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B

E
L
T
“The belts or ropes are used to transmit power from
one shaft to another by means of pulleys which rotate
at the same speed or at different speeds.”
The amount of power transmitted depends upon the
following factors :
1. The velocity of the belt.
2. The tension under which the belt is placed on the
pulleys.
3. The arc of contact between the belt and the smaller
pulley.
4. The conditions under which the belt is used.
It may be noted that:-
(a) The shafts should be properly in line to insure
uniform tension across the belt section.

(b) The pulleys should not be too close together, in


order that the arc of contact on the smaller pulley may
be as large as possible.

(c) The pulleys should not be so far apart as to cause


the belt to weigh heavily on the shafts, thus increasing
the friction load on the bearings.
(d) A long belt tends to swing from side to side,
causing the belt to run out of the pulleys, which in turn
develops crooked spots in the belt.

(e) The tight side of the belt should be at the bottom,


so that whatever sag is present on the loose side will
increase the arc of contact at the pulleys.

(f) In order to obtain good results with flat belts, the


maximum distance between the shafts should not
exceed 10 meters and the minimum should not be less
than 3.5 times the diameter of the larger pulley.
Selection of a Belt Drive
Following are the various important factors upon
which the selection of a belt drive depends:
1. Speed of the driving and driven shafts
2. Speed reduction ratio,
3. Power to be transmitted
4. Centre distance between the shafts,
5. Positive drive requirements
6. Shafts layout
7. Space available
8. Service conditions.
Types of Belt Drives
The belt drives are usually classified into the
following three groups:
1.Light drives. These are used to transmit small
powers at belt speeds up to about 10 m/s as in
agricultural machines and small machine tools.
2. Medium drives. These are used to transmit medium
powers at belt speeds over 10 m/s but up to 22 m/s, as
in machine tools.
3. Heavy drives. These are used to transmit large
powers at belt speeds above 22 m/s as in compressors
and generators.
Types of Belts

Though there are many types of belts used these days,


1. Flat belt. The flat belt as shown in Fig. (a), is
mostly used in the factories and workshops, where a
moderate amount of power is to be transmitted, from
one pulley to another when the two pulleys are not
more than 8 meters apart.

2. V- belt. The V-belt as shown in Fig.(b), is mostly


used in the factories and workshops, where a great
amount of power is to be transmitted, from one pulley
to another, when the two pulleys are very near to each
other.
3. Circular belt or rope. The circular belt or rope as
shown in Fig.(c) is mostly used in the factories and
workshops, where a great amount of power is to be
transmitted, from one pulley to another, when the two
pulleys are more than 8 meters apart.
Material used for Belts

1. Leather belts -The most important material for flat


belt is leather. The best leather belts are made from 1.2
meters to 1.5 meters long strips cut from either side of
the back bone of the top grade steer hides. The hair
side of the leather is smoother and harder than the
flesh side, but the flesh side is stronger.

The belts are specified according to the number of


layers e.g. single, double or triple ply and according to
the thickness of hides used e.g. light, medium or
heavy.
2. Cotton or fabric belts- Most of the fabric belts are
made by folding canvass or cotton duck to three or
more layers (depending upon the thickness desired)
and stitching together. These belts are woven also into
a strip of the desired width and thickness.

The cotton belts are cheaper and suitable in warm


climates, in damp atmospheres and in exposed
positions. Since the cotton belts require little attention,
therefore these belts are mostly used in farm
machinery, belt conveyor etc.
3. Rubber belt. The rubber belts are made of layers of
fabric impregnated with rubber composition and have
a thin layer of rubber on the faces. These belts are very
flexible but are quickly destroyed if allowed to come
into contact with heat, oil or grease.

One of the principle advantage of these belts is that


they may be easily made endless. These belts are
found suitable for saw mills, paper mills where they
are exposed to moisture.
4. Balata belts-These belts are similar to rubber belts
except that balata gum is used in place of rubber.
These belts are acid proof and water proof and it is not
effected by animal oils or alkalies. The balata belts
should not be at temperatures above 40°C because at
this temperature the balata begins to soften and
becomes sticky. The strength of balata belts is 25 per
cent higher than rubber belts.
Working Stresses in Belts
The ultimate strength of leather belt varies from 21 to 35
MPa and a factor of safety may be taken as 8 to 10. Under
average conditions an allowable stress of 2.8 MPa or less
will give a reasonable belt life. An allowable stress of 1.75
MPa may be expected to give a belt life of about 15 years.
Belt Speed
A little consideration will show that when the speed of belt
increases, the centrifugal force also increases which tries
to pull the belt away from the pulley. This will result in the
decrease of power transmitted by the belt. It has been
found that for the efficient transmission of power, the belt
speed 20 m/s to 22.5 m/s may be used.
Density of Belt Materials
The density of various belt materials are given in the
following table.
S.NO MATERIALS DENSITY (Kg/m3)

1 Leather 1000
2 Convass 1220
3 Rubber 1140
4 Balata 1110
5 Single woven belt 1170
6 Double woven belt 1250
Coefficient of Friction Between Belt and Pulley

The coefficient of friction between the belt and the


pulley depends upon the following factors:
1. The material of belt;
2. The material of pulley;
3. The slip of belt; and
4. The speed of belt.
According to C.G. Barth, the coefficient of friction (μ)
for oak tanned leather belts on cast iron pulley, at the
point of slipping, is given by the following relation,
i.e. µ = 0.54 – (42.6 / 152.6 + v)
where v = Speed of the belt in meters per minute.
Standard Belt Thicknesses and Widths
The standard flat belt thicknesses are 5, 6.5, 8, 10 and
12 mm. The preferred values of thicknesses are as
follows:
(a) 5 mm for nominal belt widths of 35 to 63 mm,
(b) 6.5 mm for nominal belt widths of 50 to 140 mm,
(c) 8 mm for nominal belt widths of 90 to 224 mm,
(d) 10 mm for nominal belt widths of 125 to 400 mm,
(e) 12 mm for nominal belt widths of 250 to 600 mm.

The standard values of nominal belt widths are in R10


series, starting from 25 mm up to 63 mm and in R 20
series starting from 71 mm up to 600 mm.
Thus, the standard widths will be 25, 32, 40, 50, 63,
71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224,
250, 280, 315, 355, 400, 450, 500, 560 and 600 mm.

Belt Joints
The various types of joints are
1. Cemented joint, 2. Laced joint, and 3. Hinged joint.
The cemented joint, as shown in Fig. (a), made by the
manufacturer to form an endless belt, is preferred than
other joints. The laced joint is formed by punching
holes in line across the belt, leaving a margin between
the edge and the holes. Sometimes, metal hinges may
be fastened to the belt ends and connected by a steel or
fiber pin as shown in Fig. 18.3 (d).
Efficiencies of belt joints.
S.No Type of joint Efficiency
(%)
1 Cemented, endless, cemented at 90-100
factory
2 Cemented in shop 80-90
3 Wire laced by machine 75-85
4 Wire laced by hand 70-80
5 Raw-hide laced 60-70
6 Metal belt hooks 35-40
1.
FLAT BELT
DRIVE
“Flat belt drives can be used for transmitting large
amount of power and there is no upper limit of
distance between the pulleys.”

These drives are efficient at high speeds and they offer


noiseless running. Flat belts are available for a wide
range of width, thickness, weight and material.

Advantages of Flat-belt drive


1. Different velocity ratios can be obtained by using
a stepped cone pulley.
2. A belt drive can be used as a clutch, by shifting the
belt from fast pulley to loose pulley.
3. Design of flat belt drive is simple.
4. Flat belt drive is relatively cheap and easy to
maintain.
5. Flat belt drives are flexible, which gives protection.
6. Close casing is not required, like a gear box.
7. Flat belt drives can be used for long centre distances
(up to 15 meters)
Disadvantages of Flat-belt drive

1. Since velocity ratio is not constant, flat belt drive


is not a positive drive
2. Flat belt drives have larger dimensions and occupy
more space.
3. Flat belt drive is not suitable for smaller centre
distance (less than 1 metre).
Types of Flat belt drives

1. Open belt drive


2. Crossed or twist belt drive
3. Quarter turn belt drive
4. Compound belt drive
5. Belt drive with idler pulleys
6. Stepped or cone pulley drive
7. Fast and loose pulley drive
1. Open belt drive- In the open belt drive shafts
arranged parallel and rotating in the same direction.

2. Crossed or twist belt drive- In crossed or twist belt


drive shafts arranged parallel and rotating in the
opposite directions.

3. Quarter turn belt drive – In quarter turn belt drive


(also known as right angle belt drive) shafts arranged
at right angles and rotating in one definite direction.
Open Belt Drive

Crossed Belt Drive


Quarter turn belt drive
4. Compound belt drive- A compound belt drive is
used when power is transmitted from one shaft to
another through a number of pulleys.

5. Belt drive with idler pulleys-A belt drive with an


idler pulley (also known as jockey pulley drive) is
used with shafts arranged parallel and when an open
belt drive can not be used due to small angle of
contact on the smaller pulley. This type of drive is
provided to obtain high velocity ratio and when the
required belt tension can not be obtained by other
means.
Compound belt drive
Belt drive with idler pulleys
6. Stepped or cone pulley drive- A stepped or cone
pulley drive is used for changing the speed of the
driven shaft while the main or driving shaft runs at
constant speed. This is accomplished by shifting the
belt from one part of the steps to the other.
7. Fast and loose pulley drive- A fast and loose
pulley drive is used when the driven or machine shaft
is to be started or stopped whenever desired without
interfering with the driving shaft. A pulley which is
keyed to the machine shaft is called fast pulley and
runs at the same speed as that of machine shaft. A
loose pulley runs freely over the machine shaft and is
incapable of transmitting any power.
Stepped or cone pulley Fast and loose pulley
drive drive
Velocity Ratio of a Belt Drive
It is the ratio between the velocities of the driver and
the follower or driven.
Let, d1 = Diameter of the driver,
d2 = Diameter of the follower,
N1 = Speed of the driver in r.p.m.,
N2 = Speed of the follower in r.p.m.,

Length of the belt that passes over the driver, in one


minute = π d1 N1

Similarly, length of the belt that passes over the follower,


in one minute = π d2 N2
Since the length of belt that passes over the driver in
one minute is equal to the length of belt that passes
over the follower in one minute, therefore-
π d1 N1 = π d2 N2
velocity ratio = { N2/N1 = d1/d2}

When thickness of the belt (t) is considered, then


velocity ratio,
{ N2/N1 = (d1 + t) /(d2 + t)}
The velocity ratio of a belt drive may also be obtained
We know that the peripheral velocity of the belt on the
driving pulley, v1 = π d1 N1 / 60
and peripheral velocity of the belt on the driven pulley
v2 = π d2 N2 / 60
When there is no slip, then ν1 = ν2
So {π d1 N1 / 60} / {π d2 N2 / 60}
Or { N2/N1 = d1/d2}

In case of a compound belt drive, the velocity ratio is


given by
Speed of last driven = Product of diameters of drivers
Speed of first driver Product of diameters of drivens
Slip of the Belt
In the motion of belts and pulleys assuming a firm
frictional grip between the belts and the pulleys. But
sometimes, the frictional grip becomes insufficient.
This may cause some forward motion of the driver
without carrying the belt with it. This is called slip of
the belt and is generally expressed as a percentage.
{N2/N1 = d1/d2 (1-(s/100)}
Where s= s1+s2
If thickness of the belt (t) is considered, then
Design of Flat Belt:-
1.Design Based on Basic Equations
2. Design Based on Manufacturer’s Data
1.Design Based on Basic Equations
Step 1- Velocity Ratio =
Speed ratio =(1/Velocity ratio)

Step 2- Ratio of tensions =

where T1 = tension on tightside in Newtons


T2 = tension on slackside in Newtons
Tc= centrifugal tension in Newton's
µ = coefficient of friction
θ = angle of contact in radians

r = smaller pulley radius


C = centre distance
Always consider θ for smaller pulley
Note: (+) is used for cross belt drive
(-) is used for open belt drive
Step 3: Calculation of Tc
Tc = Centrifugal tension = m.v2 in Newton.
where m =mass of the belt in kgf/meter length.
Step 4 Max. tension =T =Stress Area = ( b t) N
Where  = stress in the belt N/m2
b = width of belt in meter
t = thickness of belt in meter
T = T1 + Tc

Step 5 - Power transmitted by the belt


P = (T1 - T2) v in watts
For Max. Power Transmission
Step 6 Initial tension (T0)

Step 7 Length of Open belt drive.


Design Based on Manufacturer’s Data
Step 1: Diameter of Driver (or) Driven pulley
Velocity Ratio =

Speed ratio =(1/Velocity ratio)


Find the unknown parameters by using the given
parameters. From P.S.G Data book, Page No. 7.54,
Take the standard value of pulley diameters and the
tolerances.
Step 2: Velocity of the belt (v)
Step 3: Load correction factor (Ks)
From P.S.G Data book, Page No. 7.53, According to
given application, take the Load correction factor (Ks).

Step 4: Arc of contact (θ)


From PSG Data book, Page No. 7.54
Arc of contact
where
D = Diameter of larger pulley
d = Diameter of smaller pulley
C = Centre distance
Step 5: Correction factor for Arc of contact (Kα)
From PSG Data book, Page No. 7.54, corresponding
to Arc of contact, correction factor (Kα) can be
determined.

Step 6: Corrected power


Step 7: Corrected belt rating
From PSG Data book, Page .No. 7.54, corresponding
to Load rating per mm per ply at 1800 arc of contact at
10 m/s belt speed, (select for either Fort 949 g (or) Hi-
speed 878), in kW

From PSG Data book, Page No. 7.52, corresponding


to minimum pulley diameter and maximum belt speed
select the number of plies.
Corrected belt rating of selected belt with
corresponding arc of contact and belt speed
Step 8: Width of the belt
From PSG Data book Page No. 7.54
Millimeter plies of belt

From PSG Data book, Page No. 7.52, The standard


belt width, corresponding to ply was found out.
Step 9: Length of the belt
From PSG Data book, Page No. 7.53, the Length of
the belt can be calculated. for open drive
Step 10: Width of pulley
From PSG Data book, Page No. 7.54, corresponding
to the Belt width, the pulleys to be wider than the belt
width by given “mm”.

From PSG Data book, Page No.7.54, the


recommended series of pulley diameters and
tolerances are determined.
2.
V-BELT
DRIVE
“V-Belt is a type of flexible connector used for
transmitting power from one pulley to another pulley
having a centre distance up to 3 metres.”

V-Belts are used with electric nylon to drive different


equipments like blowers, compressor, machine tool,
industries machinery, etc.
The belts are operated on grooved pulley called
sheaves. The sheaves have V – shaped grooves or two
inclined sides with flat bottom. Usually V - Belts are
endless ie., each belt is made in a circular form with
various cross section which may be differentiated by
different grades.
Advantages of V-Belt
1. High velocity ratio (up to 7 and in some cases 10
also)
2. Smaller centre distance.
3. Reliability of the drive, in any position; even with
vertical shafts.
4. Replacement is easy, because V-belts are available
in standard sizes.
5. Smooth operation.
Disadvantages of V-Belt
1. Design of V-belt drive is more complicated.
2. Cannot be used for larger centre distance.
The Cross-section of V-belt
Standard Cross-section of V- belt is a trapezoidal.
2β = Groove angle = 400 (general)
To find cross-sectional area:

To find (b):
Types of V - belts
According to BIS (IS - 2494 - 1974), V-belts are
classified as A, B, C, D and E types.

Design of V-Belt:-
1.Design Based on Basic Equations
2. Design Based on Manufacturer’s Data

1. Based on Basic equations:


Where-
β = Semi groove angle
θ = Angle of contact in radians
T1 = Tension on tight side
T2 = Tension on slack side
For centrifugal tension

Where Tc = Centrifugal tension = m.v2


v = Speed of the belt in m/sec.
Power transmitted per belt

n = Number of V belts =

2. Design Based On Manufacturer’s Data


Refer data book, Page No: (From 7.58 to 7.69)
Step 1- From the given data, select the cross-section
of the belt depending on the power to be transmitted.
From PSG data book Page No. 7.58
Note the corresponding values,
Belt cross section, W, T, mass of belt, and minimum
pulley diameter;

Step 2- Select smaller pulley dia. from the table Page


No. 7.58 of PSG Data book and find larger pulley dia.
by using speed ratio.
D = Larger pulley dia.
d = Smaller pulley dia.
N1 = Speed of driver pulley
N2 = Speed of driven pulley
*(Take R20 series for pulley diameter)
V-belt designation refer PSG data book Page No. 7.61.
C 3048/120 1S:2494 means,
C - represents - Cross section
3048 - represents nominal inside length.

Step 3- Calculate nominal pitch length (L) (Page No.


7.53)

From PSG Data book Page No.7.58, 7.59 and 7.60,


according to the Cross-section of the belt; select the
nearest nominal pitch length and take the
corresponding nominal inside length.
Step 4- Calculation of design power
Refer PSG data book, Page No. 7.62. Calculate the
Power.
Ex: Let the C.S. of belt is (B)

de = equivalent pitch diameter = dp  Fb


d1 = dia. of smaller pulley in m.
N1 =Speed of smaller pulley in m
where dp = Smaller pulley diameter mm
Fb = From PSG Data book table, Page No. 7.62
according to speed ratio (D/d). Take value of Fb at D/d
ratio.

To Find No. of belts


Refer PSG Data book Page No. 7.70

where P = given power in kW


Fa = Correction factor (7.69) refer PSG data book
Page No. 7.69
kW = Power at the corresponding cross-section.
Fc = Correction factor for length (Refer data book
Page No. 7.59 and 7.60)
Fd = Correction factor for arc of contact (Refer data
book Page No. 7.68)

Calculation of new centre distance


(From PSG Data book Page No. 7.61)
Calculation of T1 and T2

……………..(1)

β=Semi-Groove angle
θ =Arc of contact = 1800 –(D-d/C)  600
θ = Calculate in radians.
Centrifugal tension Tc = m v2
where m = ρ  b  t  1 kg/m length
ρ = density of belt material kg/m3
(b  t) = C.S. area of V-belt
Power transmitted/belt = (T1 - T2)  v ……….(2)
Solving eq (1) and eq (2) and Calculate T1 and T2

*Calculation of stress: (fb)


Max. permissible tension = T  fb  area of belt
fb = permissible stress in the belt
But, T = (T1 – Tc)
(T1 – Tc) = fb  area of belt
Calculate (fb):