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Problem Analysis

ESAMI 1
Scope Planning
• Components of a scope statement
– Project Goal and Objectives
– Deliverables
– Key milestones
– Assumptions/Constraints
– Key risks
– Acceptance criteria
– Signature/approval of project sponsor
and Client

2
Scope Management

Scope Creep is one of the reasons why you


must:
spend the necessary time in the definition
of the project’s scope
verify the scope with the stakeholders.

3
Scope Management

Scope Creep is the tendency for the


requirements of a project to grow past the
initial Scope Statement and Verification

4
Problem analysis
• Root cause analysis is a structured team
process that assists in identifying
underlying factors or causes of an
adverse event or near-miss.
• Understanding the contributing factors
or causes of a system failure can help
develop actions that sustain the
correction.
ESAMI 5
The ‘Problem Tree’ Approach
The ‘Problem Tree’ Approach
• A problem tree is used to connect the
various aspects of a problem or issue to
one another.
• The advantage of such an approach is
that it connects causal processes.

ESAMI 6
The ‘Problem Tree’ Approach

• CAUSES: The things which bring about the


focal problem.
• EFFECTS: The consequences of the focal
problem existing.
• The key problem is often called the focal
problem

ESAMI 7
Effect

Core problem

Cause

PROBLEM TREE
ESAMI 8
The steps to creating a problem tree

• Identify existing problems based on


available information.
• Select one aspect of the problem for the
analysis.
• Develop a problem tree.

ESAMI 9
Formulate problems
What is a problem?
A problem is not the absence of a solution but
an existing negative state: 'Crops are infested
with pests' is a problem; 'No pesticides are
available' is not.

What is a ‘focal problem’?


One that involves the interests and problems of
the stakeholders present.

ESAMI 10
Select one aspect of the problem for the analysis

pose a central question such as:


• What are the constraints on getting goods to
the market in mbeya?
• Why don’t women get access to micro-finance
for small enterprise development in
Morogoro?
• Why are roads poorly maintained in Arusha?

ESAMI 11
Why a Problem Tree?
Problem Tree Objective Tree
Effects Overall objectives

Focal problem Project Purpose

Causes Results
ESAMI 12
What is a Cause and Effect Diagram

A Cause and Effect diagram (also known as


a Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram)
graphically illustrates the results of the
analysis and is constructed in steps.

• Cause-and-Effect diagrams graphically


display potential
causes of a problem

13 ESAMI
Structure of the problem tree showing
causes and effects

ESAMI 14
Problem tree analysis

http://www.sswm.info/sites/default/files/toolbox/EC%202004%201%20Example%20of%20a%20Problem%20Tree.jpg
ESAMI 15
“fishbone/Ishikawa” diagram
• The problem or effect is displayed at the head
or mouth of the fish. Possible contributing
causes are listed on the smaller “bones” under
various cause categories.

ESAMI 16
fishbone/Ishikawa” diagram

ESAMI 17
How do I do it? (continued)

• 3. Draw fishbone diagram


• Place the effect at the head of the “fish”
• Include the 6 recommended categories shown below
People Method Machine

Problem
or Issue

Material Environment Measurement System

18 ESAMI
Steps
• Agree on the problem statement (also
referred to as the effect). This is written at the
mouth of the “fish.” Be as clear and specific as
you can about the problem.
• Agree on the major categories of causes of the
problem (written as branches from the main
arrow).
• Other categories may include;
Communications, Policies and structure
ESAMI 19
Why implement this?
• It helps determine the root
causes of a problem using a
structured approach.
• It encourages group
participation and utilizes
group knowledge of the
process.
• It uses an orderly, easy-to-
read format to diagram
cause-and-effect.
relationships
• It indicates possible causes of
variation in a process.
ESAMI 20
What is an Objectives
– Fine statements that show what is to be achieved
by the project.
– Comprehensively describe the intended outcomes
of the problem.
• Characteristics of a good objectives
– Focused - to the problem
– Realistic – useful and relevant.
– Measurable- standards of achievement
– Recall SMART
Issues to consider in choosing
objectives to focus on.
• Aim at 20% objectives that will have 80% impact in
relation to the focal problem
• Cost
• Benefit to primary stakeholders
• Likelihood of achieving the objectives
• Risks involved in not handling or handling it
• Whether other organizations are already handling it
• Sustainability of the project
• Environmental impact
Discussion
• Refer to the case study.
7) Develop objectives for your case project.

27-Feb-20 esami...fk 23