larger bandwidth pulse spreading due to
only suffer from the intermodal dispersion
chromatic dispersion (each mode travels at
different velocity)
• Smaller core radius
• Larger core radius
difficult to launch and
couple optical power into easier to launch optical
fiber core power into fiber
difficult to connect or splice easier to connect or splice
fibers fibers
require expensive light can use LED (cheaper than
source like laser diode laser diode)

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• G.651 (02/1998) MMF

– Characteristics of a 50/125 µm multimode graded index optical fibre cable


• G.652 (03/2003) SMF

– Characteristics of a single-mode optical fibre and cable


• G.653 (12/2003) DSF

– Characteristics of a dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibre and cable


• G.654 (06/2004)

– Characteristics of a cut-off shifted single-mode optical fibre and cable


• G.655 (03/2003) NZ-DSF

– Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibre and cable


• G.656 (06/2004) Latest CWDM

– Characteristics of a fibre and cable with non-zero dispersion for wideband transport

*More details from the ITU website: http://www.itu.int/home/index.html


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Figure 226. Principle of drawing a fiber Figure 227. Drawing tower

Figures from Harry J. R. Dutton, Understanding Optical Communications, IBM, 1998.


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Up to 12 color-coded fibers can fit
Buffer tube and move freely inside a buffer tube
“Loose Tube”
Optical fiber

Filling compound

Up to 12 color-coded loose tubes


can be packed into a cable
144 fibers in 1 cable

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12 color-coded fibers are aligned into a fiber ribbon.

Up to 24 fiber ribbon units


with 24 fibers in each unit
576 fibers in 1 cable

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1. Demountable joint fiber end connector
2. Permanent bond fiber splice
Goals:
• Low power coupling loss low insertion loss
• Low return loss low reflected power
Minimize the mechanical misalignments of fibers. Connector type

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n2
n1 na
Pin Pcoupled
Preflected

• If a coupling between fibers has an air gap, 2


n1 na
the reflectivity Rn1-air at fiber-core end face is Rn1 air
n1 na
• The reflected power Preflected = Rn1-air Pin
To reduce reflected power zero:

1. Fill air gap with index-matching gel (ngel n1) reduce reflectivity Rn1-air

2. Use angled polished connector at 8 or 9 reduce reflected power


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(A result of fiber end polishing)

Perpendicular
(flat)
end faces

Angled end
faces
n1

n2 13
End-face preparation techniques:
• Grinding and polishing
Time-consuming
• Controlled fracture
– Score-and-break method

Score-and-break

Fiber end polisher

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Polishing quality:
• Flat (reflection < -15 dB)
• Ultra Physical Contact
(reflection < -55 dB)
• Hyper PC (reflection < -60 dB)
• Angled PC (reflection < -65 dB)

End-face radius of curvature:


• ~10 to 30 mm to avoid fiber
damage and to assure low
reflection and insertion loss

Ferrule and fiber offset:


• < 50 microns is recommended
to assure low reflection and
insertion loss
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ST connector SC connector (push-pull
latching mechanism)

FC connector
APC angled connector

LC duplex connectors

MTP angled connector with pin


for 12 SMF ribbon cable 16
Visual inspection of fiber end-face

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Typical loss ~0.3 dB

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Typical insertion loss ~ 0.1 dB

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Top and side (x-y)
cross-sectional
views of fiber cut
along its axis.

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Absorption:

1. Atomic defects in glass composition

2. Impurity atoms in the glass material

3. Basic constituent atoms of fiber


material

Scattering:

1. Microscopic variation in material


density

2. Compositional fluctuations

3. Structural imperfections or defects


during fiber manufacture

Optical fiber attenuation characteristics and


their limiting mechanisms for a GeO2-doped
low-loss low-OH-content silica fiber.
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Bending or radiative losses:

Perturbation of geometry whenever a fiber undergoes a bend of finite radius of curvature.

1. Macroscopic bends with a large radius compared to fiber diameter.

2. Microscopic bends of fiber axis when it is incorporated into cables.

Macroscopic Bend

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Bending or radiative losses:

Perturbation of geometry whenever a fiber undergoes a bend of finite radius of curvature.

1. Macroscopic bends with a large radius compared to fiber diameter.

2. Microscopic bends of fiber axis when it is incorporated into cables.

Microscopic Bend

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• Comparison of attenuation as a function of frequency of various coaxial cables
and several types of high-bandwidth optical fibers

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• Power P(z) decreases exponentially with propagation distance z.

P(z) = P(z=0) e- z where = power attenuation coefficient [km-1 unit]

P(z=0)

Power (W)
P(z)

0 z Distance (km)

amplitude

Pulse amplitude (V)


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1550 nm 1300 nm

Pulse amplitude (V)


0 z Distance (km)

Optical fiber attenuation is


wavelength dependant:
[positive dB/km unit]

P(z) = P(z=0) 10 –( z/10)

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• dB is a relative value. • dBm is an absolute value.
• XdB = Power ratio • XdBm = Power level
= 10 log10 (P2/P1) = 10 log10 (P/1mW)
Note: (P2/P1) is unit less. Note: Reference level is 1 mW.

P(z)mW = P(z=0)mW 10 –( z/10)

divide by 1 mW and take 10 log10 (power ratio)

P(z)dBm = P(z=0)dBm – ( z)dB


[Note: dBm = dBm dB, no dB multiplication]

0.01 mW 0.1 mW 0.5 mW 1 mW 2 mW 10 mW 100 mW

-20 dBm -10 dBm -3 dBm 0 dBm 3 dBm 10 dBm 20 dBm

17 dB 10 dB
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n2
n1 na
Pin Pcoupled
Preflected P’reflected

2
n1 na
• Reflected power: Preflected , mW Rn1 air Pin , mW where Rn1 air
n1 na
Preflected , mW
Preflected , dB 10 log Large Negative #
10 log Rn1 air
Pin ,mW

2
• Insertion loss: Pcoupled ,mW 1 Rn1 air Pin,mW
(example 5-3) Pin,mW Small Positive #
Ploss ,dB 10log 20 log 1 Rn1 air
Pcoupled ,mW
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