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Chapter

DYNAMIC FORCE

ANALYSIS

SECT TOPIC

TOPIC/PROBLEM MATRIX

PROBLEMS

11.4 Force Analysis of A Fourbar Instantaneous Continuous

11.5 Force Analysis of A Slider-Crank 11.7 Linkages With More Than Four Bars 11.8 Shaking Forces and Torques

11.10 Force Analysis by Energy Methods

11.11 Flywheels

11.12 Linkage Force Transmission Index

11-8,11-9, 11-10,11-11, 11-12, 11-20 11-13,11-15, 11-21

11-16,11-17,11-18

11-1,11-2

11-3, 11-5

11-4, 11-6,11-22, 11-23, 11-24

11-7,11-19

11-14

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-2-1

liS PR~EM 11-2

Statement:

Draw free body diagrams of the links in the sixbar linkage shown in Figure 4-12 and write the dynamic equations to solve for all forces plus the driving torque. Assemble the symbolic equations in matrix form for solution.

Solution:

No solution is provided to this algebraic exercise.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-3a-1

~ PROBLEM 11-3a

Statement:

Units:

Table Pl l-I shows kinematic and geometric data for several slider-crank linkages of the type and orientation shown in Figure PI 1-1. The point locations are defined as described in the text. For row a in the table, solve for forces and torques at the position shown. Also, compute the shaking force and the shaking torque. Consider the coefficient of friction Jl between slider and ground to be zero.

2 - I

blob := lbf-sec -in

Given:

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 to A)

a:= 4.00·in

Link 3 (A to B)

b .= I2.00·in

Offset c := O.OO·in

Crank angle and motion: 92 := 45·deg

Friction: 11 := 0

- I

(l)2 := IO·rad·sec 83 := I66.40.deg

Coupler point:

Rp3:= O.O·in

ORP3 := O.O·deg

Mass:

m2:= 0.002·blob

m3 .= 0.020·blob

m4 := 0.060·blob

Moment of inertia:

IG2:= O.lO.blob.in2

IG3 := 0.20.blob.in2

Mass center:

RCG2 := 2.00·in 1)2 := O.deg

RCG3:= 5.00·in 03:= O·deg

Force and torque:

Fp3:= O·/bl

OPP3 := O·deg

T3 := 20·lbj-in

Accelerations:

-2 <X2:= 20·rad·sec

-2 aG2 := 203.96·in·sec

BAG2 := 213.69·deg

-2 -2

<X3 := -2.40·rad·sec aG3 := 37l.08·in·sec

BAG3:= 200.84·deg

-2 aG4:= 357.I7·in·sec

BAG4:= I80.0·deg

Solution:

See Figure PI I-I, Table PII-I, and Mathcad file PII03a.

I. Calculate the x and y components of the position vectors.

R12x:= RCG2,cos(92 + 180.deg)

RI2y:= RCG2·sin(92 + I80.deg) R32x:= RCG2·cos(82)

R32y := RCG2·sin( 92)

R23x:= RCG3'COS(e3)

R23y:= RCG3·sin( 83)

R43x := (b - RCG3),cos(83 + I80.deg) R43y:= (b - RCG3)·sin(83 + 180.deg) Rrs»> RP3,cos(93 + 180·deg+ ORP3) RP3y:= RP3·sin(e3 + 180·deg+ ORP3)

R12x = -1.414 in

Rl2y = -l.414 in

R32x= 1.414in

R32y = 1.414 in

R23x = -4.860 in

R23y = 1.176in

R43x = 6.804 in

R43y = -1.646 in

Rp3x = 0.000 in

RP3y = 0.000 in

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-3a-2

2_ Calculate the x and y components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS)_

aG2x:= aG2-cos( BAG2) aG2y:= aG2-sin( BAG2)

-2 aG2x = -169.705 in-sec

-2 aG2y = -113.136 in-sec

aG3x:= aG3'cos( BAG3) aG3y:= aG3.sin( BAG3)

-2 aG3x = -346.803 in- sec

-2 aG3y = -132.015 in-sec

-2 aG4x = -357.170 in-sec

3. Calculate the x andy components of the external force at P on link 3 in the CGS.

Fp3x := FP3'COS( 8FP3) Fp3y:= FP3.sin(8FP3)

Fp3x = O.OOO/hj

FP3y = 0.000 lhj

4. Substitute these given and calculated values into the matrix equation 11.1 Og, modified for this problem. Note that Mathcad requires that all elements in a matrix have the same dimension. Thus, the matrix and array in equation 11.1 Og will be made dimensionless and the dimensions will be put back in after solving it.

0 I 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
-R12y R12x -R32y R32x 0
0 0
in in in in
0 0 -1 0 0 0 0
C'-
.- 0 0 -1 0 0 0
0
R23y -R23x -R43y R43x 0 0
0 0
in in in in
0 0 0 0 -1 0 11 0
0 0 0 0 0 -1 1 0 F:=

- 1 R:=C ·F

- I m2-aG2y-lbj

- 1 - 1 IG2-a2·/bj -in

(m3.aG3x - FP3x).lbj- I (m3.aG3y - FP3y)./bj- I

(IG3.a3 - Rp3x·Fp3y + Rp3yFp3x - T3)_/bj-l_in-1 - I

m4·aG4x"lbj

o

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

FJ Zx := R(lbf F32x := Rflbf F43x := R5·lbf F14y:= Ri1bf TJ2:= RS·lbf·in

FJ2x = -28.7Ibf F32x = 28.4lbf F43x = 21.4lbf F14y = -8.74Ibf TJ2 = 99.6IbJ-in

F12y:= Ri1bf F32y:= R4·1bf F43y:= R6·1bf

S. Calculate the shaking force and shaking torque using equations 11.15.

F21:= -FJ2x - j.FJ2y

Magnitude:

Angle:

Ts:= -TJ2

Fs:= IFsl ()Fs:= arg{Fs)

Fs = 28.706 + 2.867j lbf Fs = 28.8481bf

()Fs = 5.703 deg Ts = -99.6IbJ-in

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-3a-3

Fl2y = 5.871bf F32y = -6.10lbf F43y = -8.74Ibf

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-4a-1

~ PROBLEM 11-48

Statement:

Tables PII-I and PII-2 show kinematic and geometric data for several slider-crank linkages of the type and orientation shown in Figure PII-I. The point locations are defined as described in the text. For row a in the table, solve for the input torque on link 2 using the method of virtual work at the position shown. Consider the coefficient of friction J.L between slider and ground to be zero.

2 - I blob := lbf-sec -in

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 to A)

a:= 4.00·in

Link 3 (A to 8)

b := 12.00·in

Units:

Given:

Offset

c:= O.OO·in

Friction:

J.L:= 0

93 := 166.40·deg

Crank angle and motion: 92:= 45·deg

Coupler point:

Rp3 := O.O·in

ORP3 := O.O·deg

Mass:

mr := 0.002·b/ob

m3 := 0.020·blob

m4 := 0.060·blob

Moment of inertia:

IG2:= 0.10.b/ob.in2

103:= 0.20-blob.in2

Mass center:

RCG2:= 2_00-in 82:= O-deg

RC03:= 5.00·in 83:= O-deg

Force and torque:

Fp3:= O·/b/

OFP3 := O-deg

T3 .= 20·lbI in

Accelerations:

-2 <X2 := 20-rad·sec

-2 aG2 := 203_96·in·sec

OAG2:= 2I3_69-deg

-2 -2

<X3 := -2.40-rad-sec aG3 := 371.08·in·sec

OAG3 := 200.84·deg

Velocities:

- I {O2:= IO-rad·sec

-2 aG4:= 357_17·in·sec

- I vG2 := 20.0·in·sec

OAG4:= I80_0-deg

OVG2:= 135.0·deg

- I - I

(O3 := -2.43·rad·sec vG3:= 35.24·in·sec

0VG3:= 152.09.deg

- 1 vG4 := 35.l4·in·sec

- 1 vP3:= 35.24·in·sec

0VG4:= 180.0·deg

OVPJ:= 152.04·deg

Solution:

See Figure PI I-I, Table PII-I, Table PII-2, and Mathcad file PI103a.

I. Calculate the x andy components of the velocity vectors.

VG2x := VG2'COS( OVG2)

VG2y:= VG2·sin( OVG2)

- 1 vG2x = -14.142 in-sec

- 1 vG2y = 14.142 in-sec

VG3x := VG3'COS( OVG3) VG3y := VG3·sin( OVG3)

-I VG3x = -31.141 in-sec

-1 vG3y = 16.495 in-sec

- 1 VG4x = -35.140 in-sec

VP3x := VP3'COS( OVP3)

- I vP3x = -31.127 in-sec

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-4a-2

- 1 v P3y = 16.522 in- sec

2. Calculate the x andy components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS).

0G2x:= OG2·COS( BAG2) 0G2y:= OG2·sin( BAG2)

-2 oG2x = -169.705 in-sec

-2 OG2y = -113.136 in-sec

OG3x:= OG3·COS( BAG3) aG3y:= aGJ·sin( BAGJ)

-2 oG3x = -346.803 in- sec

-2 OG3y = -132.015 in-sec

-2 aG4x = -357.170 in-sec

3. Calculate the x andy components of the external force at P in the CGS.

Fp3x := FP3·COS( t5FP3) Fp3x = O.OOO/bl

Fp3y := FP3·sin( t5FP3)

Fp3y = O.OOOlbl

4. Substitute these given and calculated values into equation 1l.l6c and solve for the input torque.

TI2:= _1_.[m2.(OG2X.VG2X + aG2yvG2y) + m3·(OG3x·VG3x + OG3yVG3y) ... J ro2 +m4·(aG4x·vG4x) + (IG2·a2·ro2 + IG3·a3·ro3) ...

+-(Fp3x·VP3x + Fp3y·VP3y) - T3·ro3

T/2 = 99.687Ibf-in

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

~ PROBLEM 11-Sa

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-5a-1

Table PII-3 shows kinematic and geometric data for several pin-jointed fourbar linkages of the type and orientation shown in Figure PI 1-2. All have 91 = O. The point locations are defined as described in the text. For row a in the table, solve for forces and torques at the position shown. Also, compute the shaking force and the shaking torque. Work in any units system you prefer.

Statement:

Units:

Given:

2 - 1 blob := lbf'-sec -in

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 to A) Link 4 (B to 04)

a:= 4.00·in c:= 8.00·in

Crank angle and motion: 92:= 4S·deg

Link 3 (A to B) b := 12.00·in

Link 3 (02 to 04) d:= 15.00·in

- 1

0)2:= 20'rad'sec

- 1

Other link angles: e3 := 24.97·deg 0) 3 := -5.62·rad·sec 94:= 99.30·deg 0)4:= 3.56·rad·sec-

Coupler point:

Rp3:= O.O·in

Rocker point:

RP4:= 8.0·in

Mass:

m2:= 0.002· blob

Moment of inertia: IG2:= O.lO.blob.in2

Mass center:

bRP3 := O.O·deg

bRP4 := O.O·deg

m3 := 0.020·blob

m4:= O.lOO·blob

tos := 0.20.blob.in2

IG4 t= 0.50.b!ob.in2

RCG2:= 2.00· in B2:= ts-deg

seas := 5.00·in

Force and torque: Fp3 := O·lbl

RCG4:= 4.00· in B4:= 30·deg

bFP4:= -30·deg

Accelerations:

T3:= -I5·/bl·in -2 0.2:= 20'rad'sec

bFP3 := O·deg

FP4 := 40·/bl

T4:= 2S.lbf-in

-2 aG2 .= 801.00·in·sec

BAG2 := 222.l4·deg

-2 -2

0.3 := 75.29·rad·sec am := 1691.49·in·sec BAG3 := 208.24.deg

-2 -2

0.4:= 244.43·rad·sec aG4:= 979.02·in·sec BAG4:= 222.27.deg

Solution:

See Figure PlI-2, Table PII-3 and Mathcad file PilOSa

1. Calculate the x and y components of the position vectors.

R12x:= RCG2'COS(e2 + &2 + 180.deg)

R12y:= RCG2·Siri...92 + &2 + 180.deg)

R12x = -1.414 in

R12y = -1.414 in

cS32 := atan2( a - RCG2'cos( cS2), RCG2·siri... &2)) R32x := R32'COS( 92 - cS32)

R32y:= R32·Siri...e2 - (32)

R32 = 2.000 in

032 = 0.000 deg

R32x = 1.414 in

R32y = 1.414 in

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-5a-2

R23x:= RCG3ocos(83 + 03 + 1800deg) R23y:= RCG3osi"'-83 + 03 + 1800deg)

R43:;;;: J(RCG3oSi"'-03))2 + (b - RCG3oCOS(03)f 043:;;;: atan2(b - RCG3oCOS(03),RCG3osi"'-03)) R43x:;;;: R43ocos(83 - 043)

R43y:;;;: R43osi"'-83 - 043)

R14x:;;;: RCG40Cos(84 + 04 + 1800deg) R14y:= RCG4osi"'-84 + 04 + 1800deg)

R23x = -40533 in

R23y ;;;: -2.111 in

R43 = 70000 in

043 = 00000 deg

R43x = 6.346 in

R43y = 2.955 in

RJ4x = 2.534 in

RJ4y = -30095 in

R34:= J(RCG4oSi"'-04))2 + (c - RCG40COS(04))2 034:;;;: atan2(c - RCG4oCOS(04),RCG4oSi"'-04)) R34x := R34'COS( 84 - 034)

R34y:= R34osi"'-84 - 034)

Rp3x:= RP3,cos(83 + ORP3)

Rp3y:= RP3·si"'-83 + ORP3)

RP4x:= RP4,cos(84 + ORP4)

RP4y:= RP4osi"'-84 + ORP4)

R34 = 4.957 in

034 = 23.794 deg

R34x = 1.241 in

R34y = 4.799 in

Rp3x = 00000 in

Rp3y = 00000 in

RP4x = -1.293 in

RP4y = 7.895 in

20 Calculate the x and y components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS)o

«cu= aG2°cos( BAG2)

-2 QG2x = -593.948 in- sec

QG2y:= aG2oSi"'- BAG2) QG3x:= QG3'COS( BAG3) QG3y:= aG3osi"'- BAG3) «ce= QG4°COS( BAG4) QG4y:= aG4·si"'- BAG4)

-2 aG2y = -537.427 in-sec

3 -2

QG3x = -1.490 x 10 in- sec

-2 aG3y = -800.355 in- sec

-2 QG4x = -724.459 in-sec

-2 QG4y = -658.513 in-sec

30 Calculate the x andy components of the external force on links 3 and 4 in the CGSo

Frs»> FP3'COS(OFP3) Fp3x = OoOOO/bl

Frs«> FP3oSi"'-OFP3) FP4x := FP4ocos( OFP4) FP4y:= FP4osi"'-OFP4)

Fp3y = OoOOO/bl

FNx = 34.6411bf

FP4y = -20.000Ibl

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-5a-3

4. Substitute these given and calculated values into the matrix equation 11.9, modified for additional terms. Note that Mathcad requires that all elements in a matrix have the same dimension. Thus, the matrix and array in equation 11.1 Og will be made dimensionless and the dimensions will be put back in after solving it.

0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
-R/2y R/2x -R32y R32x
0 0 0 0
in in in in
0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -I 0 0 0 0
c:=
R23y -R23x -R43y R43x 0
0 0 0 0
in in in in
0 0 0 0 -1 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -I 0 0
R34y -R34x -R14y RJ4x 0
0 0 0 0
in in in in
- I
m2·aG2x·1bl
-1
m2·aG2ylbl
- I - 1
IG2·U2·1bl -in
(m3.aG3x - FP3x).lbl- I
(m3.aG3y - Fp3y).lbl- 1 - I
F·- R:=C ·F
.-
( ) -1 -1
'GJ·u3 - Rp3x·Fp3y + Rp3y·FP3x - T3 -lbf -in
(m4.aG4x - FP4x).lbl- 1
(m4.aG4y - Fp4y).lbl- I
( ) -1-1
IG4·u4 - RP4x·FP4y + RP4yFP4x - T4 -lbf -in F/2x:= R(lbl F12x = -124.0Ibl Fl2y := R2·lbl Fl2y = -62.3Ibl
F32x :== R]"lhJ F32x == 122.8Ih/ F32y:= Rflhl F32y = 61.21bl
F43x := Rs"lbl F 43x = 93.01bl F43y := R6·lbl F43y = 45.21bl
F/4x:= Ri1bl FJ4x = -14.10Ibl F14y:= R8·/b/ F14y = -O.676Ih/
T/2 := R9·lbf in TJ2 = 176.41bfin 5. Calculate the shaking force and shaking torque using equations 11.15.

F21:= -F12x - j.Fl2y

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

Magnitude:

Angle:

Ts:= -TJ2

F»= IFsl ()Fs:= arg{Fs)

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-5a-4 Fs = 109.868 + 61.581j Ibf

r, = 125.9491bf

()Fs = 29.271 deg

Ts = -176.41bf·;n

Tables PII-3 and PII-4 show kinematic and geometric data for several pin-jointed fourbar linkages of the type and orientation shown in Figure PI 1-2. All have 9) = O. The point locations are defined as described in the text. For row a in the table, solve for input torque on link 2, using the method

of virtual work, at the position shown. Work in any units system you prefer.

2 - 1 blob := lbf-sec -in

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 to A)

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

~ PROBLEM 11-6a

Statement:

Units:

Given:

a:= 4.00· in

c:= 8.00·in

Link angles:

92:= 45·deg

Coupler point:

Rp3 := O.O·in

Rocker point:

Rp4:= 8.0·in

Mass:

m: := O.002·blob

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-6a-1

Link 3 (A to B) b := 12.00·in

Link 3 (02 to 04) d := I5.00·in

93 := 24.97·deg 94 := 99.30·deg

r5RP3 := O.O·deg

r5RP4 := O.O·deg

m3 := 0.020·blob

m4:= 0.1 00· blob

Moment of inertia: IG2:= O.lO.b/ob.in2 IGJ:= 0.20.blob.in2 IG4 := 0.50.blob.in2
Mass center: RCG2 ::= 2.00·in 82:= O·deg RCGJ:= 5.00·in 83:= O·deg
RCG4:= 4.00·in 84:= 30·deg
Force and torque: Fp3:= O·/bl r5FP3 := O·deg FP4 := 40.lbl r5FP4 := -30.deg Accelerations:

T3:= -I5·/bj-in -2 <X2 .= 20·rad·sec

T4 := 25·1bj-in

-2 aG2 := 80l.00·in·sec

(}AG2:= 222.l4·deg

-2 -2

<X3 := 75.29·rad·sec aGJ := 1691.49·in·sec (}AG3:= 20824·deg

-2 -2

<X4:= 244.43·rad·sec aG4:= 979.02·in·sec (}AG4:= 222.27·deg

- 1 - 1

(03 := -5.62·rad·sec vG3:= 54.44·in·sec

-1 -I

(04 := 3.56·rad·sec vG4 := 14.23·in·sec

-1 vP3 := 80.00·in·sec

Velocities:

- I (02 .= 20·rad·sec

- 1 vG2 := 40.0·in·sec

(}VG2:= 135.0·deg

(}VG3:= I45.19·deg

(}VG4:= 2I9.30·deg

BVP3:= 135.00·deg

-I vP4 := 28.45·jn·sec

BVP4:= 189.30·deg

Solution:

See Figure PII-2, Table PII-3, Table PII-4, and Mathcad file PII06a.

1. Calculate the x and y components of the velocity vectors.

VG2x:= VG2·COS( BVG2)

vG2y:= VG2·sin( BVG2)

- I VG2x = -28.284 in- sec

- 1 VG2y = 28.284 in-sec

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-6a-2

VG3x := VG3·COS( BVG3) VG3y:= VGJ·Sin( BVGJ)

- 1 vG3x = -44.698 in- sec

-I VG3y = 31.077 in-sec

VG4x:= VG4·COS( BVG4) vtuv> VG4·sin( BVG4) VP3x:= VP3·COS( BVP3) VP3y := VP3·Sin( BVP3) VP4x := VP4·COS( BVP4) VP4y := VP4.sin( BVP4)

- 1 vG4x = -11.012 in-sec

- 1 VG4y = -9.013 in-sec

- 1 vP3x = -56.569 in- sec

-1 VP3y = 56.569 in-sec

-1 vP4x = -28.076 in- sec

- 1 VP4y = -4.598 in- sec

2. Calculate the x andy components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS).

acz«= aG2·cos( BAG2)

-2 aG2x = -593.948 in- sec

«c»> aG2·sin( BAG2) «cs«> aG3·cos( BAG3) «a»> aGJ·sin( BAGJ) GG4x:= aG4·cos( BAG4) aG4y:= aG4·sin( BAG4)

-2 aG2y = -537.427 in-sec

3 -2

aG3x = -1.490 x 10 in- sec

-2 aG3y = -800.355 in-sec

-2 aG4x = -724.459 in- sec

-2 aG4y = --658.513 in-sec

3. Calculate the x and y components of the external force on links 3 and 4 in the CGS.

Fp3x:= FP3·cos(8FP3) Fp3x = O.OOOlbf

Fp3y := FPJ·sin( 8FP3) FP4x := FP4.COS( 8FP4) FP4y:= FP4.Sin(8FP4)

Fp3y = O.OOOlbf FP4x = 34.641/bf

FP4y = -20.000Ibf

4. Substitute these given and calculated values into equation 11.16c and solve for the input torque.

1

T12:= -.[m2.(aG2X.VG2X + aG2y"VG2y) + m3·(aG3x·vG3x + GG3y"VG3y) ... ]

ID2 + m4.(aG4x.vG4x + aG4y.vG4y) + (IG2·U2·oo2 + IG3·U3·ID3 + IG4·U4·oo4) .. + -(Fp3x·VP3x + FP3y·VP3y) - (FP4x·VP4x + FP4y.vP4y) ...

+-T3·oo3 - T4·oo4

T12 = 166.3lbfin

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

~ PROBLEM 11-7a

Statement:

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-7a-1

For row a in Table PII-3, input the associated disk file to program FOURBAR, calculate the linkage parameters for crank angles from zero to 360 deg by S deg increments, and design a steel disk flywheel to smooth the input torque using a coefficient of fluctuation ofO.OS. Minimize the

flywheel weight.

2 - 1 blob r= lbf-sec -in

Units:

Given:

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 toA) Link 4 (8 to 04)

a:= 4.00·in c:= 8.00·;n

Crank angle and motion: 92 := 4S·deg

Link 3 (A to B) b := 12.00·;n

Link 3 (02 to 04) d := IS.00·;n

- 1

(02 := 20'rad'sec

- 1

Other link angles: 93 := 24.97·deg (03:= -S.62·rad·sec 94 := 99.30·deg (04:= 3.S6·rad·sec-

Coupler point:

Rp3:= O.O·in

Rocker point:

RP4:= 8.0·in

Mass:

mr= 0.002· blob

Moment of inertia: 1G2:= O.lO.blob.in2

Mass center:

ORP3 := O.O·deg

ORP4 := O.O·deg

m3 .= 0.020·blob

m4:= O.lOO·blob

1G3 := O.20.blob.in2

1G4:= 0.SO.blob.in2

RCG2:= 2.00·;n 52:= O·deg

53:= O·deg

RCGJ := S.OO·;n

Force and torque: Fp3 := O·lbj

RCG4:= 4.00·;n 54:= 30·deg

OFP3 := ts-deg

OFP4 := -30.deg

Accelerations:

T3:= -I S·/bf in -2 u2 := 20·rad·sec

Fn:= 40.lbf

T4:= 25·lbj.in

-2 aG2 := 801.00·in·sec

BAG2:= 222.l4.deg

-2 -2

u3 := 75.29·rad·sec aGJ := 1691.49·in·sec BAG3 := 208.24·deg

-2 -2

u4:= 244.43·rad·sec aG4:= 979.02·in·sec BAG4:= 222.27·deg

Coefficient of fluctuation:

k:= 0.05

Desired average speed:

mavg:= (02

See Figure PI1-2, Table PII-3 and Mathcad tile Pl107a.

Solution:

I. Enter the above data into program FOURBAR and determine the energy change from minimum to maximum speed. The input torque vs crank angle graph is shown on the next page. The linkage balance screen is shown just below the input torque graph. A table of torque pulse areas is shown on the balancing screen. Use the data from it and equation 11.22 to determine the required system mass moment of inertia.

E:= 402.9·lbj-in

E Is:=--- 2 k·ma1-g

Is = 20.1 blob.;n2

The moment of inertia of the input crank and the motor armature can be subtracted from this value to obtain the required flywheel moment. There are an infinity of possible size/shape solutions for this problem.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

link 1 (Ground) in

link 2 (Crank)

Unk 3 (Coupler)

Link 4 (Rocker)

Dist. from I 2 ,3 to Coupler PI:

Angle from link 3 to COI..IpIer pt

deg

in

In

in

in

bI

Radius

12

MR Product 10.051

Man

10.115 bI

Radius

14 In

MR Product 10459

rmastudent

~gn No. '1

lH6·1993 at 23:53:25 Fae: P1H17a

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-7a-2

Selected Linkage Paramelers

Referenced to Non.RruIting Global CoorrJhlle System

, 0

-100

360 / Torque 12 Mag I~in

288

180

-288

o 8

Crank Angle (Deg)

VerticC

In

/~.

Shakirg Torque

; ... , . ...U~Sllb.in

Crank Angle (Deg)

Stert Thew ••• deg

End Theta

_.deg

Omega2

Irna student

Desi!Jl No. 11 11-26-1993 at 23:53:25 Fie: P11..()7a

Areas of Crank Torque Pulses in a rder over 1 cycle

in E nerID' U nits of . fb·in . Radians

Order NegArea PosArea

1 ·131.3 2 -402.9 3 ·252

4 0

4SS.1 405.5 o

o

Average T orque: ·8.78 Ib-in

rad':;;

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-8-1

~ PROBLEM 11-8

Units:

Figure PII-3 shows a fourbar linkage and its dimensions. The steel crank and rocker have uniform cross sections 1 in wide by 0.5 in thick. The aluminum coupler is 0.75 in thick. In the instantaneous position shown, the crank 02A has 0) = 40 rad/sec and u = -20 rad/sec-, There is a horizontal force at P of F = 50 lb. Find all pin forces and the torque needed to drive the crank at this instant.

2 - 1 blob := lbf-sec -in

Statement:

Given:

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 toA) Link 4 (B to 04) Coupler point:

a:= 5.00·;n c:= 5.00·;n Rpa:= 8.90·;n

Link 3 (A to B) b := 4.40·;n

Link I (02 to 04) d:= 9.50· in

03:= 56·deg

F:= 50-/b/

T4 := O·lb/· in

Crank angle and motion: 92 := 50·deg

Link cross-section dims:

- 1 0)2:= 40·rad·sec

-2 u2:= -20·rad·sec

W2:= 1.00· in

12 := 0.50·;n 13 := 0.75·in

W4 := 1.00·in

14 := 0.50·in

Material specific weight:

steel

-3

rs= 0.3·lbf-in aluminum

-3 ra> O.I./b/.in

Solution:

See Figure PII-3 and Mathcad file PII08.

I. Use program FOURBAR to determine the position, velocity, and acceleration of links 3 and 4.

94:= 113.008·deg

- 1 0)3:= -41.552·rad·sec

- 1 0)4 := 26.320·rad·sec

-2 u3:= -335.762·rad·sec

-2 u4:= 2963.667·rad·sec

93:= I0.105·deg

2. Determine the distance to the CO in the LRCS on each of the three moving links.

Links 2 and 4:

RCG2 := 0.5·a RCG2 = 2.500 in

RCG4 := 0.5·c RCG4 = 2.500 in

Link 3:

RCG3x' = 3.126 in

RCG3y' = 2.459 in

RCG3 :=J RCG3x,2 + RCG3y,2

RCG3 = 3.977 in

At an angle with respect to the local x' axis of

033:= atan2(RCG3x',RCG3y') 033 = 38.199deg

3. Determine the mass and moment of inertia of each link.

Ys m: := wrtra+: g

In() Ya

m3:= -·b·Rpa·si 03 '13'-

2 g

-3

m3 = 3.153 x 10 blob

Ys m4:= w4·t4·c,g

-3

m2 = 1.943 x 10 blob

-3

m4 = 1.943 x 10 blob

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

m2 (2 2)

1G2 := -. w2 + a

12

m4 (2 2)

1G4 .= -. w4 + c

12

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-8-2

-3 2

1G2 = 4.209 x 10 blob- in

1G3 = O.039hlob.in2

-3 2

IG4 = 4.209 x 10 blob- in

4. Set up an LNCS xy coordinate system at the CG of each link, and draw all applicable vectors acting on the system as shown in Figure 11-3. Draw a free-body diagram of each moving link as shown in Figure 11-3.

y

(a) The complete linkage with GCS

(d) FBD of Link 4

5. Calculate the x and y components of the position vectors.

RJ2x:= RCG2,cos(92 + 180.deg)

RJ2y:= RCG2·sin(92 + 180.deg) R32x := RCG2'COS( 92)

R32y ;= RCG2·sin( 92)

R23x;= RCG3,cos(833 + 93 + 180.deg)

(b) FBD of Link 2

(c) FBD of Link 3

R12x = -1.607 in

R12y = -1.915 in

R32x = 1.607 in

R32y = 1.915 in

R23x = -2.646 in

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-8-3

R23y:= RCG3·sin(033 + 83 + 180.deg} R43x:= b.cos(83} - RCG3·COS(e3 + (33)

R23y = -2.970 in

R43x = 1.686 in

R43y = -2.198 in

R34x:= RCG4·COS(e4) R34y:= RCG4·sin( 84)

R14x := RCG4·COS(04 + 180.deg) R14y:= RCG4·sin(e4 + 180.deg) Rpx:= Rpa·cos( e 3 + (3) - I R23xl RPy:= Rpa·Sin( 83 + (3) - I R23yl

R34x = ....{).977 in

R34y = 2.301 in

R14x = 0.977 in

R14y = -2.301 in

Rpx = 0.959 in

RPy = 5.167in

6. Calculate the x and y components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS).

BG2:= RCG2·a2·(-sin(82) + j.cos(82)) - a.ro/.(coS(82) + j.sin(82))

3 in aG2x = -5.104 x 10 -- 2 sec

3 in aG2y = --6.160 x 10 -- 2 sec

aCG3A:= RCG3·a3·(-sin(83 + (33) + j.cos(83 + (33)) ... + -RCG3·ro/(cos(83 + (33) + j-sin(83 + (33))

BG3:= aA + BCG3A

3 in aG3x = -8.636 x 10 -- 2 sec

4 in aG3y= -1.221 x 10 -- 2 sec

aG4x := Re(aG4)

3 in aG4x = -5.466 x 10 -- 2 sec

3 in aG4y = --6.084 x 10 -- 2 sec

7. Calculate the x andy components of the external force at P in the CGS.

Fpx:= -F

FPy:= O·lbl

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-8-4

8. Substitute these given and calculated values into the matrix equation 11.9. Note that Mathcad requires that all elements in a matrix have the same dimension. Thus, the matrix and array in equation 11.9 will be made dimensionless and the dimensions will be put back in after solving it.

- 1 R:=C ·F

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
-R12y R12x -R32y R32x 0 0
0 0
in in in in
0 0 -1 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0
C-
.-
R23y -R23x -R43y R43x
0 0 0 0 0
in in in in
0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0
R34y -R34x -R14y R14x 0
0 0 0 0
in in in in F:=

-1 m2·aG2y-lbj

- 1 - 1 IG2·a2·lbj -in

(m3.aG3x - Fpx).lbj- 1 (m3.aG3y - FPy).lbf- I

(103'(13 - Rpx·FPy+ RPy.FPx)·lbj-l.in-1 -1

m4·aG4x·1bj

Ftz«> Rio/bf F32x := Rf/bf F43x := Rs"/bj Fl4x := Ri/bf TJ2:= R9·1bj.in

F12x = -37.llbj

F12y := Ri1bf F32y:= R4·lbf F43y:= R6·/bf Fl4y := Rg.1bf

F32x = 27.21bj

F43x = 50.0/bj

Fl4x = 39.31bj

TJ2 = 2791bf·in

F12y = 42.41bf F32y = -54.4/bj F43y = -92.91bj FI4y = -I04.71bf

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-9-1

~ PROBLEM 11-9

Statement:

Figure PII-4a shows a fourbar linkage and its dimensions in meters. The steel crank and rocker

have uniform cross sections 50 mm wide by 25 mm thick. The aluminum coupler is 25 mm thick, In the instantaneous position shown, the crank 02A has <0 = 10 rad/sec and (1 = 5 rad/seo', There is a vertical force at P of F = 100 N _ Find all pin forces and the torque needed to drive the crank at this instant,

Given:

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 to A) Link 4 (B to 04) Coupler point:

a:= 1.00-m c:= 2.33-m Rpa := 3_06-m

Link 3 (A to B) b := 2_06-m

Link 1 (02 to 04) d:= 2.22-m

03:= -31-deg

F:= 100-N

T4:= O-N-m

Crank angle and motion: e 2 := 60-deg Link cross-section dims:

- 1 <02 := 10-rad-sec

-2 (12 := 5-rad-sec

W2:= 50-mm

12:= 25-mm

13:= 25-mm

W4:= 50-mm

14:= 25-mm

Material specific weight:

steel

-3

Ys:= O.3-/bj-in aluminum

-3 ra:= O_l-/bl-in

Solution:

See Figure PII-4a and Mathcad file PII09_

I_ Use program FOURBAR to determine the position, velocity, and acceleration oflinks 3 and 4_

93 := 44_732-deg

- 1 <03 := -3_669-rad-sec

- 1 <04 := 1.442-rad-sec

-2 (13:= 55_752-rad-sec

94:= 96.322-deg

-2 (14:= 67.103-rad-sec

2_ Determine the distance to the CG in the LRCS on each of the three moving links.

Links 2 and 4: RCGl:= 0_5-a RCG2 = O_500m

RCG4 := 0.5 -c RCG4 = 1.l65 m

Link 3:

RCG3x' = 1.561 m

RCG3y' = -0.525 m

RCG3 == 1.647 m

At an angle with respect to the local x' axis of

033:= atanl(RCG3x', RCG3y') 833 = -18_600deg

3 _ Determine the mass and moment of inertia of each link.

Ys m2 := w2-12-a-g

Ys m4 := w4-t4-c-g

m2 = 10.380 kg

m3 = 112.332 kg

m4 = 24.185 kg

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-9-2

m2 (2 2)

fG2 := -. w2 + a

12

2 IG2 = 0.867 kg-m

2 IG3 = 125.951 kg-m

m4 (2 2)

IG4 := -. w4 + C

12

2 IG4 = 10.947 kg-m

4. Set up an LNCS xy coordinate system at the CG of each link. and draw all applicable vectors acting on the system as shown in Figure 11-3. Draw a free-body diagram of each moving link as shown in Figure 11-3.

y

(b) FBD of Link 2

\

- - - - -----I@---

°4

x

B R43'>/

,/ --... ....

F

(a) The complete linkage with GCS

3 /

(d) FBD of Link 4

(c) FBD of Link 3

5. Calculate the x and y components of the position vectors.

R12x := RCG2·cos(8z + 180.deg)

R12y:= RCG2·Si".,8z + 180.deg)

R12x = -O.250m

R12y = -0.433 m

R32x := RCG2·cos(8z) R32y := RCG2·Sin( 82)

R23x := RCG3·COS(033 + 83 + 180.deg)

R32x = 0.250 m

R32y = 0.433 m

R23x = -1.479m

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-9-3

R23y:= RcG3osin(033 + 83 + 1800deg) R43x:= bocos(83) - RCG3ocos(83 + (33)

R23y = -Oo725m

R43x = -00015 m

R43y = 00724m

R34x:= RCG4ocos(84) R34y:= RCG4osin(84)

R34x = -0.128 m

R34y = 1.158m

R14x := RCG4ocos(84 + 1800deg) R14y:= RCG4osin(84 + 1800deg) Rpx:= Rpaocos( 83 + (3) - I R23xl RPy:= Rpaosin( 83 + (3) - I R23yl

R14x = 0.128 m

R14y = -1.l58m

Rpx= 1.494m

-4 RPy = 90865 x 10 m

60 Calculate the x andy components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS)o

8Gl := RCG2oa2o(-Sin(82) + j ocos(82)) - aor%(cOS(82} + j oSin(e2))

m aG2x = -520165-- 2 sec

m aG2y = -85.353 - 2 sec

aCG3A:= RCG3oa3o(-sin(83 + (33) + jocOS(e3 + (33)) 000 +-RCG3oro320(cOS(e3 + (33) + josin(83 + (33))

KG3:= 8A + aCG3A

m «os« = -1140678-- 2 sec

m aG3y = -11.429-- 2 sec

m aG4x = -770166-- 2 sec

m aG4y = -13.424-- 2 sec

70 Calculate the x and y components of the external force at P in the CGSo

Fpx:= OoN

FPy:= -F

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-9-4

8. Substitute these given and calculated values into the matrix equation 11.9. Note that Mathcad requires that all elements in a matrix have the same dimension. Thus, the matrix and array in equation 11.9 will be made dimensionless and the dimensions will be put back in after solving it.

0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
-RJ2y RJ2x -R32y R32x 0 0 0 0
m m m m
0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0
C·-
.-
R23y -R23x -R43y R43x
0 0 0 0 0
m m m m
0 0 0 0 -1 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0
R34y -R34x -R14y R14x
0 0 0 0 0
m m m m F:=

- 1 m2·a02x·N

- 1 R:=C ·F

- 1 m2·a02yN

- 1 - 1 I02·a2·N -m

(m3.a03x - Fpx).N- 1 (m3.a03y - FPy).N- 1

( ) -1 -1

IG3·a3 - Rpx·FPy + RPyFpx·N -m

- 1

m4·a04x·N

F12x = -13559N

F12y:= R2·N F32y:= R4·N F43y:= R6·N F14y:= Rg·N

F12y = -12294N

F32x:= RfN F43x:= RS·N F14x:= RiN

F32x = 13018 N

F32y = 11408 N

F43x = 136N

F 43y = 10224 N

F14x = -1731 N

F14y = 9899N

TJ2 = 5587 N·m

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-10-1

~ PROBLEM 11-10

Statement:

Figure PII-4b shows a fourbar linkage and its dimensions in meters. The steel crank and rocker have uniform cross sections 50 mm wide by 25 mm thick. The aluminum coupler is 25 mm thick. In the instantaneous position shown. the crank 02A has ill = 15 rad/sec and <X = -10 rad/sec-. There is

a horizontal force at P of F= 200 N. Find all pin forces and the torque needed to drive the crank at this instant.

Given:

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 to A) Link 4 (Bto04) Coupler point:

a:= O.72·m c:= 0.85·m Rpa := 0.97·m

Link 3 (A to B) b := 0.68·m

Link I (02 to 04) d := l.82·m

F:= 200·N

Crank angle and motion: 92:= 30.deg

Link cross-section dims:

-1 ill2 := 15·rad·sec

-2 <X2:= -IO·rad·sec

W2:= 50·mm

12:= 25'mm

13:= 25'mm

W4:= 50'mm

14:= 25'mm

Material specific weight:

steel

-3

Ys := O.3.lbl-in aluminum

-3 ra> O.I.lbl-in

Solution:

See Figure PII-4b and Mathcad file P111O.

I. Use program FOURBAR to determine the position, velocity. and acceleration of links 3 and 4.

93 := 23.290.deg

-1 (03 := -16.412·rad·sec

-1 (04 := 1.570·rad·sec

-2 <X3:= -138.628·rad·sec

-2 <X4 := 427.881·rad·sec

94:= 132.283.deg

2. Determine the distance to the CG in the LRCS on each of the three moving links.

Links 2 and 4: RCG2 := O.5·a RCG2 = 0.360 m

RCG4 := 0.5·c RCG4 = 0.425 m

Link 3:

RCG3x' = 0.417 m

RCG3y' = 0.262 m

RCG3 := J RCG3x' 2 + RCG3y,2

RCG3 = 0.492m

At an angle with respect to the local x' axis of

833 := alan2( RCG3x' • RCG3y') 833 = 32.117 deg

3. Determine the mass and moment of inertia of each link.

Ys mz= w2·t2·a·g

Ys m4:= w4·t4·c,g

m2 = 7.474 kg

m3= 18.463kg

m4 = 8.823 kg

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

m2 (2 2)

IG2:=-' w2 +a 12

m s (2 2)

IG4 := -. w4 + c 12

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-10-2

2 IG2 = 0.324kgm

2 IG3 = 3.318kgm

2 IG4 = 0.533 kg-m

4. Set up an LNCS xy coordinate system at the CG of each link, and draw all applicable vectors acting on the system as shown in Figure 11-3. Draw a free-body diagram of each moving link as shown in Figure 11-3.

(a) The complete linkage with GCS

(d) FBD of Link 4

5. Calculate the x and y components of the position vectors.

RJ2x:= RCG2,cos(92 + 180.deg)

R12y:= RCG2·sin(92 + 180.deg)

R32x:= RCG2·cos(92) R32y:= RCG2·sin( 92)

R23x:= RCG3,cos(833 + 93 + 180.deg)

y

F~ R •

R a G2y ,32 J) F

12 ~ic~ - 32x

F 12y I //F

\ ~ a--~-x

• ck/ G2x

If'-Jr~ F 12x

(b) FBD of Link 2

y

(c) FBD of Link 3

R12x = -41.312m

R12y = -41.180m

R32x = O.3l2m

R32y = O.l80m

R23x = -41.279 m

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-10-3

R23y := RCG3·sin( 033 + e 3 + 180.deg) R43x:= b.coS(e3) - RCG3·COS(e3 + 033)

R23y = -U.405 m

R43x = 0.345 m

R43y = -U.136m

R34x := RCG4·COS(04) R34y:= RCG4·sin(e4)

R34x = -U.286 m

R34y = 0.314m

R/4x:= RCG4·COS(04 + 180.deg) R/4y:= RCG4·sin(e4 + 180.deg) Rpx:= Rpa·cOS(03 + 03) -IR23xl RPy:= Rpa·Sin( 03 + 03) - I R23yl

RUx = 0.286 m

RJ4y = -U.314m

Rpx = -0.066 m

RPy = 0.541 m

6. Calculate the x andy components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS).

8Gl:= RCG2·a2·(-sin(e2) + j.COS(e2)) - a.ro/.(cOS(02) + j.sin(e2))

m aG2x = -138.496-- 2 sec

m aozy= -84.118- 2 sec

aCG3A:= RCG3·a3·(-sin(03 + 033) + j.COS(e3 + 033)) ... + -RCG3·ro3 2.(cos( 03 + 033) + j-Sin(e3 + 033))

aG3:= aA + aCG3A

m aG3x = -155.788-- 2 sec

m aG3y = -235.056-- 2 sec

m aG4x = -133.l28 -- 2 sec

m aG4y = -123.897-- 2 sec

7. Calculate the x and y components of the external force at P in the CGS.

FPy:= O·N

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-10-4

8. Substitute these given and calculated values into the matrix equation 11.9. Note that Mathcad requires that all elements in a matrix have the same dimension. Thus, the matrix and array in equation 11.9 will be made dimensionless and the dimensions will be put back in after solving it.

I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
-R12y R12x -R32y R32x
0 0 0 0
m m m m
0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -I 0 0 0 0
C·-
.- -R23x -R43y R43x
R23y
0 0 0 0 0
m m m m
0 0 0 0 -I 0 I 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -J 0 I 0
RS4y -R34x -R14y R14x
0 0 0 0 0
m m m m F:=

- I R:=C ·F

-1 m2·aG2yN

- 1 -]

IG2·a.2·N -m

(m3.aG3x - Fpx).N- 1 (ms.aG3y - FPy).N- 1

( ) -1 -1

Im·a.3 - RPx·FPy + RPy.Fpx·N ·m

- I

m4·aG4x·N

F12x:= R(N F32x:= RfN

FJ2x = -5484N

F/2y:= RiN FS2y:= RfN

F/2y = -5050N

F32x = 4449N

F32y = 4422N

F43x = 1373N

F43y:= R6·N F14y:= RS·N

F43y = 8l.8N

F14x = 198N

F14y = -1011 N

TJ2 = -1168N·m

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-11-1

~ PROBLEM 11-11

Statement:

Figure PII-5a shows a fourbar linkage and its dimensions in meters. The steel crank, coupler, and rocker have uniform cross sections 50 mm wide by 25 mm thick. In the instantaneous position shown, the crank 02A has (0 = 15 radlsec and a. = -10 rad/sec-, There is a vertical force at P of F = 500 N. Find all pin forces and the torque needed to drive the crank at this instant.

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 toA) Link 4 (8 to 04)

a:= O.785·m

Link 3 (A to 8) b := 0.356·m

Given:

c:= O.950·m

Link 1 (02 to 04) d := 0.544·m

Coupler point:

Rpa := 1.09·m

F:= SOO·N

Crank angle and motion: 92:= 96.deg Link cross-section dims:

- 1 (02 := I5·rad·sec

-2 0.2 := -lO·rad·sec

W2 := 50·mm 12:= 25·mm

W3:= 50·mm 13:= 25·mm

W4:= 50·mm 14:= 25'mm

Material specific weight:

-3 rs .= O.3·/bj-in

Solution:

See Figure PI I-Sa and Mathcad file PIIIl.

1. Use program FOURBAR to determine the position, velocity, and acceleration oflinks 3 and 4.

93:= 20.26I·deg

- 1 (03 := -6.830·rad·sec

-2 0.3 := 106.282·rad·sec

-2 0.4:= 49.372·rad·sec

94:= 107.906·deg

- 1 (04 := I2.023·rad·sec

2. Determine the distance to the CG in the LRCS on each of the three moving links.

Links 2 and 4: RCG2 := O.S·a RCG2 = 0.393 m

RCG4:= 0.5·c RCG4 = 0.475m

Link 3:

RCG3:= O.S·Rpa

RCG3 = 0.545 m

3. Determine the mass and moment of inertia of each link.

Ys mz> w2·t2·a·g

Ys m4 := w4·t4·c,g

m: = 8.148 kg

m3 = 1 1.314 kg

m4 = 9.861 kg

m: (2 2)

IG2 := -. W2 + a

12

2 IG2 = 0.420kg·m

ms (2 2)

IG3 ;= -. w3 + Rpa

12

2 IG3 = 1.123 kg·m

m4 (2 2)

IG4 := -. w4 + c

12

2 IG4 = 0.744kg·m

4. Set up an LNCS xy coordinate system at the CG of each link, and draw all applicable vectors acting on the system as shown in Figure 11-3. Draw a free-body diagram of each moving link as shown in Figure 11-3.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

-x

(a) The complete linkage with GCS

(c) FBD of Link 3

5. Calculate the x and y components of the position vectors.

R12x:= RCG2·COS(e2 + 180.deg)

R12y:= RCG2·sin(e2 + 180.deg)

R32y := RCG2·sin( (2)

R23x:= RCG3·cOS(e3 + 180.deg) R23y:= RCG3·sin(e3 + 180.deg)

R43x:= (RCG3 - b).cOS(e3 + 180.deg) R43y:= (RCG3 - b).sin(e3 + 180.deg)

R34x:= RCG4·COS(e4) R34y:= RCG4·Sin(e4)

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-11-2

--x

(b) FBD of Link 2

YI I

F"'~fRJ

F 34y \ a G4y

\~

$-- a ----- x

\ G4.

\F 14y R14~~ F 14x

(d) FBD of Link 4

R12x = 0.041 m

RJ2y = -O.390m

R32x = -0.041 m

R32y = 0.390 m

R23x = -0.511 m

R23y = -O.189m

R43x = -O.I77m

R43y = -0.065 m

R34x = -O.146m

R34y = 0.452 m

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-11-3

R14x:= RCG4'COS(S4 + 180.deg) R14y:= RCG4·Sin(S4 + 180.deg) Rpx:= (Rpa - RCGJ)'COS(S3) RPy:= (Rpa - RCGJ)·Sin(S3)

R14x = 0.146m

R14y = ~.452m

Rpx = 0.511 m

RPy= 0.189m

6. Calculate the x andy components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS).

aG2 i= RCG2·o;2·(-Sin(S2) + j,cos(92)) - a,co/,(cos(92) + j ,sin(92))

m «oz» = 22.366-- 2 sec

m aG2y= -175.247- 2 sec

aG3:= aA + aCG3A

m aG3x = -17.640-- 2 sec

m aGJy = -129.301 - 2 sec

m aG4x = 19.906-- 2 sec

m aG4y = -137.884-- 2 sec

7. Calculate the x and y components of the external force at P in the CGS.

Fpx:= O·N

FPy:= -F

8. Substitute these given and calculated values into the matrix equation 11.9. Note that Mathcad requires that all elements in a matrix have the same dimension. Thus, the matrix and array in equation 11.9 will be made dimensionless and the dimensions will be put back in after solving it.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-11-4

0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
-R/2y RJ2x -R32y R32x
0 0 0 0
m m m m
0 0 -I 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -I 0 0 0 0
C'-
R23y -R23x -R43y R43x
0 0 0 0 0
m m m m
0 0 0 0 -I 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -I 0 1 0
R34y -R34x -R14y RUx
0 0 0 0 0
m m m m - 1 R:=C ·F

F:=

- 1 m2·aG2y-N

- 1 - 1 IG2·a.2·N -m

(m3.aG3x - Fpx).N- 1 (m3.aG3y - FPy).N- 1

( ) -1 -I

IG3·0.3 - RPx·FPy + Rpy-Fpx·N -m

- 1

m4·aG4x·N

FUx = 410N

FJ2y:= RiN F32y:= R4·N F43y:= R6·N FUy:= R8·N

FJ2y = -2231 N

F12x:= R.-N F32x:= RfN F43x:= RS·N FJ4x:== RiN

F12x == -231 N

F32x == 413N

F32y == 803N

F43x = 214N

F43y = -160N

F J4y == -1519 N

Tn == 372N·m

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-12-1

/i:5 PROBLEM 11-12

Statement:

Figure PII-5b shows a fourbar linkage and its dimensions in meters. The steel crank, coupler, and rocker have uniform cross sections of 50 mm diameter. In the instantaneous position shown, the crank 02A has 0) = -10 rad/sec and u = 10 rad/sec-, There is a horizontal force at P of F = 300 N. Find all pin forces and the torque needed to drive the crank at this instant.

Link lengths:

Given:

Link 2 (02 toA) Link 4 (B to 04) Coupler point:

a :« 0.86·m

Link 3 (A to B) b := 1.85·m

Link I (02 to 04) d::::; 2.22·m

c::::; 0.86·m Rpa:= 1.33·m

F:= 300·N

Crank angle and motion: 92 := -36·deg Link cross-section dims:

dUnk := 50·mm

- I 0)2:= -IO·rad·sec

-2 u2 := 10·rad·sec

Material specific weight:

-3 Ys ::::; O.3·/bIin

Solution:

See Figure Pll-5b and Mathcad tile Pl112.

1. Use program FOURBAR to determine the position, velocity, and acceleration of links 3 and 4.

93 ::::; 46.028·deg

- 1 0)3 := 3.285·rad·sec

-2 u3 := -109.287·rad·sec

-2 u4::::; -43.426·rad·sec

94:= 106.189·deg

- 1 0)4:== 11.417·rad·sec

2. Determine the distance to the CG in the LRCS on each of the three moving links.

Links 2 and 4: RCG2 := 0.5·a RCG2 = 0.430 m

RCG4 := O.5·c RCG4 == 0.430m

Link 3:

RCGJ:== O.5·b

ReGJ = 0.925 m

3. Determine the mass and moment of inertia of each link.

2

1t·dUnk Ys

mz= .Q.-

4 g

2

1t·dUnk Ys

mj:= -b-r+

4 g

m2 == 14.022 kg

mj == 30.164 kg

2

1t·d/ink Ys

m4:= -c-rr-

4 g

m ; = 14.022 kg

m2 (3 2 2)

IG2 :== -. -·dUnk + a

12 4

ms (3 2 2)

IGJ :== -. -·dUnk + b

12 4

m4 (3 2 2)

IG4 := -. -·d/ink + c

12 4

2 IG2 = 0.866kg·m

2 IGj == 8.608 kg-m

2 IG4 == 0.866kg·m

4. Set up an LNCS xy coordinate system at the CG of each link, and draw all applicable vectors acting on the system as shown in Figure 11-3. Draw a free-body diagram of each moving link as shown in Figure 11-3.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-12-2

y

B

y//~\

/ 4

;// \

/ Rp ---+eR*CG_4 _

/,~

/

/ RCG3

x

(d) FBD of Link 4

/

r3 A

y

(a) The complete linkage with GCS

F 12y (ik__F 12x

- a G2y

R12 <. ~_a G2x -----x -. .F32y R32~F

32x

P

F "'#

a G3y

~ Rp x

a G3>'

(b) FBD of Link 2

(c) FBD of Link 3

5. Calculate the x and y components of the position vectors.

R12x:= RCG2·COS(e2 + 180.deg)

RI2y:= RCG2·sin(e2 + 180.deg)

R12x = -O.348m

R12y = 0.253 m

R32x:= RCG2·COS(e2) R32y := RCG2·sin( e2)

R23x := RCGJ·COS(e3 + 180.deg) R23y:= RCG3·Sin(e3 + 180.deg)

R32x = 0.348 m

R32y = -0.253 m

R23x = -0.642 m

R23y = -0.666 m

R43x:= (RCGJ - b).cOS(e3 + 180.deg) R43y:= (RCG3 - b).Sin(e3 + 180.deg)

R43x = 0.642m

R43y = 0.666m

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-12-3

R34x := RCG4·COS(e4} R34y:= RCG4·sin(e4)

R14x:= RCG4·COS(e4 + 180.deg) R14y:= RCG4·sin(e4 + 180.deg) Rpx:= (Rpa - RCG3)·COS(e3) RPy:= (Rpa - RCG3)·Sin(e3)

R34x = --O.120m

R34y = 0.413m

R14x = O.l20m

R14y = --O.413m

Rpx = 0.281 m

RPy = 0.291 m

6. Calculate the x and y components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS).

8G2 := RcG2·a2·(-sin(e2) + j . Cos(e 2)) - a.ro/.(COS(e2) + j .sin(e2))

m «cz« = --67.048-- 2 sec

aG2y:= Im(BGl)

m aG2y = 54.028-- 2 sec

aCG3A:= RCG3·a3·(-sin(e3) + j.COS(e3)) ... +-RCG3·ro/'(COS(e3) + j.Sin(e3))

8G3 := 8A + aCG3A

m aG3x = 1.302-- 2 sec

aG3y:= lm( BG3)

m aG3y= -19.864-- 2 sec

m aG4x = 49.187-- 2 sec

m aG4y = -102.448-- 2 sec

7. Calculate the x and y components of the external force at P in the CGS.

FPy:= O·N

8. Substitute these given and calculated values into the matrix equation 11.9. Note that Mathcad requires that all elements in a matrix have the same dimension. Thus, the matrix and array in equation 11.9 will be made dimensionless and the dimensions will be put back in after solving it

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-12-4

0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
-R12y R12x -R32y R32x
0 0 0 0
m m m m
0 0 -1 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0
C:=
R23y -R23x -R43y R43x
0 0 0 0 0
m m m m
0 0 0 0 -1 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0
R34y -R34x -R14y R14x
0 0 0 0 0
m m m m F'-

- 1 m2·aC2x·N

- 1 R:=C ·F

- I m2·aC2y'N

-1 -J IG2·a2·N -m

(m3.aG3x - Fpx).N- I (m3.aC3y - FPy).N- I

( ) -I -1

IC3·a3 - Rpx·FPy + RPy.Fpx·N -m

- I

m4·aC4x·N

FI2x:= R r N F32x:= RfN F43x:= Rs'N F14x:= RiN Ti2:= R9·N.m

F12x = -1246N

FJ2y:= R2·N F32y:= R4·N F43y:= R6·N F14y:= R8·N

F32x = 306N

F43x = 45.1N

F14x = 735N

T12 = 7.14N·m

FI2y = 940N

F32y = -183N F43y = -782N

F14y = -2219N

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-13-1

~ PROBLEM 11-13

Statement:

Figure PII-6 shows a water jet loom laybar drive mechanism driven by a pair ofGrashofcrank rocker fourbar linkages. The crank rotates at 500 rpm. The laybar is carried between the coupler-rocker joints of the two linkages at their respective instant centers h 4' The combined weight of the reed and laybar is 29 lb. A 540-lb beat-up force from the cloth is applied to the reed as shown. The steel links have a 2 x I in uniform cross-section. Find the forces on the pins for one revolution of the crank. Find the torque-time function required to drive the system.

2 -] - 1

blob:= lbf-sec -in rpm:= 2·1[·rad·min

Units:

Given:

Link lengths:

Link 2 (A to B) Link 4 (CtoD)

a:= 2.00·in c:= 7.1 87·in

Link 3 (B to C) Link 1 (A to D) 03:= O·deg

b i= 8.375·in d := 9.625·in

Coupler point: Rpa:= O.O·in

Crank angle and motion: 0)2 := 500'rpm

-2 u2 := O·rad·sec

Link cross-section dims: w:= 2.00·in

t:= l.OO·in

Material specific weight:

steel

-3 y:= 0.3.lbf-in

Solution:

See Figure PII-6 and Mathcad file P1113.

I. Determine the distance to the CG in the LRCS on each of the three moving links. All three are located on the x' axis in the LRCS and their angle is zero deg.

RCG2 := 0.5·a RCG2 = 1.000 in

RCGJ := 0.5·b RC03 = 4.188 in

RCG4:= 0.5·c RCG4 = 3.594 in

2. Determine the mass and moment of inertia of each link.

y m2 := w-t-ar-: g

y m3 := w·(·b·g

-3

m2 = 3.108 x 10 blob

m3 = 0.013 blob

m4 = 0.011 blob

«: (2 2)

IG2:= -. w + a

12

IG2 = 0.00207 blob.i/

m2 (2 2)

103:=-' w +b 12

103 = 0.01920blob.in2

Include one half of the mass of the laybar as a lumped mass at the end of link 4.

m4 (2 2) 2 14.5·lbj 2

IG4:= -. w + c + RCG4 . IG4 = 0.53677 blob- in

12 g

3. Define any external forces, their locations and directions.

Beat-up force

F := 590·lbj acting on link 4 at a distance

R := c + 3.75·in

The angle in the CGS is 180 deg.

4. Enter the above data into program FOURBAR and solve for the pin forces and driving torque. The dynamic input screen is shown below followed by a plot of dynamic pin forces ..

R = 10.937 in

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-13-2

~ MaS$ Properties

Mass 01 Link

Mass Moment of Ineftia aIJout CG

reG LOOdtior;;"tance to CG hom PIvot I~ Ange to CG in LACS'

l E)Clefnal face;

Force Magn~ude

An~e 01 FOfCe m GCS·

[ ElltBmai FOIce location,

Distance 10 Force Pout from CG

Arge to Force Point in LACS·

T olque on Link

.. I-OUHElAH lUI WUIlJOWS Lw H_ L. '~Ulll!" - CI!1Jj!lIght 19!JI;I EJ

-- - - - - -- - - - -_ --

Selecle.d l.inI«oge P¥smeters

Referenced to Non-Rot:eDlg 0kJbaI Coordlnelte Sym,m

tliilill CondillonsCrcult

1000
Link 3 (Cou~er) -
Link" (Rocker)
508
DlsL from 12,3 to
COupler PI 400
ArgJe from Link 3 2.
to COupler Pt
dey
0 " r--. f ~
........
- " r' "- ./ r /' "
[\ i'=
"- I'- ,/ V
" I
<, r--.. V
-... I- ,/


• &8 1~1I 1. II 2'1 II 3110 Cl'ilnk Angle (Dey)

style ------,,===

Horiz Pi Lines liii

/ Fon:e 12 IIII!J

I Fome14 lIag

.I Fon:e 32 lIag

i Fon:e 43 lIag

:lSI

S1ttr1 Thalli

."dBQ

End Theta __ deg

DellaThm

.-'deg

Omega2

Thomas A. Coole Design No. 3 06-1~1999 l1li15:49:09 file: P1113

radls

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

5. The input torque is plotted below.

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-13-3

Selected lIn1tage Poremelers

Referenced to Non-RoIaIilg Global CoordirRlle 5y8I:em

Link 2 (Crank)

Link 3 (Coupler)

Link 4 (Rocker)

Oi'BI. from I 2,3 to Coupler PI

Angle from Uflk 3 -100

to Coupler PI

deg -168

280

0
0 / f\
o 1\ /
o \ /
I
0 1\ I
0 \ 6G 1 0 18 t 20 3'~
0 /
1\
0 \ /
..
.. 158

188

50

-51

CfilnkAngle (Deg)

Vertle~

/ Torque 12

3&0 lI'<Jg-

Linesii'

OrcuH

Start n"eb, ••• cteg

End Theta

~.deg

Delt8 Theta

_.de9

Omega2

Thomas A. Cook Design No. 3 06c18--1999 !!l15:49:09 File: P1113

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-14-1

~ PROBLEM 11-14

Statement:

Figure PII-7 shows a crimping tool. Find the force F htmdneeded to generate a 2000 lb Fcrimp' Find the pin forces. What is the linkage's joint force transmission index (IFI) in this position?

Given:

Link lengths:

Link 2 (A to B) a .= O.SO· in Link 2 (CtoD) c:= l.5S·in

Link 3 (B to C) b := l.23·in Link 2 (A to D) d := 2.40·in

Link 2 angle:

82:= 49.deg

Distance to crimp force from pivot D:

RP4:= l.OO·in

Crimp force:

FP4:= 2000·/bj (perpendicular to link 4)

Distance to hand force from pivot A:

RP2 := 4.26·in

Solution:

See Figure PII-7 and Mathcad file P1114.

1. Enter the above data into program FOURBAR to determine link 3 and 4 angles and calculate the angle that the crimping force makes with respect to the fourbar coordinate frame ..

83 := 34.039·deg OFP4 := 84 + 90·deg

84:= 123.51S·deg OFP4 = 213.51Sdeg

2. Determine the distance to the CG in the LRCS on each of the three moving links.

Links 2 and 4: RCG2 := O.S·a RCG2 = 0.400 in

RCG4 .= 0.5·c RCG4 = 0.775 in

Link 3:

RCG3:= O.S·b

RCG3 = 0.615 in

3. Calculate the x and y components of the position vectors.

R12x .= RCG2,cos(82 + lS0.deg) R12y:= RCG2·sin(82 + ISO.deg) R32x:= RCG2·cOS(e2)

R12x = -<J.262 in

R12y = -<J.302 in

R32x = 0.262 in

R32y = 0.302 in

R23x:= RCG3,cos(83 + ISO.deg) R23y:= RCG3·sin(83 + 180.deg) R43x:= (b - RCG3)'COS(e3) R43y:= (b - RCG3)·sin(83)

R23x = -<J.510in

R23y = -<J.344 in

R43x = 0.510 in

R43y = 0.344 in

R34x := RCG4'Cos(84) R34y:= RCG4·Sin( 84)

R14x:= RCG4,cos(84 + 180.deg) R/4y:= RCG4·sin(84 + lS0.deg)

RP2y:= (RP2 + RCG2)·sin(e2 + 180.deg)

R34x = -0.428 in

R34y = 0.646 in

R14x = 0.42S in

R14y = -0.646 in

Rp2y = -3.517 in

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

RP2x:= (RP2 + RCG2)'COS(e2 + 180.deg) RP4x:= (RP4 - RCG4)'COS(e4)

RP4y:= (RP4 - RCG4)·sin(e4)

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-14-2

RP2x = -3.057 in

RP4x = -0.124 in

4. Calculate the x andy components of the external crimp force at P on link 4 in the CGS.

RP4y = 0.188 in

FP4x := FP4'cos( BFP4) FP4y:= FP4.sin( BFP4)

FP4x = -1667.41bf

Fp4y = -1104.41bf

5. Substitute these given and calculated values into the matrix equation 11.9 modified to omit all mass and inertia
terms. Note that Mathcad requires that all elements in a matrix have the same dimension. Thus, the matrix and
array in equation 11.9 will be made dimensionless and the dimensions will be put back in after solving it.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
-RJ2y RJ2x -R32y R32x RP2x -RP2y
0 0 0 0
in in in in in in
0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
R23y -R23x -R43y R43x
C'- 0 0 0 0 0 0
.-
in in in in
0 0 0 0 -1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0
R34y -R34x -R14y RJ4x
0 0 0 0 0 0
in in in in
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 tan(e2 + i) -1 F·-

.-

- 1

-FP4y·lbf

( ) -I -I

-RP4x·Fp4y + RP4y'FP4x ·/bf -in

o

o o o o o o

- I

-FP4x·1bf

F12x:= Rt'lbf F 32x := R]' Ibf

F12x = 10291bf

F 32x = -10691bf

- 1 R:=C ·F

F12y := R2'lbf F32y := R4'lbf

F12y = 7571bf F32y = -7221bf

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

F43x:= R5·lbf F 14x := Ri Ibf

F43x = -1069/bf

F14x = 5981bf

6. Calculate the pin forces.

Pin atA:

Pin atB:

Pin at C:

Pin atD:

7. Calculate the hand force.

F12:= JF12/ + F12/ F32 := J F32/ + F32/ F43:= JF43/ + F43/ F14 := J F14/ + F14/

8. Use equation 11.23a to calculate the joint force index.

F32 JF1:=FP4

JFl = 0.645

F43y:= R6·lbf F14y := Rg.lbf

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-14-3

F43y = -722/bf FI4y = 3821bf

Fhandy:= RJ 0 ·Ibf Fhandy = -34.9Ibf

F12 = 12781bf

F32 = 1290 Ibf

F43 = 1290lbf

F14 = 7l0/bf

Fhand = 53.llbf

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-15-1

~ PROBLEM 11-15

statement:

Figure Pll-8 shows a walking beam conveyor mechanism that operates a slow speed (25 rpm). The boxes being pushed each weigh 50 lb. Determine the pin forces in the linkage and the torque to drive the mechanism through one revolution. Neglect the masses of the links.

Solution:

No solution is given for this problem, which is suited to solution using the Working Model program.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-16-1

~ PROBLEM 11-16

Statement:

Figure PII-9 shows a surface grinder table drive that operates at 120 rpm. The crank radius is 22 mm, the coupler is 157 mm, and its offset is 40 mm. The mass of the table and workpiece combined is 50 kg. Find the pin forces, slider side loads, and driving torque over one revolution.

Solution:

No solution is given for this problem, which is suited to solution using the Working Model program.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-17-1

liS PROBLEM 11-17

Statement:

Figure PI I-I 0 shows a power hacksaw that operates at 50 rpm. The crank is 75 mm, the coupler is 170 mm, and its offset is 45 mm. Find the pin forces, slider side loads, and driving torque over one revolution for a cutting force of250 N in the forward direction and 50 N during the return stroke.

Solution:

No solution is given for this problem, which is suited to solution using the Working Model program.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-18-1

e: PROBLEM 11-18

Statement:

Figure P 11-11 shows a paper roll off-loading station. The paper rolls have a O.9-m OD, O.22-m m, are 3.23 m long, and have a density of 984 kg/m'', The forks that support the roll are 1.2 m long. The motion is slow so inertial loading can be neglected. Find the force required of the air cylinder to rotate the roll through 90 deg.

Solution:

No solution is given for this problem, which is suited to solution using the Working Model program.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-19-1

~ PROBLEM 11-19

Statement:

Derive an expression for the relationship between flywheel mass and the dimensionless parameter radius/thickness (rlt) for a solid disk flywheel of moment of inertia 1. Plot this function for an arbitrary value of I and determine the optimum TIt ratio to minimize flywheel weight for that 1.

Solution:

No solution is provided to this algebraic exercise.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

~ PROBLEM 11-20

Statement:

Units:

Given:

Solution:

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-20-1

Figure PIl-5a shows an oil field pump mechanism. The head of the rocker arm is shaped such that the lower end ofa flexible cable attached to it will always be directly over the well head regardless of the position of the rocker arm 4. The pump rod, which connects to the pump in the well casing, is connected to the lower end of the cable. The force in the pump rod on the up stroke is 2970 Ib and the force on the down stroke is 2300 lb. Link 2 weighs 598.3 Ib and has a moment of inertia of 11.8 blob-in2; both including the counterweight. Its CG is on the link cenerline, 13.2 in from O2, Link 3 weighs 108 lb and its CG is on the link centerline, 40 in from A. It has a mass moment of inertia ofl50 blob-ins, Link 4 weighs 2706 Ib and has a moment of inertia of 10700 blob-ins: both include the counterweight. Its CG is on the link centerline where shown. The crank turns at a constant speed of 4 rpm CCW. At the instant shown in the figure the crank angle is at 45 deg with respect to the global coordinate system. Find all pin forces and the torque needed to drive the

crank for the position shown. Include gravity forces.

2 - I - 1

blob := lbf-sec -in rpm:» 2·1t·rad·min

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 toA):

Link 4 (Bto04):

Link I offsets:

a:= 14.0·in c:= 5 1.3· in dx= -47.5·in

Link 3 (A to B):

b:= 80.0·in

Link 1 (02 to 04): d:= 79.7·in dy:= 64·in

External load data: F:= 2300·1bf T4:= O·/bl-in

Crank angle and motion: B2xy:= -81.582·deg C)2 := 4·rpm

Coordinate rotation angle:

B3xy := 332.475·deg

B4xy:= 262.482·deg

aG2:= laG21

acz«= aG2'cos( BaG2) -2 aG2x = -1.638 in-sec

-2 (12 := O·rad·sec

RCGl:= 13.2·in RCG3 := 40.0· in RCG4:= 79.22·in

W2:= 598.3·1bf W3:= 108·/bf W4:= 2706·/bf

IGl:= 11.8.blob.in2

IG3:= 150.blob.in2 IG4:= 10700.blob.in2

Link CG positions:

Link weights:

Moments of inertia:

Angle between 04B and CG4B:

Angle between 04B and CG404:

Angle between 04B and CG4P:

(1:= 143.l1·deg J3 := -14.03·deg 5:= 156.62·deg

R34 := 32.00·jn R14 := 79.22·in Rp:= 124.44·in

See Figure Pll-12 and Mathcad file P1120.

I. Use Problems 6.84c and 7.10b with ID2 = 4 rpm to determine the position, velocity, and acceleration of links 3 and 4. The angles are calculated in the xy coordinate system and then rotated into the XY coordinate system after calculating accelerations.

y:= atan2(dx.dY)

y = 126.582 deg

- I C)3 := -O.0214·rad·sec

- I ID4 .= 0.0986·rad·sec

-2 (13:= -0.0250·rad·sec

-2 (14:::; -O.0272·rad·sec

2. Calculate the x and y components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS).

aG2:::; RCGl·(12·(-sin(B2xy) + j,cos(B2XY)) - RCGl·ID/.(cos(B2XY) + j,sin(B2XY))

-2 aG2 = 2.316 in-sec

BaG2 = 225.000 deg

aG2y:= aG2·sin( BaG2) -2 aG2y = -1.638 in-sec

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-20-2

aA:= a·<X2·(-Sin(B2XY) + j,cos(B2XY)) - a.m/,{cos{B2XY) + j.sin(B2XY))

aCGJA:= RCG3·<X3·{-sin( B3xy) + j 'COS{ B3XY)) - RCG3·m/.{cos{ B3xy) + j.Sir{ B3XY))

-2 aG3 = 1.763 in- sec

BaG3 == 244.955 deg

aos»> aG3'cos{ BaG3) -2 aG3x == -0.747 in-sec

aG3y:= aG3·sin( BaG3) -2 aG3y = -1.598 in- sec

aG4 := RCG4'<X4'( -sin( B4xy + e) + j .cos( B4xy + ~)) ... + -RCG4·m/.{ cos( B4xy + ~) + j . sin( B4xy + I:l))

-2 aG4 == 2.288 in- sec

BaG4:= arg{aG4} + Y aG4y:= aG4·sin( BaG4) -2 aG4y = -2.281 in-sec

BaG4 = 265.366 deg

QG4x := aG4'cos( BaG4) -2 QG4x = -0.185 in-sec

Transform the link angles to the global XY system:

83 := B3xy + Y - 360·deg

84:== B4xy + Y - 360·deg

82 == 45.000 deg

83 = 99.057 deg

84 = 29.064deg

3. Set up an LNCS xy coordinate system at the CO of each link, and draw all applicable vectors acting on the system as shown in Figure 11-3. Draw a free-body diagram of each moving link as shown in Figure 11-3.

4. Calculate the x and y components of the position vectors.

RI2x:= RCG2,cos{82 + 180.deg)

Rl2x = -9.334 in

RI2y:= RCG2·Sin(82 + 180.deg) R32x:= (a - RCG2}·cos(82)

R12y = -9.334 in

R32x = 0.566 in

y

• I i.F: .. / R32

G2y /

F 1" ~~~: :...__~-x

I F

R12 12x

(b) FBD of Link 2

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

(c) FBD of Link 3

R23x:= RCG3·eos(83 + 180.deg) R23y:= RCG3·sin(83 + 180.deg) R43x:= (RCG3 - b).eos(83 + 180.deg) R43y:= (RCG3 - b).Sin(83 + 180.deg)

R34x:= R34·eos(84 + a) R34y:= R34·sin(e4 + a)

R14x:= RJ4"eos(84 + 13 + 180.deg) R14y:= R/4"sin(84 + 13 + 180.deg) Rpx:= (Rp).eos( 84 + 0)

RPy:= (Rp).sin(e4 + 0)

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-20-3

(d) FBD of Link 4

R32y = 0.566 in

R23x = 6.297 in

R23y = -39.501 in

R43x = --6.297 in

~3y = 39.501 in

R34x = -31.702 in

R34y = 4.357 in

R14x = -76.508 in

R14y = -20.550 in

Rpx = -123.828 in

Ft»> O·/b/

7. Calculate the x andy components of the external force at P and the weight forces at the CGs. in the cas.

RPy = -12.326 in

8. Substitute these given and calculated values into the matrix equation 11.9. Note that Mathcad requires that all elements in a matrix have the same dimension. Thus, the matrix and array in equation 11.9 will be made dimensionless and the dimensions will be put back in after solving it.

W2 m2:=g

W4 m4:=-

g

m: = 1.55 blob

ms = 7.01 blob

m3 = 0.28 blob

DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 11-20-4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
-R12y R12x -R32y R32x
0 0 0 0
in in in in
0 0 -I 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -I 0 0 0 0
C--
--
R23y -R23x -R43y R43x
0 0 0 0 0
in in in in
0 0 0 0 -I 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -I 0 0
R34y -R34x -R14y R14x
0 0 0 0 0
in in in in F:=

- 1 R:=C -F

(m2-aG2y - FG2y)-lbj- 1

-1 -1

1G2-a2-1bj -in

- 1

m3-aG3x-1bj

(m3-aG3y - FG3y)-lbj- 1

-] -]

1G3-a3-lbj -in

(m4-aG4x - Fpx}lbj- I

(m4-aG4y - FPy - FG4y)-lbj- 1 1G4-a4 - (Rpx-FPy - RPy-Fpx)}lhj- '.« 1

FJ2x:= R .. lbj F32x:= Rflbj F43x:= Rj"lbJ F14x := Ri1hj TJ2:= R9-/bj-in

FJ2x = -327 lhj

FJ2y:= R2-lbj F32y:= R4-1bj F43y := R6·/bj FJ4y:= RS·/bj

FJ2y = 2682 /hj F32y = -2086/bj F43y = -1978/bj F14y = 3012 /hj

F32x = 324/bj

F43x = 3241bj

F14x = 323/bj

TJ 2 = 294421bf- in

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-21-1

~ PROBLEM 11-21

Statement:

Units:

Given:

Solution:

Figure PII-5a shows an oil field pump mechanism. The head of the rocker arm is shaped such that the lower end ofa flexible cable attached to it will always be directly over the well head regardless of the position of the rocker arm 4. The pump rod, which connects to the pump in the well casing, is connected to the lower end of the cable. The force in the pump rod on the up stroke is 2970 lb and the force on the down stroke is 2300 lb. Link 2 weighs 59S.3 lb and has a moment of inertia of 11.S blob-in2; both including the counterweight. Its CG is on the link cenerline, 13.2 in from O2, Link 3 weighs lOS lb and its CG is on the link centerline, 40 in from A. It has a mass moment of inertia of 150 blob-in-, Link 4 weighs 2706 lb and has a moment of inertia of 10700 blob-ins: both include the counterweight. Its CG is on the link centerline where shown. The crank turns at a constant speed of 4 rpm CCW. Find and plot all pin forces and the torque needed to drive the

crank for one revolution of the crank. Include gravity forces.

2 - 1 - 1

blob := lbf-sec -in rpm:= 2·re·rad·min

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 to A):

Link 4 (B to 04):

Link 1 offsets:

Link 3 (A to B):

a:;; t4.0·in c:;; 5t.3·in dx= --47.5·in F :;; 2300·lbj

b:= SO.O·in

Link I (02 to 04): d:= 79.7·in dy:= 64·in

T4:;; O·lhl-in

Extemalload data:

Crank angle and motion: 92:= 45·deg

-2 (12 :;; O·rad·sec

ID2:= 4·rpm

Link CG positions:

Link weights:

RCG2 :;; 13.2·in RCG3 := 40.0· in RCG4 := 32.0·in

W2:= 598.3·lbj W3 := 108·lbj W4:= 2706·lbj

Moments of inertia:

IG2:= 11.S.hlob.in2

IG3:;; 150.blob.in2 /G4:= 10700.blob.in2

Angle between O~ and CG4B:

Angle between 04B and CG404:

Angle between 04B and CG4P:

(1 :;; 143.l1·deg ~ :;; -14.03·deg 8:;; 156.62·deg

R34 .= 32.00·in R14:= 79.22·in Rp:= 124.44·in

I. No solution is given for this problem, which is suited to solution using the Working Model program.

See Figure PII-12 and Mathcad file PI121.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

~ PROBLEM 11-22

Statement:

Units:

Given:

Solution:

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-22-1

Figure PII-5a shows an oil field pump mechanism. The head of the rocker arm is shaped such that the lower end ofa flexible cable attached to it will always be directly over the well head regardless of the position of the rocker arm 4. The pump rod, which connects to the pump in the well casing, is connected to the lower end of the cable. The force in the pump rod on the up stroke is 2970 Ib and the force on the down stroke is 2300 lb. Link 2 weighs 598.3 Ib and has a moment of inertia of 11.S blob-in-; both including the counterweight Its CG is on the link cenerline, l3.2 in from O2• Link 3 weighs lOS Ib and its CG is on the link centerline, 40 in from A. It has a mass moment of inertia of 150 blob-in-, Link 4 weighs 2706 lb and has a moment of inertia of 10700 blob-ins: both include the counterweight. Its CG is on the link centerline where shown. The crank turns at a constant speed of 4 rpm CCW. At the instant shown in the figure the crank angle is at 45 deg with respect to the global coordinate system. Find the torque needed to drive the crank for the position shown using the method ofvirtuaJ work. Include gravity forces.

2 - 1 -1

blob := lbf'-sec -in rpm:= 2·1t·rad·min

Link lengths:

Link 2 (02 to A):

Link 4 (B to 04):

Link 1 offsets:

Extemalload data:

Crank angle and motion:

Link CG positions:

Link weights:

Moments of inertia: Icn= Il.S.blob.in2 1GJ:= 150.blob.in2 1G4:= 10700.blob.in2

Angle between 04B and CG4B: ex := 143.l1·deg R34 := 32.00·jn

a:= 14.0·in Link 3 (A to B): b:= SO.O·jn
c:= 51.3·in Link I (02 to 04): d:= 79.7·in
dx> -47.5·in dy:= 64·in
FP4y .= -2300·1bl
02:= 45·deg (J.}2:= 4·rpm <12 := O·rad·sec -2
RCG2 := 13.2· in RCGJ := 40.0·in RCG4 t= 32.0· in
W2:= 59S.3·1bl W3:= lO8·/bl W4 := 2706·/bl Angle between 04B and CG404:

Angle between 04B and CG4P:

p := -14.03·deg 0:= I56.62·deg

See Figure PIl-12 and Mathcad file Pl122.

R14 := 79.22·in Rp:= 124.44·in

I. Use Problems 6.S4c and 7.70b with (J.}2 = 4 rpm to determine the position. velocity, and acceleration oflinks 3 and 4. The angles are calculated in the xy coordinate system and then rotated into the XY coordinate system, which

is used in the remainder of the problem.

Coordinate rotation angle:

03:= 99.057·deg

04 := 29.064·deg

Accelerations:

Velocities:

y:= atan2(dx,dy)

- 1 (J.}3 := -O.0214·rad·sec

-1 (J.}4 := 0.0986·rad·sec

-2 aG2 := 2.316·in·sec

-2 aG3 := 1.764·in·sec

-2 aG4:= 2.2S8·in·sec

-2 aN:= 1.391·in·sec

- I vG2 := 5.529·in·sec

y = 126.582 deg

-2 <13 := -O.0250·rad·sec

-2 <14 := -O.0272·rad·sec

BAG2:= 225.00·deg

BAG3:= 244.915·deg

BAG4:= 265.366·deg

BAN:= 60.394·deg

BVG2:= 135.0·deg

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-22-2

- 1 vG3 := 5.406·in·sec

BVG3:= 127.628·deg

-1 vG4:= 7.809·in·sec

-1 v ps :» 4.753·in·sec

BVG4:= 105.034.deg

BVP4 := 245.646·deg

2. Calculate the x and y components of the velocity vectors.

VG2x := VG2'COS( BVG2)

VG2y:= vGl·sin( BVGl) VG3x:= VG3'COS( BVG3) VG3y:= VG3,Sin( BVG3)

- 1 vG2x = -3.910 in-sec

- 1 VG2y = 3.910 in- sec

- 1 vG3x = -3.301 in-sec

- 1 VG3y = 4.282 in- sec

VG4x:= VG4'COS( BVG4) vG4y:= VG4,Sin( BVG4)

- 1 vG4x = -2.026 in-sec

- 1 VG4y = 7.542 in-sec

VP4x .= VP4'COS( BVP4) VP4y := vP4.sin( BVP4)

- 1 vP4x = -1.960 in- sec

- 1 v P4y = -4.330 in- sec

3. Calculate the x andy components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS).

acu= aG2'cos( BAG2) «azy= aGl·sin( BAG2) acs«> aG3'cos( BAG3) aG3y:= aG3.sin( BAG3) aG4x:= aG4'cos( BAG4) aG4y:= aG4·sin( BAG4)

-2 aG2x = -1.638 in-sec

-2 aGly = -1.638 in-sec

-2 aG3x = -0.748 in-sec

-2 aG3y = -1.598 in-sec

-2 aG4x = -0.185 in- sec

-2 aG4y = -2.281 in-sec

4. Calculate the mass of each link.

W2 m2:=g

W3 m3:=-

g

5. Substitute these given and calculated values into equation 11.16c and solve for the input torque.

1

TI2:= -.[m2.(aG2X.VG2X + aG2y-vG2y) + m3·(aG3x,vG3x + aG3y-vG3y) ... j

0}2 +m4.(aG4x,vG4x + aG4y-vG4y) + (IG2'(X2'0}2 + IG3'(X3'0}3 + IG4'(X4'0}4) ... + (W2'VG2y + W3'VG3y + W4'VG3y) - (FP4y'VP4y)

TI2 = 10219/hf·in

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-23-1

~ PROBLEM 11-23

Statement:

Use the information in problem 11-20 to find and plot the torque needed to drive the crank for one revolution of the crank using the method of virtual work.

Solution:

See Figure PI1-12 and Mathcad file P1123.

No solution for this problem is provided. This problem is more suitable for a longer-term project than for a short-term homework problem.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

~ PROBLEM 11-24

Statement:

Units:

Given:

Solution:

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-24-1

In Figure PIl-l3, links 2 and 4 each weigh 2 lb and there are 2 of each (another set behind). Their CGs are at their midpoints. Link 3 weighs 10 lb. The moments of inertia of links 2, 3, and 4 are 0.071,0.430, and 0.077 blob-ins, respectively. Find the torque needed to begin a slow CCW rotation of link 2 from the position shown using the method of virtual work. Include gravity forces.

2 - 1 blob :» lbf'-sec -in

Link lengths:
Link 2 (02 to A) a := 9.l74·in Link 3 (A to B) b:= 12.971·in
Link 4 (B to 04) c .= 9.573·in Link 3 (02 to 04) d := 7.487·in
Link angles (LCS): 92 := -26.0·deg 93:= 72.239·deg 94:= 60.491·deg
Weight: W2:= 4·lbj W3:= lO·fbj W4:= A-lbf
Mass: W2 W3 W4
m2:=- m3:=- m4:=-
g g g
m2 = O.OlOblob m3 = 0.026 blob m4 = 0.010 blob Moment of inertia: IG2:= 0.071.blob.in2

IG3 := 0.430.blob.in2

Mass center:

RCG2:= 4.587·in 82:= O·deg

IG4:= 0.077.blob.ii

RCG4 .= 4.786· in 84:= O·deg

RCG3 := 7.086·in 03 := -23.758·deg

Force and torque: Fp3 := O·lbj

OFP3 := O·deg

FP4:= O·lbj

T3:= O·lbj-in

T4:= O./bj-in

Accelerations:

-2 u2 := O·rad·sec

-2 aG2 := 0.0· in- sec

Velocities:

- 2 -2

u3:= 0.00206·rad·sec 2G3:= 0.Ol74·in·sec

-2 -2

U4:= 0.0025·rad·sec aG4:= 0.0159·in·sec

- I - I

<02:= O.OlO·rad·sec vG2:= 0.0459·in·sec

- 1 - 1

<03:= 0.0347·rad·sec vG3:= 0.284·in·sec

- 1 - I

<04:= 0.0466·rad·sec vG4:= 0.0223·in·sec

See Figure PII-l3 and Mathcad file Pl124.

I. Calculate the x and y components of the velocity vectors (global coordinate system).

VG2x := VG2'COS( OVG2) VG2x = 0.035 in-sec - 1

VG2y:= vG2.sin( OVG2) VG3x := VG3'COS( OVG3) VG3y:= vG3.sin( OVG3)

- 1 VG2y = -0.030 in- sec

- 1 vG3x = 0.174 in- sec

- 1 VG3y = 0.225 in-sec

OFP4 := O·deg

OAG2:= 85.879·deg

OAG3:= 100.159·deg

0AG4:= 123.308·deg

OVG2 := -41.21.deg

0VG3:= 52.251.deg

0VG4:= 82.367·deg

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 11-24-2

VG4x:= VG4·COS( BVG4) vos«> VG4·sin( BVG4)

-3 -1

vG4x = 2.962 x 10 in- sec

- 1

VG4y = 0.022 in-sec

2. Calculate the x and y components of the acceleration of the CGs of all moving links in the global coordinate system (GCS).

aou= aG2·cos( BAG2)

-2 aG2x = 0.000 in-sec

aG2y:= aG2.sin( BAG2) «ass= aG3·cos( BAG3) aG3y:= aG3.sin( BAG3) aG4x:= aG4·cos( BAG4) aG4y:= aG4·sin( BAG4)

-2 aG2y = 0.000 in· sec

-3 -2

aG3x = -3.069 x 10 in· sec

-2

aG3y = 0.017 in-sec

-3 -2

aG4x = -8.731 x 10 in- sec

-2

aG4y = 0.013 in- sec

3. Substitute these given and calculated values into equation 11.16c and solve for the input torque.

I

TI2:= -.[m2.(aG2X.VG2X + aG2y"vG2y) + m3·(aG3x·vG3x + aG3y"vG3y) ... J

ffi2 + m4·(aG4x·VG4x + aG4y·vG4y) + (IG2·a2·ffi2 + IG3·a3·ffi3 + IG4·a4·ffi4) ... +-T3·ffi3 - T4·ffi4 + (W2·VG2y + W3·VG3y + W4·VG4y)

TI2 = 221.32Ibj-in

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

11-A-1

PROBLEMS PROBLEMS
11-3 AND 11-4 11-5 AND 11-6
Row TI2 Row TI2
a 99.69 a 176.37
b -56.59 b -1266.0
c -84.01 c 1245.2
d -133.69 d 266.02
e 13.13 e 58.56
f -2612.7 f -21137
g -574.90 g 34.23