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Contents

Table of Contents

Preface

About the Author

Chapter 1: Introduction to Cloud Computing

1.1 The History and Future of Cloud

1.2 Cloud Computing Basics

1.3 Cloud Components

1.4 Infrastructure and Services

1.5 Usage of Cloud Computing

1.6 Benefits and Limitations

1.7 Cloud Infrastructure Models

1.8 Cloud Computing Protocols

1.9 On-Demand Services

1.10 Summary

1.11 Exercises

Chapter 2: Cloud Computing Architecture

2.1 Cloud Computing Basics

2.2 Cloud Architecture Requirements

2.3 Introduction to Cloud Computing Architectures

2.4 Kinds of Cloud Computing Architectures

2.5 Grid Computing

2.6 Transactional Computing

2.7 On-Demand Computing

2.8 Utility Computing

2.9 Distributed Computing

2.10 Cluster Computing

2.11 Cloud Computing Application Architectures


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2.12 Summary

2.13 Exercises

Chapter 3: Introduction to Virtualization

3.1 History of Virtualization

3.2 Objectives of Virtualization

3.3 Benefits of Virtualized Technology

3.4 The virtual service desk

3.5 Virtualizability

3.6 Related Forms of Computing

3.7 Virtualization Processes

3.8 Software Virtualization

3.9 Para-Virtualization

3.10 OS Virtualization

3.11 Oracle Virtualization

3.12 Summary

3.13 Exercises

Chapter 4: Virtualization Technologies

4.1 History of Virtualization

4.2 VMware

4.3 Microsoft Hyper-V

4.4 Virtual Iron

4.5 Xen

4.6 UBUNTU (Server Edition)

4.7 Storage Virtualization Technologies

4.8 Virtualization & Storage Management

4.9 Summary

4.10 Exercises

Chapter 5: Cloud Security


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5.1 Data Security

5.2 Network Security

5.3 Host Security

5.4 Cloud Security Services

5.5 Cloud Security Possible Solutions

5.6 Cloud Protocols and Standards

5.7 Security Outages

5.8 Summary

5.9 Exercises

Chapter 6: Cloud Disaster Recovery

6.1 Disaster Recovery Planning

6.2 Disasters in the Cloud

6.3 Disaster Management

6.4 Capacity Planning

6.5 Cloud Scale

6.6 Summary

6.7 Exercises

Chapter 7: Graph Reduction and Databases

7.1 What is Graph Reduction

7.2 Types of Graphs (Social N/W, Web)

7.3 Examples of Graph Databases

7.4 Representation of Graphs

7.5 Applications

7.6 Trees Vs. Graphs

7.7 Summary

7.8 Exercises

Chapter 8: Cloud Computing: Case Studies

8.1 Salesforce.com (SaaS)

8.2 Google APP Engine (PaaS)


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8.3 Windows Azure (PaaS and SaaS)

8.4 Hadoop (IaaS and PaaS)

8.5 OBIEE (PaaS & IaaS)

8.6 IBM – Bluemix(PaaS and SaaS)

8.7 Amazon EC2 and S3

8.8 Summary

8.9 Exercises

Chapter 9: Cloud Computing Certifications

9.1 Beginner’s Certification

9.2 Administration Certifications

9.3 Developer Certifications

9.4 Consultant Certifications

9.5 Architect Certifications

Miscellaneous

Appendix

Index
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Chapter 1

Introduction to CLOUD COMPUTING:J.C.K. Licklider might be the


biggest contributor to the history of cloud computing in this era. He
spent the 1960s developing ARPANET.“Cloud” term was first used by
John McCarthy in 1961.In India first cloud term is used by
Ramanathan Chellappa in IISC Bangalore in 1990.1999 –
Salesforce.com (Marc Benioff) is established, providing an “on
demand” SaaS (Software as a Service).The first movers in the cloud
are Amazon, Google and Microsoft.

TOP Cloud Service Providers: Amazon ( AWS): EC2, S3.

Google: Google app engine


Microsoft: MS- Azure
IBM: Blue Cloud
Oracle Cloud
Go Grid Cloud
Salesforce: Salesforce.com
MOSSO Cloud
Joyent Cloud
3Tera
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Evolution of Computing:

A Historical perspective

Mainframes (1960s)
Minicomputers/Desktops (1970s)
Client-Server/Laptops (1980s)
Web/Mobile Devices (1990s)
Virtualization/Cloud Computing (2000s)
Social revolution and smart devices (2010’s)
Quantum Computing, App world, Big data, IOT (2014’s)
Standards are crucial for Cloud Computing Paradigm to get
acceptance worldwide.Computer Industry is the only industry more
fashion-driven than women’s fashion. [Larry Ellison]
Evolution of Cloud Computing:

i) H/W Evolution - 1st Generation to 4th Generation of


the computers.
ii) S/W Evolution - Different types of N/Ws, Rules for
Communication/Produce a Common
Protocol (IPV6 usage).
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iii) Server Virtualization - Parallel Processing, Vector Processing,


Symmetric Multiprocessing, Massively Parallel Processing issues.

i) Hardware Evolution

 Hardware evolution started in the year 1930.

 1st PC –MITS Altair 8800 (1974) , Original IBM PC Released in

1981

 It consists of

a) 1st Generation Computers

b) 2nd Generation Computers

c) 3rd Generation Computers

d) 4th Generation Computers

e) 5th Generation Computers


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a) 1st GENERATION COMPUTER: First generation of modern

computers can be traced to 1943, when the Mark I and Colossus

computers were developed.

 Ex: Vaccumtubes

 Vacuum tubes were used to implement the functions (ALU & CU

design)

 Magnetic core and magnetic tape storage devices are used.

 Features:

 Low speed

 Low storage

 Bulk material

 Materials:

 Vaccumtubes
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b) 2nd GENERATION COMPUTER: Another general-purpose computer

of this era was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and

Computer) in 1946.

 Ex: ENIAC

 To convert HLL to MLL compiler were used

 Separate I/O processor were developed to operate in parallel

with CPU, thus improving the performance.

 Features:

– Low speed

– Low storage

– less material

 Materials:

– Transistors

– Vaccumtubes
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c) 3rd GENERATION COMPUTER: Kilby’s invention started an

explosion in third-generation computers.

 November 1971, Intel released the world’s first commercial

microprocessor, Intel 4004 .

 Ex: Chip

 Multiprogramming, pipelining concepts were incorporated

 DOS allowed efficient and coordinate operation of computer

system with multiple users

 Features:

– high speed

– high storage

– less material

 Materials:

– Transistors
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– Resistors

– Capacitors

d) 4th GENERATION COMPUTERS: The 4004 processor was capable

of “only” 60,000 instructions per second.

 The first commercially available personal computer was the

MITS Altair 8800, released at end of 1974 .

 Ex: Personal Computer(PC)


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 Interconnection of different computer for better communication

LAN,MAN,WAN , Computational speed increased by 1000 times

 Specialized processors like Digital Signal Processor were also

developed.

 Features:

– high speed

– high storage

– less material

 Materials:

– Microprocessor, Transistors

– Resistors, Capacitors

– Microchip, Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC)

e) 5th FIFTH GENERATION-(1990 – 2014) 21st Century Computing

 Ex: PC, Laptop, and Tablet PC.


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 Features:

– Very high speed

– Very high storage

– less material

 Materials:

– Chips

– Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC)

– LSI(Large Scale Integrated )

– Microprocessor

– Transistors

– Resistors

– Capacitors

– Microchip

ii) Internet Software Evolution:


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 Internet  Internet protocol used by every computer on

Internet

 Vernnevar Bush  Norbert Weiner  SAGE  Packet switching

 IMP AHHP & ICP  FTP,SMTP  TCP/IP V1,V2,V3,

IPV3,TCPV4,IPV4,IPV6  Integrated TCP/IP Protocol

 1st Networking protocol used on ARPANET  Network Control

Program(NCP-1969).

 Hypertext (Ted Nelson)1st Web Browser  Tim Berner’s Lee

Mosaic (Graphic, Sound, Chips)

 Netscape(1994)  Mozilla 0.96b  Mozilla 1.0

 Microsoft Internet Explorer -> Graphical Web Browser

 July 95-> MS-Windows 95 OS -> Mozilla2002 -> Mozilla

Firefox2004

 Grid computing in 1990’s -> Globus Tool Kit

iii) Server Virtualization:

Virtualization: A method of running multiple independent virtual

operating systems on a single physical computer.

 A way of reducing Hardware acquisition and maintenance costs

and saves amount for company.

 Ex: VMware, Hyper-V, Virtual Iron and Xen.

 Creation and management of virtual machines called platform

virtualization.
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 Platform virtualization is performed on a given computer

(hardware platform) by software called a control program.

 The control program creates a simulated environment, a virtual

computer, which enables the device to use hosted software

specific to the virtual environment, sometimes called guest

software.

 It consists of:

 Parallel Processing

 Vector Processing

 Symmetric Multiprocessing

 Massively Parallel Processing issues

a) Parallel Processing:

 Simultaneous execution of program instructions in less time.

 Advancement-> Multiprogramming -> RR scheduling.

 Resource management, resource contention and deadlocks are

important.

b) Vector Processing:

 To increase the processor performance, it operates in multi

tasking environment.

 Matrix operations were added to two arrays to perform

arithmetic operations.

c) Symmetric Multi Processing :


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 It addresses the resource management problems in the

master/slave model.

 Every processor is equally independent and responsible for

managing workflows in system.

 To achieve the sequential consistency, single processor, multi

programming system.

 Data propagation time is proportional to number of processors

added to systems.

d) Massively Parallel Processing Systems: 100’s/1000’s of units are

interconnected to act as single computer to perform large task.

Ex: Good year MPP . Applications: AI, Data mining.

e) Future of Cloud Computing: Concept born in 1960’s from ideas of

pioneers J.C.K. Licklider and John Mc Carthy.

 Gartner research surveys will approach $152.1 billion in 2014.

 Gartner – Cloud computing has significant impact on every

aspect of IT.

 Information will become cheaper , more ubiquitous through

cloud.

 SaaS market - growth rate $45.6 billion by 2017

 By 2020, organizations save $12.3 billion in energy costs.

 By 2020 the cloud computing market is forecast to exceed $241

billion.
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(2) Basics of Cloud Computing:

 It consists of:

a) Cloud basics and Definitions

b) Emergence of cloud computing

c) What’s Cloud and what’s not cloud

d) Cloud computing layers

e) Drivers of cloud computing

f) NIST basic cloud architecture

g) Cloud service offerings

h) Legal issues

i) Challenges
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j) Key characteristics

k) Internet vs. Cloud Computing

a) Basics of cloud computing

 Cloud is a Metaphor for the Internet.

 Cloud Computing is Internet based computing.

 Derived from depiction in Network diagrams(TCP/IP).

 Cloud is an Internet based development of applications and

services.

 Cloud Computing is a Multitenant Architecture

 Cloud computing is a 5-4-3 Formula i.e. 5 Characteristics,

4 Infrastructural Models and 3 major Services.

 Introduced initially by J.C.K Licklider and John. McCarthy in

1961.

 It provides the resources that are as services, those services are

on-demand services i.e. Pay and use

 Cloud computing is form of Distributed Computing.

 The Heart of the Cloud computing is “Data center and

Virtualization”.
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 “Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware

and software) that are delivered as a service over a network

(typically the Internet).”Cloud computing has two important

sections

 1) Front end 2) Back end.

 Front end : Cloud client , Thin client

interface, cloud end-user

 Connectivity: Internet.

 Back end : Datacenter and Virtualization software

 Cloud Computing is a style of computing in which massively

scalable IT-related capabilities are provided "as a service" using

Internet technologies to multiple external customers.

Cloud Computing Definitions:


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 “A Model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand

network access (through Internet) to a shared pool of

configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers,

storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly

provisioned and released with minimal management effort or

service provider interaction.” (NIST, USA)

 Cloud is a parallel distributed computing system consisting of a

collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers that are

dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified

computing resources based on service-level agreements

(SLA)established through negotiation between the service

provider and consumers.” (Rajkumar Buyya).

 Ex: Web-based applications such as Google’s Gmail can be

accessed in real time from an Internet-connected machine

anywhere in the world.


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Fig: Why Cloud Computing

b)Emergence of Cloud Computing:

 Globalization of Computing assets.

 Utility Computing - The provision of Computational and storage

resources as a metered service, similar to traditional public

utility company.

 Slowly growing in popularity of a cloud computing paradigm,

provides virtual servers that IT depts. and users access on

demand.

 Next big thing in world of IT (Big data, IOT).

c) What is not cloud computing:

 If they are trying to sell you hardware… its not a cloud.

 If there is no API… its not a cloud.


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 If you need to rearchitect your systems for it… Its not a cloud.

 If you can’t deprovision in less than ten minutes… its not a

cloud.

 If you know where the machines are… its not a cloud.

 If it only runs one operating system… its not a cloud.

 If you can’t connect to it from your own machine… its not a

cloud.

 If you need to install software to use it… its not a cloud.

d) Cloud Computing Layers

Major cloud computing layers are:

i.Servers: Are the physical servers where the data is stored.

ii.Infrastructure: It’s a platform virtualization environment.

iii.Platform: Simply it’s where you write the code of applications that

consume infrastructure.

iv.Application: Delivers Software over the internet, eliminating the

need to install and run the application on customer’s own

computers.

v.Client: Computer Hardware or Computer Software that uses the

developed application.
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e) DRIVERS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

f) NIST Cloud Architecture

 Cloud Computing is a Multitenant Architecture


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Fig: Basic Cloud computing Architecture NIST

g) Cloud Service Offerings:

 Cloud computing may be viewed as resource available as a

service.

 IaaS: Amazon.com is web service provider started in 2002.

 Amazon offers services like : EC2, S3, SQS, simple DB, cloud

front.

 SaaS - delivers applications through browser to multiple users.

 For customers there is no upfront investment and licensing

cost.

 Ex: Salesforce.com – founded in 1999- Mark Benoiff

 PaaS– provides application development platform and

frameworks, Application programming interface as a service .


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 Ex: MS AZURE, Google App Engine.

 Google App Engine: Dynamic web serving, automatic scaling

& load balancing, API authenticating, Persistent storage are

important features.

 Google App engine applications are implemented using python

programming.

h) Legal issues

 Major service providers like Amazon web services cater to a

global market place (US, Japan/Available zones)

 Security and privacy at both individual and government levels

(US doesn’t allow foreign intelligence)

 In US, according to “Unlawful access to stored

communications”, people punished for more than 5 years in

case of 1st offense (or) 10 years/more as a second/subsequent

offenses.-[US Portrait Act, Electronic and communication

Privacy Act]

 In 2007, Google and IBM started their work on large scale cloud

computing by collaborating with universities.

 Yahoo, Google, IBM engaged to provide online services to users

to access data for daily life issues like Healthcare, finance,

insurance etc.

 Service levels

 Termination or suspension of service

 Representations and warranties; indemnities.


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 Confidentiality.

i) Challenges for the cloud

 Secure data storage - User Privacy, Identity, Application specific

preferences

issues.

 High speed access to the internet - broadband speeds are

needed/available.

 Standardization - Implementation of computers &app’n not yet

completely

defined and reviewed.

 Reliability - Public availability of a Cloud environment

 Scalability

 Availability

 Cost Efficient

 Personalization

 Mobility

 Latency

 Manageability

 Business models

 Customer lock in

 Service Level Agreements.

j) Key Characteristics
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 Factors such as Data Centers, Computers and Infrastructures

are energy consumers in Cloud Computing


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5. Internet is simply a tool, not a 5. Cloud vendors offer 24/7 support


service. for their cloud services from experts
who understands the technology.
6. Internet connects you to the web 6. Cloud services are based on IaaS or
and allows TCP/IP protocol to infrastructure as a service which
transfer you between web servers means the entire infrastructure of
online. your online needs like data storage,
power, cooling, and scalability is
left up to your cloud vendor.
7. Internet provides servers where one
have to buy it and manage it. 7. The cloud provides server resources
instantaneously thorough
virtualization.

8. Internet allows you to connect with


a few resources, but wont let you 8. Cloud can offer you the best
run a developer platform from just solution by allowing us to use
any web browser developer platform and frameworks
to develop and deploy application.

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4. Cloud Components:

a) Client

b) Datacenters

c) Distributed servers

d) Cloud consumer

e) Cloud Service Provider(CSP)

f) Cloud computing SLA

g) Cloud broker

h) Cloud carrier

a) Client: It’s a computers / devices that sits on desk.

 End users are those who interact with clients to avail cloud

services.

 Ex: Smart devices, Thin clients, Thick Clients


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 Advantages of thin clients: Lower Hardware cost, Lower IT cost,

Security, Data security, Less power utilization, Easy

repair/replacement.

b) Data Center: integration or collection of servers where the

applications to which you subscribe is housed.

 Room full of servers at one place that can be accesses via

internet – virtual servers.

c) Distributed Servers: Its not mandatory to have all servers in one

place they are geographically spread.

 This gives CSP more options and security.

Fig: NIST Reference Model with Components

1. Cloud Consumer: Person or organization that maintains a

business relationship with, and uses service from, Cloud

Service Providers.
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2. Cloud Provider: Person, organization or entity responsible for

making a service available to service consumers.

3. Cloud Carrier: The intermediary that provides connectivity and

transport of cloud services between Cloud Providers and Cloud

Consumers.

4. Cloud Broker: An entity that manages the use, performance and

delivery of cloud services, and negotiates relationships between Cloud

Providers and Cloud Consumers.

5. Cloud Auditor: A party that can conduct independent assessment

of cloud services, information system operations, performance and

security of the cloud implementation.

5) INFRASTRUCTURES AND SERVICES

 Infrastructure models are also called as Deployment Models.

 Cloud computing is a 5-4-3 Formula

 Five Characteristics

1. On Demand Service

2. Ubiquitous Network Access

3. Resource Pooling

4. Rapid Elasticity

5. Measured Service

 Four Infrastructure/Deployment Models

1. Public cloud

2. Private cloud
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3. Hybrid cloud

4. Community cloud/Inter Cloud

 Three Major Services

1. Software as a Service (SaaS)

2. Platform as a Service (PaaS)

3. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Cloud Characteristics

1. On-Demand Self-Service: Customers can automatically

provision computing capabilities and resources on their own

when needed without necessitating any human intervention.

2. Broad Network Access: Access and capabilities are available

over the network through standard devices, such as cell phones,

laptops, PDAs, etc.

3. Resource Pooling: Resources such as network bandwidth,

virtual machines, memory, processing power, storage capacity,

etc. are pooled together to serve multiple customers using a

multi-tenant model. That is, virtual and physical resources are

dynamically assigned and reassigned based on need and

customers’ demands.

4. Rapid Elasticity: Depending on demand, resources and

capabilities can be quickly and automatically deployed and

scaled at any quantity and at any time.

5. Measured Service: Customer usage of the vendor’s resources

and services are automatically monitored, controlled and


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reported offering a high level of transparency for the customer

and vendor.

Fig: Cloud Computing Services

INFRASTRUCTURAL/DEPLOYMENT MODELS OF CLOUD (NIST)

 There are 4 important infrastructural Models

1. Public cloud: This is available for public use and alternatively

for large industry group and is owned by service provider. Less

secure than private clouds.

Ex: Google’s Gmail or Dropbox, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

(EC2), IBM's Blue Cloud, Sun Cloud, Google AppEngine and Windows

Azure Services Platform..

 Main benefits of using a public cloud service are:


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i.Easy and inexpensive set-up because hardware, application and

bandwidth costs are covered by the provider.

ii.Scalability to meet needs.

iii.No wasted resources because you pay for what you use.

2. Private Cloud: Its operated exclusively for use of an organization.

Cloud may be managed by that organization or third party. It may

either be on or off premises.

 Benefits: security, scalability, No more maintenance costs.

 Examples: Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) or Simple

Storage Service (S3).

 To maintain confidentiality in highly sensitive electronic

records.

 It is great deployment model from security point of view.

 private cloud is implemented by organizations where there is a

strict requirement that data should obey the rules of various

regulatory standards such as HIPAA, SAS 70.

 Ex: Healthcare, financial, trade, and banking institutions.


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Fig: Public Cloud vs. Private Cloud

3. Hybrid Cloud: It combines multiple clouds (private, public and

community) where those clouds retain unique identities, but are

bound together as unit. Provides application portability.

 Your company wants to use a SaaS application but is concerned

about security, your SaaS vendor can create a private cloud just

for your company inside their firewall by providing

virtual private network (VPN) for additional security.

 This deployment model enables organizations to secure their

data and applications on a private cloud and cut down on IT

operational costs by storing the shared information on the

public cloud.

 You can use a public cloud to interact with the clients but keep

their data secured within a private cloud.


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 Ex: Force.com and Microsoft Azure, Health care, trade…etc;

4. Community Cloud: Its one where cloud has been organized to

serve common purpose or function. Managed by constituent

organizations or by third party.

 This cloud model is best suited for state-level government

departments that need access to the same data and applications

relating to the local population, roads, electrical stations,

hospitals.

 Ex: Apps.gov

Fig: Primary Cloud Computing Deployment models

Cloud Computing Services

i) SaaS : Software-as-a-Service:
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 Software as a Service (SaaS) provides business processes and

applications, including CRM, e-mails, collaboration, and so on.

 SaaS helps in optimizing the cost and delivery in exchange of

negligible customization and represents a shift of operational

risks from the consumer to the provider.

 All infrastructure and IT operational functions are abstracted

away from the consumer.

 SaaS is sometimes referred to as “on-demand software” and is

usually priced on a pay-per-use basis. SaaS providers price

applications using a subscription fee.

Characteristics of SaaS include: The application is hosted centrally.


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 Outsourcing hardware and software support to the cloud

provider.

 Enhancing the potential of an organization to reduce its IT

operational costs.

 No need to install new software to release updates, any update

can be executed by the cloud provider itself not the customers.

 Software testing takes place at a faster rate as SaaS

applications have only one configuration.

 Easy recognition of areas that need improvement as the solution

provider has access to user behavior within the application

itself.

Examples:

 Google app’s, salesforce.com, cisco, zoho planner, Google Docs.

 Salesforce.com is a best example of SaaS computing across

enterprise applications (1999,Marc Benioff)

 Google applications-online access via a web browser to office

and business applications where software, data stored in Google

servers.

 Microsoft Office 365.

ii) PaaS: Platform-as-a-Service

 Platform as a Service (PaaS) is another service model of cloud

computing that provides application execution services like

application runtime, storage, and integration. PaaS follows a

resourceful and responsive approach to operate scale-out


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applications and make these applications profitable. In this

model the provider provides the servers, networks, storage and

other services. The consumer controls software deployment and

configuration settings.

 Ex: MS-Azure, Force.com, Google App Engine and Open Stack.

Characteristics of PaaS include:

 Facilitation of hosting capabilities

 Designing and developing the application

 Integrating web services and databases

 Providing security, scalability and storage

 Versioning the application and application instrumentation

 Testing and deployment facilities.

iii) IaaS (infrastructure-as-a-Service)

 Also known as Hardware as a Service (HaaS), Infrastructure as

a Service (IaaS) is a category of cloud computing in which an

organization outsources the equipment used to support

operations, including storage, servers hardware and networking

components.

 The service provider is the owner of the equipment and is

responsible for configuring , running and maintaining it.

 The client, on the other hand, pays on a per-use basis.

 IaaS offers a standardized, dynamic, flexible and sometimes

virtualized environment for the end users.


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 Provides storage, database management, computing capabilities

as a on-demand service by the major vendors.

Characteristics of IaaS include

 Virtualization of Desktop

 Internet availability

 Use of billing model

 Computerized administrative tasks

 Utility computing service

 Policy-based services

 Active scaling

Examples:

 Amazon.com is a web service provider started in 2002.

 Go Grid, 3Terra, Amazon services – EC2, S3, SQS, Cloudfront,

Simple DB.
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Cloud Computing Service are:

1. Software as a Service (SaaS)

2. Platform as a Service (PaaS)

3. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

4. Architecture-as-a-Service (AaaS)

5. Database as a Service (DBaaS)

6. Identity-as-a-Service( IDaaS)

7. Testing-as-a-Service( TaaS)

8. Network as a Service (NaaS)

9. Storage-as-a-Service( StaaS)

10. Anything as a Service (XaaS)


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1.Software as a service (SaaS):Software deployment model whereby a

provider licenses an application to customers for use as a service on

demand.

 Application is offered as a service.

 Managed by provider such as Salesforce.com.

 Who Uses It : Business Users

 Why use it : To complete business tasks

Examples:

 Salesforce.com, Google app’s, Social networks.

 ERP, VoIP, BI, Supply chain

 CRM, Case Management

 Office Automation, Website Testing, Virtual Desktop


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 Gov -Apps, Internet Services

 Blogging/Surveys/Twitter

 Information/Knowledge Sharing (Wiki)

 Communication (e-mail),

 Collaboration (e-meeting)

 Productivity Tools (office)

2.Platform as a service (PaaS):Optimized IT and developer tools

offered through Platform as a Service (PaaS) for Database and Testing

Environments.

 Computing platform is offered as a Service.

 Supplies tools and development environment.

 Customers interact with platform through API.

 Who Uses It : Developers and Deployers

 Why use it : Create or deploy applications and services for

users

Examples:

 MS-Azure , Operating Systems (Chrome), Infrastructure

scaling.

 Database Management

 Directory Services

 Application Development & Testing Tools

 Virtual Environments

 ERP,DB,XML files, flat files, web services


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 On-demand apps

 SaaS hoster, API’s, Load balancing

 DNS configuration, Storage

 Service and Application test

 Development, Integration and Deployment

3.Infrastructure-as-a-Service(IaaS):On-demand, highly scalable

Computing, Storage and Hosting Services.

 Delivers storage and Computing power.

 Grids of virtualized Servers, Storage devices and Network

resources.

 Who Uses It: System Managers

 Why use it: Create platforms for service and application test,

development, integration and deployment.

 Examples:

 Hadoop, Electronic cloud computing(EC2)

 Simple storage service(S3), Joynet

 Mainframes, Servers, Storage

 IT Facilities/Hosting Services

 Virtual Machines and Storage

 Application hosting

 Proxy for buying servers, Software

 Data center space or Network equipment

 Pay for memory, Bandwidth, Storage consumed


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4.Architecture-as-a-Service(AaaS): The social application

architecture is simulates the Cloud computing architecture. The social

networking process involved with Varity of networks such of Corporate

Network, Home area network , Wireless Personal area network n

Internet and vehicular area network.

 Eg: Facebook, Twitter

5.Database-as-a-Service(DaaS):Database-as-a- Service traditionally

supported on-premise database management functions are releasing

cloud versions of their products.

 Eg: Oracle OBIEE

6.Identity-as-a-Service(IaaS): Identity-as-a-Service refers to the

management of identities in the cloud, apart from the applications

and providers that use them.

 Eg: MS-Azure

7.Testing as a Service(TaaS): It provides online testing platform. Ex:

Hp Load Test, Soasta.

8.Network as a Service (NaaS): Communications assets and massive

subscriber base, the global (mobile) telecom network can tap this

market and provide valuable, revenue generating cloud computing

capabilities in the form of Network as a Service (NaaS).

 Eg: Motorola

9.Storage-as-a-Service(StaaS): Storage as a Service is a business

model in which a large company rents space in their storage

infrastructure to a smaller company or individual.


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 Eg: Amazon and EMC

10: Any thing as a Service(XaaS):any kind of resources that are

provisioned as a service is called anything as a service.

Fig: Cloud Services overview and Applications


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6. Usage of Cloud Computing

 Reduction of costs – unlike on-site hosting the price of

deploying applications in the cloud can be less due to lower

hardware costs from more effective use of physical resources.

 Universal access - cloud computing can allow remotely located

employees to access applications and work via the internet.

 Up to date software - a cloud provider will also be able to

upgrade software keeping in mind feedback from previous

software releases.

a) Choice of applications - This allows flexibility for cloud users

to experiment and choose the best option for their needs. Cloud

computing also allows a business to use, access and pay only

for what they use, with a fast implementation time


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b) Potential to be greener and more economical - the average

amount of energy needed for a computational action carried out

in the cloud is far less than the average amount for an on-site

deployment.

c) Flexibility – cloud computing allows users to switch

applications easily and rapidly, using the one that suits their

needs best.

7. Benefits of Cloud Computing

 Reduced implementation and maintenance costs.

 Increased Mobility for a global workforce.

 Flexible and scalable infrastructures.

 Quick-time-to-market.

 IT department transformation (Innovation Vs Implem’n)

 Greening of the data centers.

 Increasing availability of high-performance applications to

small/medium size businesses.


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Fig: Cloud Computing Benefits


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Chapter 2

Cloud Computing Architecture: Cloud computing architecture refers


to the components and subcomponents required for cloud computing,
these components typically consist of a front end platform (fat client,
thin client, mobile device), back end platforms (servers, storage), a
cloud based delivery, and a network (Internet, Intranet, Inter-cloud),
combined, these components are called as Cloud Computing
Architecture. A set of structures of a system with software elements
and relations, properties among them is called as Cloud Computing
Architecture.
 It consists of
1. Cloud Architecture Requirements
2. Introduction to Cloud Computing Architectures
3. Kinds of Cloud Computing Architectures
4. Grid Computing
5. Transactional Computing
6. On-Demand Computing
7. Utility Computing
8. Distributed Computing
9. Cluster Computing
10. Cloud Computing Application Architectures

Cloud Architecture Requirements: Cloud computing


architecture refers to the components and subcomponents required
for cloud computing, these components typically consist of a front end
platform (fat client, thin client, mobile device), back end platforms
(servers, storage), a cloud based delivery, and a network (Internet,
Intranet, Inter-cloud), combined, these components are called as
Cloud Computing Architecture. A set of structures of a system with
software elements and relations, properties among them is called as
Cloud Computing Architecture.
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Fig: Three Layered Architectural Requirements

1) User Requirements:

 These are

 User consumption based billing and metering

 User centric privacy

 SLA

 Adaptability and Learning

 User experience

2) Enterprise Requirements:

 These are

 Cloud Deployment

 Security
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 Cloudonomics

 Data Governance

 Data Migration

 Business Process Management

 Third Party Engagement

 Transferable Skills

3) Provider Requirements:

 These are

 Service Delivery Models

 Service centric Issues

 Fault Tolerance

 Data Management, Storage and Processing

 Virtualization Management

 Load Balancing

CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE: The Cloud Computing

architecture comprises of many cloud components, each of them are

loosely coupled, it can broadly divide the cloud architecture into two

parts:Front End: It refers to the client part of cloud computing system.

It consists of interfaces and applications that are required to access

the cloud computing platforms, E.g., Web Browser.Back End: It refers

to the cloud itself. It consists of all the resources required to provide

cloud computing services. It comprises of huge data storage, virtual

machines, security mechanism, services, deployment models, servers,


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etc.It is the responsibility of the back end to provide built-in security

mechanism, traffic control and protocols.The server employs certain

protocols, known as middleware, helps the connected devices to

communicate with each other.

Fig: Cloud Computing Architecture

Kinds of Cloud Computing Architecture: Cloud computing

architecture refers to the components and subcomponents required

for cloud computing, these components typically consist of a front end

platform (fat client, thin client, mobile device), back end platforms

(servers, storage), a cloud based delivery, and a network (Internet,

Intranet, Intercloud), combined, these components are called as Cloud

Computing Architecture.Cloud Computing Architecture is a structure,

which comprises the software and hardware components integrated


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each other is called Cloud Computing Architecture. Object of NIST

reference arch is to illustrate and understand various cloud services

in the context of an overall cloud computing conceptual model.There

are majorly divided into Cloud Computing Architecture is

 Cloud Consumer

 Cloud Provider

 Cloud Auditor

 Cloud Carrier

 Cloud Broker

Fig: Cloud Computing Architecture (NIST)

1. Cloud Consumer: Person or organization that maintains a

business relationship with, and uses service from, Cloud Service

Providers.
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2. Cloud Provider: Person, organization or entity responsible for

making a service available to service consumers.

3. Cloud Carrier: The intermediary that provides connectivity and

transport of cloud services between Cloud Providers and Cloud

Consumers.

4. Cloud Broker: An entity that manages the use, performance and

delivery of cloud services, and negotiates relationships between Cloud

Providers and Cloud Consumers.

5. Cloud Auditor: A party that can conduct independent assessment

of cloud services, information system operations, performance and

security of the cloud implementation.

 Service Orchestration: Refers to the arrangement, coordination

and management of cloud infrastructure to provide different

cloud services to meet IT and business requirements.

 Cloud Service Management: Cloud Service Management

includes all the service-related functions that are necessary for

the management and operations of those services required by or

proposed to customers.

 It consists of

a) Business support: These are customer management, contract

management, inventory management, accounting and billing,

pricing and rating, reporting and auditing.

b) Provisioning or configuration: These are Rapid provisioning,

resource change, metering, and SLA management.


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c) Portability or interoperability: These are Data portability, service

interoperability, system portability.

4. Grid Computing:Grid Computing allows sharing and coordinated

use of diverse resources in dynamic, distributed virtual organizations

is called Grid Computing.Grid Computing is a form of Distributed

Computing whereby a "super and virtual computer" is composed of a

cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers, acting in concert to

perform very large tasks.Idea of grid was brought by Ian Foster, Carl

Kesselman and Steve Tuecke in the year 1970.Emerging computing

model that distributes processing across a parallel infrastructure.

Internet=network of communication vs. Grid computing=network of

computation. A form of distributed computing, implement a virtual

supercomputer, a cluster of networked computers to perform large

tasks.

Grid Computing Examples

World Grid Initiatives:

 World Community Grid http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/

 SETI Grid http://setiathome.berkeley.edu/

 BIONIC Grid https://boinc.berkeley.edu/

Indian Grid Initiatives:

 GARUDA Grid

 BIOGRID Grid

 VISHWA Grid
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Fig: Grid Application Architecture

 Grid Computing provides a framework and deployment platform

that enables resource sharing, accessing, aggregation, and

management.

 Features of Grid Computing

 Offers Information Technology as a Utility

 Design goal of solving bigger problems

 Provides multi user environment

 Involves sharing heterogeneous resources

 Grid Environment consists of

 User

 Grid Information Service

 Resource Broker
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 Grid Resources

1. A User sends computation or data intensive application to

Global Grids in order to speed up the execution of the

application.

2. Grid Information Service system collects the details of the

available Grid resources and passes the information to the

resource broker.

3. A Resource Broker distribute the jobs in an application to the

Grid resources based on user’s QoS requirements and details of

available Grid resources for further executions.

4. Grid Resources are Cluster, PC, Supercomputer, database,

instruments, etc. in the Global Grid execute the user jobs.


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1. Benefits

2. Resource Sharing

3. Coordination

4. Exploit Underutilized resources

5. Resource load Balancing

5. Applications

1. Distributed supercomputing

2. High-throughput computing

3. On-demand computing

4. Data-intensive computing

5. Collaborative computing

6. Characteristics of Grid Computing

7. Loosely coupled (Decentralization)

8. Diversity and Dynamism

9. Distributed Job Management & scheduling


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GRID COMPUTING VS. CLOUD COMPUTING

1. The concept of grids was proposed 1. The concept of Cloud Computing was
by Ian Foster in the 1970’s. proposed by J.C.R.Licklider and John
2. Grids enable access to shared McCarthy in the 1960’s.
computing power and storage 2. Clouds enable access to leased
capacity from your desktop computing power and storage
3. Governments - Providers and users capacity from your desktop
are usually publicly funded research 3. The cloud provider pays for the
organizations, Ex: National Grid computing resources; the user pays to
use them. Ex: Amazon, Google
Initiatives.
4. The cloud providers private data
4. In computing centers distributed
centers which are often centralized in
across different sites, countries and
a few locations with excellent network
continents. connections and cheap electrical
5. Grids are an open source power.
technology. 5. Clouds are a proprietary technology.
6. Benefits: Collaboration, 6. Benefits: Flexibility, Reliability, Ease
transparency, Resilience, ownership. of use.
7. Drawbacks: Reliability, complexity, 7. Drawbacks: Security, opacity, rigidity,
commercial. provider lock in.
8. Architecture is service oriented 8. Architecture is user chosen 20

9. Grid Architecture 9. Cloud Architecture

[5)Transactional Computing: One or more pieces of incoming data are

processed together as a single transaction & establish relations with

other data.Ex: RDBMS – Manages relations among all data makeup


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system.Transactional Computing contains Presentation, Business

Logic and Data Storage.Most of the websites follow the form of

transactional system.Deploying a Transactional system in the cloud is

too complex.Short Lived Nodes in Grid System but Long Lived Nodes

in a Transactional system.

 High MTBF(Mean Time Between Failure) of any node in a cloud

based transactional system.

 Availability and Integrity are two issues in this system if it is

entered into the cloud.

 Architecture contains Internet, Load Balancer, Application

Server and DB Clusters.


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 Example: if the customer mentioned in the example above has

$150 in his savings account and attempts to transfer $100 to a

different person while at the same time moving $100 to the

checking account, only one of them can succeed. However,

forcing transactions to be processed sequentially is inefficient.

 Solution: Serialization

(6) On-Demand Computing: On-demand self-service makes IT

resource capacity within a cloud infrastructure appear infinite to

users. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities,

such as server time and network storage. (NIST).Cloud computing

enables end users to provision computing power, storage, networks

and software in a simple and flexible way. or “pay and use” computing

power (Utility Computing).On-demand self service is also related to

utility computing and the pay-as-you-go subscription method.Web

services are sometimes referenced as types of On Demand

Computing.On-demand computing is a popular enterprise model,

where computing resources are available to the users.Any resources

cloud end users get as a service on leased basis demanding cloud

vendor to fulfil their business needs. Customers can automatically

provisioned computing capabilities and resources on their own when

needed without much human intervention.Companies are developing

On Demand Computing services include virtualization, computer

clusters, supercomputers and distributed computing.

Examples:
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 Video on demand.

 Hardware on demand.

 Application on demand.

 Software on demand.

 Storage on demand.

 Computing on demand.

7. Utility Computing:The process of providing computing service

through an on-demand, pay-per-use billing method.A computing

business model, in which the provider owns, operates and manages

the computing infrastructure and resources, and the subscriber’s

accesses it as and when required on a rental or metered basis.Cloud

computing enables end users to provision computing power, storage,

networks and software in a simple and flexible way or “pay and use”

computing power i.e. Utility Computing.Cloud computing, Grid

computing are based on the concept of utility computing.Utility

Computing is also called as On-Demand Computing.

8 - Distributed Computing:

 Distributed Computing is computing performed in a distributed

system with distributed environment i.e. Distributed system is a

collection of independent computers, interconnected via a

network, capable of collaborating on a task.

 Distributed System is a collection of independent

computers, interconnected via a network, capable of

collaborating on a task. (or) Distributed system is a


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collection of autonomous hosts that are connected

through a computer network.

 Grid and Cloud computing are based on distributed computing.

 It consists of

a) What is a Distributed System?

b) Why Distributed Systems?

c) Examples of Distributed Systems

d) Transparency in Distributed Systems

a) What is a Distributed System:

 Distributed System is a collection of independent

computers, interconnected via a network, capable of


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collaborating on a task. (or) Distributed system is a

collection of autonomous hosts that are connected

through a computer network.

 Distributed Systems: breaking down an application into

individual computing agents.

 Distributed over a network.

 Work together on a cooperative task.

 Motivation for Distributed Computing:

 Scalability

 Openness and heterogeneity

 Fault-tolerance

b) Why Distributed Systems: Every application is part of your

business model i.e. must make them work together!

 Availability of powerful yet cheap microprocessors (PCs,

workstations, PDAs, embedded systems, etc.)

 Creating information-sharing distributed systems from diverse

sources: Heterogeneous, Networked, Physically disparate, Multi-

vendor.
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c) Examples of Distributed Systems

 Video on demand from Torrens

 Automatic banking (teller machine) system

 Automotive system (a distributed real-time system)

 The Internet– information, resource sharing

 Clusters, Network of workstations.

d) Transparency in Distributed Systems

 Distributed System Definition: A distributed system is a

collection of autonomous hosts that are connected through a

computer network and coordinate with each other in such a way

that users perceive the system as a single and integrated

computing facility.

 Dimensions of transparency in DS

 Access Transparency

 Location Transparency
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 Migration Transparency

 Replication Transparency

 Concurrency Transparency

 Scalability Transparency

 Performance Transparency

 Failure Transparency

Advantages

 Shareability, Performance

 Expandability, Distribution

 Improved performance

 Improved availability

 Potential cost reductions

Disadvantages

 Network reliability

 Complexities

 Security

 Multiple point of failure

Common Characteristics:

 Resource sharing

 Openness or Transparency

 Concurrency

 Scalability
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 Fault tolerance

 Heterogeneity

Applications:

 Integrated applications

 Applications can share resources

 Cloud Computing

 Grid computing

 Big Data Analytics

 Internet Apps

9. CLUSTER COMPUTING: Cluster Computing is a collection of

stand-alone computers are interconnected to form a single integrated

computing resource that is able to improve performance and

availability than using a single computer. A Cluster is two or more

computers (called nodes or members) that work together to perform a

task. Clusters are mainly implemented for load balancing and

providing high availability.Characteristics of Cluster Computing are

tightly coupled systems, Single system image and centralized Job

management & scheduling system

 EX: IBM SEQUOIA(K-COMPUTER), ARCnet, TANDEM

HIMALAYAN (nonstop II), IBM Parallel System complex.

 Four major types of clusters:

1. Storage

2. High availability
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3. Load balancing

4. High performance

Storage Clusters provide a consistent file system image across servers

in a cluster, allowing the servers to simultaneously read and write to a

single shared file system. Ex: Red hat GFS.High-availability Clusters

provide continuous availability of services by eliminating single points

of failure and by failing over services from one cluster node to another

in case a node becomes inoperative.Load-balancing Clusters dispatch

network service requests to multiple cluster nodes to balance the

request load among the cluster nodes. Ex: LVS(Linux virtual

server).High-performance Clusters use cluster nodes to perform

concurrent calculations. A high-performance cluster allows

applications to work in parallel, therefore enhancing the performance

of the applications.

10. Cloud Application Architectures: Cloud Application

Architectures will help you determine whether and how to put your

applications into these virtualized services, with critical guidance on

issues of cost, availability, performance, scaling, privacy, and security.

 It consists of

a) Fundamental Cloud Architectures

b) Cloud Application Components

c) Multi-Tenancy

d) Cloud Integration

e) Grid Computing
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f) Transactional Computing

g) On-Demand Computing

h) Distributed Computing

i) Utility Computing

j) Cluster Computing

QUIZ – II

1. Person maintaining the business relation ship with cloud service

provider is:

Ans) Cloud consumer.

2. Name the person contributor for Grid computing in the 1970s?

Ans) Ian Foster


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3. Name the Examples of Grid Computing initiatives?

Ans) SETI, BIONIC, VISHWA, GARUDA, BIOGRID

4. Extend MTBF?

Ans) Mean time between failure.

5. Identify the next trend after Grid Computing?

a) Cloud computing b) Distributed Computing c) both d) All

6. Identify under which Design goal of solving bigger problems is

important feature

Ans) a) Grid computing b) cluster c) transactional d) none

7. Distinguish the Grid vs. Internet?

Ans) Internet=network of communication vs. Grid computing=network

of computation

8. Name two popular Computing?

Ans) Transaction Computing, On-Demand Computing, grid

computing…

9. Define Grid Computing?

Ans) Grid Computing allows sharing and coordinated use of diverse

resources in dynamic, distributed virtual organizations to solve large

scale computing problems is called Grid Computing.

10. Examples of Cluster computing?

Ans) IBM SEQUOIA, K COMPUTER, ARCnet, TANDEM

HIMALAYAN(nonstop II)

11.Define on demand service/computing?


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Ans) On-demand self service is also related to utility computing and

the pay-as-you-go subscription method.

12. Give examples of basic Cloud Architecture components?

Ans) Front end, Back end, Cloud Consumer, Cloud Auditor.

13.Which grid is initiative from CDAC?

Ans) A)GARUDA B)BIOIC C) SETI D) VISHWA

14. list Major cloud architectural requirements are :

Ans) User, Enterprise and Providers requirements

15. Define Distributed computing?

Ans) Distributed System is a collection of independent computers,

interconnected via a network, capable of collaborating on a task. (or)

Distributed system is a collection of autonomous hosts that are

connected through a computer network.

16. Write major research issue in Grid Computing?

Ans) Security and Sharing and Coordinating

17. Extend or Expand SETI ________and BIONIC________

Ans) Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Berkeley Open

Infrastructure for Network Computing

18. Identify the process of providing computing service through an on-

demand, pay-per-use billing method is ?

Ans) a) utility computing b) transactional computing c)grid d) none

19. Describe Transactional Computing?


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Ans) One or more pieces of incoming data are processed together as a

single transaction & establish relations with other data.

20. Important components under typical view of grid computing?

Ans) User, Grid Information Service, Resource Broker and Grid

Resources

UNIT – III

 Introduction to Virtualization: Virtualization refers to the act of

creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something,

including but not limited to a virtual computer hardware

platform, operating system (OS), storage device, or computer

network resources is called virtualization.

 The term "virtualization" traces its roots to 1960s mainframes,

during which it was a method of logically dividing the mainframes'

resources for different applications.

 Advantage is more Efficient Usage of processing power and

hardware resources.

 Ex: The popular Virtualization Technologies are VMWARE 1999,

Microsoft Hyper-V , Virtual Iron , Xen etc.

 It consists of

 History of Virtualization

 Objectives of Virtualization

 Benefits of Virtualized Technology

 The virtual service desk


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 Virtualizability

 Related Forms of Computing

 Virtualization Processes

1. History of Virtualization: The concept of Virtualization was first

devised in the 1960s. It was then implemented by IBM to help split

large mainframe machines into separate ‘Virtual Machines’.

Virtualization is a framework or methodology of logically dividing

computer resources such as Hardware, Software, Time-sharing, and

others into separate virtual machines executing instructions

independent from the operating system.The IBM company in the year

1960’s started virtualization for IBM mainframe machine.The year

1980’s IBM company started virtualization for IBM X86 PC LAN.The

year 1999 IBM company started virtualization for VMware X86 PC.

C/S Model Windows/Linux OS

Hypervisor: A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is a piece

of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and

runs virtual machines. It is also called as Virtual Machine Monitor.A

computer on which a hypervisor is running one or more virtual


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machines is defined as a host machine, each virtual machine is called

a Guest Machine.
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Introduction to Virtualization: One of the most important ideas

behind cloud computing is scalability and the key technology that

makes that possible is virtualization. Virtualization basically allows a

single computer to take on the role of multiple computers. The

emulation of one/more workstations/servers within a single physical

computer.
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Virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of

resources across many aspects of computing

Virtualization can be done in many ways:

1. Memory Virtualization

2. Storage Virtualization

3. Network Virtualization

4. Presentation Virtualization

5. Application Virtualization

6. Hardware Virtualization

7. Software Virtualization

8. Server Virtualization

9. Desktop virtualization

10. Operating System Virtualization

1. Memory Virtualization: It decouples volatile random access

memory resources from individual systems in the data center, and


77

then aggregates those resources into a virtualized memory pool

available to any computer in network.

2. Storage Virtualization: the amalgamation of multiple network

storage devices into what appears to be a single storage unit.

3. Network Virtualization using network resources through a logical

segmentation of a single physical network.

4. Presentation Virtualization represents a category of virtualization

technology that abstracts an application's processing from the

delivery of its graphics and I/O.

5. Application Virtualization also called application service

virtualization, is layered on top of other virtualization technologies,

such as storage virtualization.

6. Software Virtualization: The host system needs to completely

emulate guest's platform.

7. Hardware Virtualization or platform virtualization refers to the

creation of a virtual machine that acts like a real computer with an

operating system.

8. Desktop Virtualization is software technology that separates

the desktop environment and associated application software from

the physical client device that is used to access it.

9. Server Virtualization: the partitioning a physical server into

smaller virtual servers.


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10. Operating System Virtualization: a type of server

virtualization technology which works at the operating system

(kernel) layer.

2. Objectives of Virtualization

 The heart of virtualization is the “Virtual Machine” (VM), a tightly

isolated software container with an operating system and

application inside.

 There are five main objectives to Virtualization

1. Increased use of hardware resources

2. Reduced management and resource costs

3. Improved business flexibility

4. Improved security

5. Reduced downtime.
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1. Increased use of Hardware Resources: With improvements in

technology, typical server hardware resources are not being used to

their full capacity, on average, only 5-15% of hardware resources are

being utilized. So resolve this problem, by allowing a physical server to

run virtualization software, a server’s resources are used much more

efficiently, this can greatly reduce both management and operating

costs.

 Example:

 If an organization used 5 different servers for 5 different services,

instead of having 5 physical servers, these servers could be run

on a single physical server operating as virtual servers.


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2. Reduced Management and Resource Costs: Most organizations

have to deal with issues such as space, power and cooling. Using a

virtualized infrastructure possible through virtualization technology,

businesses can save large amounts of money because they require far

fewer physical machines.

3. Improved Business Flexibility: Whenever a business needs to

expand its number of workstations or servers, it is often a lengthy and

costly process. Virtual machines can be easily setup. There are no

additional hardware costs, no need for extra physical space. Virtual

machine management software also makes it easier for administrators

to setup virtual machines and control access to particular resources,

etc.

4. Improved Security: When a physical machine fails, usually all of

its software content becomes inaccessible. All the content of that

machine becomes unavailable and there is often some downtime to go

along with this, until the problem is fixed, Virtual machines are

separate entities from one another.

5. Reduced Downtime: If one of them fails or has a virus, they are

completely isolated from all the other software on that physical

machine, including other virtual machines. This greatly increases

security, because problems can be contained. Virtual machines are

not hardware dependent. If a server fails due to a hardware fault, the

virtual machines stored on that particular server can be migrated to

another server.
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3. BENEFITS OF VIRTUALIZATION

 Virtualized Technology offers many benefits to organizations

looking to migrate from a physical environment to a virtual setting.

 These are

1. Easier Manageability

2. Elimination of Compatibility Issues

3. Fault Isolation

4. Increased Security

5. Efficient use of Resources

6. Portability

7. Problem-Free Testing
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8. Rapid Deployment

9. Reduced Costs

10. The Ability to Separate Applications

11. Easier Manageability and Improved Uptime

1. Easier Manageability – Administrators can monitor and manage

entire groups of servers/workstations from a single physical

machine.

2. Elimination of Compatibility Issues – Many different operating

systems and applications can run on a single physical machine,

without affecting one another.

3. Fault Isolation – Any kind of error within a virtual machine will

not affect any other virtual machine.

4. Increased Security – Administrators can separate information and

applications on a single physical machine into different virtual

machines. (Entities). Isolation and back up through a checkpoint

feature.

 E.g.: VMware’s Hypervisor consumes 144 MB than 10GB Disk.

5. Efficient use of Resources – Many virtual machines can run on a

single physical machine, utilizing that physical machine’s

resources much more efficiently than if it was just running a single

service or application.

6. Portability – Virtual machine data is stored in files on a physical

machine, this means that virtual machines can be transferred


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effortlessly from one physical machine to another, without any

changes to functionality.

7. Problem-Free Testing – One or more virtual machines can be set

up as test machines. These can then be used to test the stability of

certain applications or programs, without affecting the

functionality of day to day business operations.

8. Rapid Deployment – The Hard Drive of a virtual machine is a

single file on a physical machine, which can be duplicated to other

physical machines. By using one virtual machine as a ‘template’

machine, its virtual Hard Drive file can be used to rapidly create

new virtual machine clones.

9. Reduced Costs – Less physical hardware, less power and cooling

requirements, less physical space and less staffing requirements.

10. The Ability to Separate Applications – Services and

applications that may conflict with one another can be installed

and run on separate virtual machines.

11. Easier Manageability and Improved Uptime – Virtualization

makes administering and managing an IT environment much

easier, less physical machines mean that administrators have less

hardware faults or issues to deal with.

4. The Virtual Service Desk

 Many large organizations operate a virtual service desk whereby

the service desk analysts are connected to the user groups and
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support groups via an internet connection or other network

capability.

 The user groups/end users who call the service desk will not know

where the analyst is.

 The Virtual Service Desk resembles the concept of “BPO”.

 The service desk analyst has access to the knowledge base and the

service desk tool to log and record all actions.

Fig: The Virtual Service Desk

5. Virtualizability

 Virtualizability means virtualizing the computing resources.

 The SNIA(Storage Networking Industry Association) taxonomy lists

five different types of storage virtualization: Disk, Tape (media and

drive), File system, File, and Block.


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1. Disk Virtualization - One of the oldest forms of storage

virtualization and defect-free OS focus on other processes. The

physical form of a magnetic disk is a compilation of cylinders,

heads, and sectors. Each disk is different based on the numbers of

cylinders, heads, and sectors; which changes the capacity of the

disk. In order to read or write using the disk, some form of

addressing is required.

2. Tape (Media &Drive) Virtualization uses online disk storage as a

cache to emulate reading and writing. This disk acts a buffer to

eliminate the fluctuations and variances present when writing

directly to the tape media.

3. File Systems Virtualization provides file systems to multiple

clients regardless of the operating systems on those clients. Using

a networked remote file system such as NFS, this abstraction

demonstrates the most important feature of storage virtualization:

location transparency.

4. File Virtualization: Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM)

identifies rarely used data and migrates it to inexpensive secondary

storage. From the client perspective, the file still exists and there is

no need to know the physical location of the file.

5. Block Virtualization / Block Aggregation, creates a single logical

device out of several physical devices. The intent is to have

applications see a new virtual disk with a lager range of block

addresses. The storage customer is concerned with three things:


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capacity, performance, and availability. When the customer

demands more, functions of block virtualization can fulfill these

requirements easily and cost-effectively.

6. Related forms of Computing

 Related forms of computing involves Cloud Computing, Grid

Computing, Parallel Computing, Green Computing, Cluster

Computing, Utility Computing etc….

 Related Forms of Computing are

a) Cloud Computing

b) Software as a Service (SaaS)

c) Grid Computing

d) Utility Computing

e) Service Oriented Computing

Fig: Related Forms of Computing


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a) Cloud Computing: “A Model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient,

on-demand network access (through Internet) to a shared pool of

configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,

applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and

released with minimal management effort or service provider

interaction.” (NIST, USA)

b) Software-as-a-Service (SaaS): Software as a Service (SaaS)

provides business processes and applications, including CRM, e-

mails, collaboration, and so on.

c) Grid Computing: Grid Computing allows sharing and coordinated

use of diverse resources in dynamic, distributed virtual

organizations is called Grid Computing.

d) Utility Computing: The process of providing computing service

through an on-demand, pay-per-use billing method.

e) Service Oriented Architecture: It is a paradigm for organizing

and utilizing distributed capabilities that may be under control of

different ownership domains is called “Service-Oriented

Architecture”.

7. Virtualization Processes

 Virtualization Process is the process of partitioning servers so that

they act as multiple servers, allowing the expansion of IT resources

without incurring the costs of physically expanding infrastructure.

 Some of the service management processes

a) Demand Management
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b) Capacity Management

c) Financial Management

d) Availability Management

e) Information Security Management

f) IT Service Continuity Management

g) Release and Deployment Management

h) Service Asset & Configuration Management

i) Knowledge Management

j) Incident Management

k) Problem Management

l) Change Management and Service Desk Function

(a) Demand Management:

 Technical Support

 Software Support

 Application Support

(b) Capacity Management:

 New Technology’s Performance

 Managing Improved infrastructure

(c) Financial Management

 Cost effective stewardship of IT Assets

 The financial resources used in providing IT Services


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(d) Availability Management

 24*7 days

 Performance expectations

(e) Information Security Management

 Information Availability

 Attacks Safety

 Confidentiality and Integrity

 Authentication and Trustedness

(f) IT Service Continuity Management

 Virus attacks

 Continuity through Checkpoint feature

(g) Release and Deployment Management

 Deliver, distribute, track more changes in a release into a

live Environment.

(h) Service Asset & Configuration Management

 Capital expenditure

 Operational expenditure

 SLA With expectations

(i) Knowledge Management

 Reliable, secure information

 Data availability throughout Service life cycle

 Improve quality of management decision making


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(j) Incident Management

 Restoring normal service operation as quicker as possible,

best service quality level and availability.

(k) Problem and Change Management

 To ensure all changes are assessed, approved,

implemented and reviewed in a controlled manner.

(l) Service Desk Function:

 To support the agreed IT service provision by ensuring the

accessibility and availability of the IT organization and by

performing various supporting activities.

 Popular Virtualization Technologies

 VMware

 Microsoft Hyper-V

 Virtual Iron

 Xen

 Characteristics:

 Performance

 Scalability

 Availability

 Manageability

 Security
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Virtualization Technology Advantages

 Server Consolidation

 Reduced power and cooling

 Reduced maintenance cost

 Reduced server cost

 Green computing

 Ease of deployment and administration

 High availability and disaster recovery.

Applications

 Cloud Computing

 Grid Computing

 Cluster Computing

 Parallel Computing

 Green Computing

 Distributed Computing

 On-Demand Computing

 Nano Computing

 Mobile Computing

 Industry

 Network

QUIZ - III

1. Which company is started the concept of Virtualization was first

devised in the 1960s.


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Ans) IBM

2. List the two popular Virtualization Technologies?

Ans) VMware, Hyper-V

3. Define Virtualization?

Ans) Virtualization refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than

actual) version of something, including but not limited to a

virtual computer hardware platform, operating system (OS), storage

device, or computer network resources is called virtualization.

4. What are the Benefits of Virtualization?

Ans) Easier Manageability, Elimination of Compatibility Issues, Fault

Isolation and Increased Security

5. Define Hypervisor?

Ans) A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is a piece of

computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and

runs virtual machines.

6. Extend or Expand VMM?

Ans) Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)

7. Example of Database Virtualization?

Ans) Google Drive etc.

8. List two different type of hypervisors?

Ans) Native or Bare metal, Hosted hypervisors

9. Virtualization technology used in cloud computing to achieve?

Ans) Scalability
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10. Operating system running on VM is called?

Ans) Guest OS

11. OS that supports the running of vms and guest os on a

physical system is called?

Ans) Host OS

12. The partitioning a physical server into smaller virtual servers

is?

Ans) Server virtualization

13. Major advantage of Virtualization Technology?

Ans) More Efficient Usage of processing power and hardware

resources.

14) Objectives of Virtualization?

Ans) Increased use of hardware resources, Reduced management and

resource cost, Improved business flexibility, Improved security ,

Reduced downtime.

15) People involved in Virtual Service Desk?

Ans) User groups, Support groups, Service Desk analysts.

16) Examples of Hypervisors?

Ans) VMware ESX, Microsoft Hyper-v etc

17) Extend or expand SNIA?

Ans) Storage Network Industry Association

18) List out different types of Storage Virtualization?

Ans) Disk, Tape (media and drive), File system, File, and Block.
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19) List out Related forms of Computing?

Ans) Cloud computing, Grid computing, Utility computing, SaaS, SOA

etc.

20) Service Management Processes under virtualization?

Ans) Demand Management , Capacity Management, Financial

Management, Availability Management, Information Security

Management, IT Service Continuity Management etc.


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Chapter 8
CASE STUDIES

 Cloud Computing Case Studies Consists of


1. Salesforce.com (SaaS)
2. Google APP Engine (PaaS)
3. Windows Azure (PaaS and SaaS)
4. Yahoo Hadoop (IaaS and PaaS)
5. OBIEE (PaaS & IaaS)
6. IBM – Bluemix(PaaS and SaaS)
1.Salesforce.com
 This Case Study consists of
1. Company Name and its Cloud Name.
2. CEO
3. Introduction
4. Cloud Architecture
5. Services
6. Features
7. Advantages
8. Applications
9. Pictures/videos
10. Software (Trial version)
11. References( URL’s)
12. Case Studies / Whitepapers
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1. Company Name and Cloud Name:

 The Company name is Salesforce.com.

 The major service is Salesforce.com is SaaS.

 Force.com is a PaaS.

2. CEO

 Salesforce.com is developed by Mark Benioff in the year 1999


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Marc Benioff - ceo@salesforce.com - - Salesforce.com in the year 1999

3. INTRODUCTION:

 Salesforce.com is a global cloud computing company

headquartered in San Francisco, California.

 Though best known for its Customer Relationship

Management (CRM) product, Salesforce has also expanded into the

"Social Enterprise Arena" through acquisitions.

 It is currently ranked the most innovative company in America

by Forbes magazine, as well as number 7 in Fortune Magazine's

100 best companies to work for in 2014.

 Salesforce.com is developed by Mark Benioff in the year 1999.

 Salesforce.com is a CRM Tool.


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 Salesforce CRM is a Cloud computing software Application Tool.

 Salesforce is Multitenant Architecture.

 The caption of Salesforce is NO software, NO Installation, NO

database, No Headaches for Salesforce.com.

 Salesforce.com contains Three modules.

1. Admin module

2. Developer module.

3. Consultant

4. Salesforce Cloud Architecture


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5. SERVICES

 Software as a Service(SaaS)

 Telecom Services

 Cloud Advisory Services

 Cloud Transformation Services

 Health Check for Salesforce CRM

 Brokerage and Banking

 Financial Services

 Education Services

 Mailing Solutions

 Manufacturing Services

6. FEATURES:

 Salesforce mobile

 Web-to-lead

 Branded email templates

 Chatter

 Dashboards

 Analytics

 Marketing and leads

7. ADVANTAGES

 Flexibility
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 Disaster recovery

 Automatic software updates

 Cap-Ex Free

 Increased collaboration

 Work from anywhere

 Document control

 Security

 Competitiveness

 Environmentally friendly

8. APPLICATIONS

 Call Center

 Marketing

 Salesforce Chatter

 Community Apps

 Salesforce for Google AdWords

 Checkout / Checkin Apps in Organizations

 Add AppEchange Apps

 Create new Apps

 Site.com
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 Many more web applications….

9. PICTURES / VIDEOS

https://www.youtube.com/watch

www.salesforce.com/

www.salesforcefoundation.org/

www.forbes.com/companies/salesforce/
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10.SOFTWARE (TRIAL VERSION):

https://www.salesforce.com/in/form/signup/freetrial-lb.jsp

11.REFERENCES( URL’s)
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 Salesforce.com provides on-demand customer relationship

management (CRM) software services to help companies

with global customer communication.

 www.salesforce.com

 http://login.salesforce.com

 http://developer.force.com/

 https://ap1.salesforce.com/

 https://ap1.salesforce.com/help/doc/en/sf.pdf

SALESFORCE.COM JOB ROLES.

1. Administrator

2. Developer

3. Architect

4. IT Manager

5. Business Manager

6. Consultant

CERTIFICATIONS

1. Administrator(ADM201)
2. Advanced Administrator(ADM301)
3. Basic Developer(DEV401)
4. Advanced Developer(DEV501).
5. Salesforce Consultant : (CON201)
12. CASE STUDIES / PAPERS
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1. Facebook:

http://www.salesforce.com/in/customers/stories/facebook.

jsp

2. Vodafone:

http://www.salesforce.com/in/customers/stories/vodafone.jsp

3.CareerBuilder:

http://www.salesforce.com/in/customers/stories/career-

builder.jsp

2. Google APP Engine (PaaS)

 This Case Study consists of

1. Company Name and its Cloud Name.

2. CEO

3. Introduction

4. Cloud Architecture

5. Services

6. Features

7. Advantages

8. Applications

9. Pictures/videos

10. Software (Trial version)


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11. References( URL’s)

12. Case Studies / Whitepapers

1. Company Name and Cloud Name

 The company name is Google

 Google App Engine (PaaS)

 Compute Engine (IaaS)

 Easy to build

 Easy to maintain

 Easy to scale

 Google Cloud platform

 Google App Engine, which was released in April 2008, is a

platform for building, hosting and scaling web applications

using Google's infrastructure.


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2. CEO

 The CEO of Google App Engine is Larry Page


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 Build and run your web applications on Google’s Infrastructure.

3. INTRODUCTION

4. Google App Engine is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) offering that

lets you build and run applications on Google’s infrastructure.

5. Google App Engine applications are easy to build, easy to

maintain, and easy to scale as your traffic and data storage

needs change.

6. Google App Engine supports the delivery, testing and

development of software on demand in a Cloud computing

environment that supports millions of users and is highly

scalable.

7. Stable release - 1.9.0 / 11 February 2014, with App Engine,

there are no servers for you to maintain.

 Google App Engine supports apps written in a variety of

programming languages:
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1. Python with webapp2 and Jinja2.


2. Java with maven.
3. PHP with Cloud SQL.
4. Go with the html/template package.
 Google App Engine enables developers to build Web

Applications on the same scalable systems that power our own

applications.

 No assembly required: Google App Engine exposes a fully-

integrated development environment.

 It's easy to Scale: Google App Engine makes it easy to design

scalable applications that grow from one to millions of users

without infrastructure headaches.

 It's free to get started: Every Google App Engine application can

use up to 500MB persistent storage and 5 million monthly page

views.

4. Google App Engine Architecture


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5. SERVICES

 Google App Engine is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) offering that

lets you build and run applications on Google’s infrastructure.

 Platform as a Service(PaaS)

 Cloud DNS

 Cloud Endpoints

 Translate API

 Prediction API

 Cloud Pub/Sub
110

Fig: Google App Engine Services

6. FEATURES

 It includes the following features:

 Persistent storage with queries, sorting, and transactions.

 Automatic scaling and load balancing.

 Data storage, retrieval, and search

 Process Management

 App configuration and management

 Popular languages and frameworks

 Multiple storage options

 Powerful built-in services

 Familiar development tools

 Deploy at Google scale


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7. ADVANTAGES

 Scalability

 Simple APIs to backend data stores

 Mail Authentication

 Asynchronous task queues

 Cost savings

 Platform independent etc.,

8. APPLICATIONS

1. Call Center

2. Marketing

3. Chatter Apps

4. Community Apps

5. Checkout / Checkin Apps in Organizations

6. Create new Apps

7. Web Site Apps

8. Many more web applications….

9. Pictures/videos

 Google App Engine makes it easy to build and deploy an

application that runs reliably even under heavy load and

with large amounts of data.

 https://appengine.google.com/

 https://cloud.google.com/appengine/docs

 https://cloud.google.com/appengin
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 www.code.google.com/p/googleappengine/

 https://www.youtube.com/watch

10. Software's Trial versions

 Download the SDK.

 Sign up for an account.

 Read the getting started information for your language.

 Check out the rest of the App Engine documentation.

 Welcome to Google App Engine!

 https://cloud.google.com/appengine/downloads

11. References (URL’S)

 Build and host applications and websites with Google App

Engine, which provides platform services for apps that

automatically scale.

 https://appengine.google.com/

 https://cloud.google.com/appengine/docs
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 https://cloud.google.com/appengine

 www.googlecloudplatform.blogspot.com/

12. CASE STUDIES / PAPERS

1. Khan Academy:

https://cloud.google.com/customers/khan-academy/

1. Blossom:

https://cloud.google.com/customers/blossomio/

3. Best buy:

https://cloud.google.com/customers/best-buy/

3. Windows Azure (PaaS)

 This Case Study consists of

1. Company Name and its Cloud Name.

2. CEO

3. Introduction

4. Cloud Architecture

5. Services

6. Features

7. Advantages

8. Applications

9. Pictures/videos

10. Software (Trial version)

11. References( URL’s)


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12. Case Studies / Whitepapers

1. Company Name and Cloud Name

 The company name is Microsoft.

 Its cloud name is Microsoft Azure.

 It comes under PaaS.


115

2. CEO

 Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella says - Azure is a Serious threat to

Amazon and Google.

3. INTRODUCTION

 Microsoft Azure (formerly Windows Azure before 25 March 2014)

is a Cloud Computing platform and infrastructure, created

by Microsoft, for building, deploying and managing applications


116

and services through a global network of Microsoft-

managed datacenters.

 It provides both PaaS and IaaS services and supports many

different programming languages, tools and frameworks,

including both Microsoft-specific and third-party software and

systems.

 Azure was released on 1ST February 2010.

 Microsoft Azure uses a specialized operating system, called

Microsoft Azure, to run its "Fabric Layer".

 Microsoft Azure has been described as a "Cloud Layer" on top of

a number of Windows Server systems, which use Windows

Server 2008 and a customized version of Hyper-V known as the

Microsoft Azure Hypervisor.

 Azure, resulting in a revenue run rate of nearly $4.4 billion.

 Azure is also adding 10,000 new customers every week to its

350 million active directory user base.

 Users have stored more than 30 trillion objects in total.

4. Microsoft Azure Architecture

 Azure is the only major cloud platform ranked by

Gartner as an industry leader for both

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-

a-Service (PaaS).
117

 Windows Azure is an operating system for the cloud that serves

as the development, run-time, and control environment for the

Azure Services Platform.

 Windows Azure provides developers on-demand compute &

storage to host, scale, and manage web applications on the

internet through Microsoft data centers.

 Windows Azure is elastic, flexible, and interoperable, with

Windows Azure developers can achieve high levels of service

availability and application interoperability while maintaining

freedom of choice.

 The Windows Azure SDK provides developers with the tools and

APIs needed to develop, deploy, and manage scalable services in

Windows Azure.
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5. SERVICES

 Platform as a Service(PaaS)

 Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS)

 SQL Azure reporting

 Windows Azure Virtual Machine Role

 Windows Azure Connect

 Windows Azure Platform Management Portal

 Data management

 Business Analytics

 Messaging

 Media Services

 Mobile Services

Fig: Services of Windows Azure


119

6. FEATURES

It includes the following Features:

 Hybrid connections

 Scale from 1 to 1000s of VM Instances

 Built-in Virtual Networking, Load Balancing

 Oracle, MySQL, Redis, MongoDB

 Deploy and Scale modern websites and web apps in seconds

 .NET, Java, PHP, Python

 SQL Databases, MySQL, Document DB, Search, MongoDB

 Reliable, Economical cloud storage for data.

 Azure BizTalk Services

 Media Services

7. ADVANTAGES

 Its open and flexible

 Reduces the level of upfront investment

 Ability to scale up and down capacity

 Interoperability

 Security

 Its hybrid ready

 High availability

 Economical and scalable


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8. APPLICATIONS

 Developing Enterprise Applications

 Developing Web Applications

 Developing Software as a Service

 Packaging and Deploying an Application

 Developing Azure SQL Database Applications

 Call Center

 Marketing

 Chatter Apps

 Community Apps

 Checkout / Checkin Apps in Organizations

 Web Site Apps

9. Pictures / Videos
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 http://www.youtube.com/user/windowsazure

 http://azure.microsoft.com/en-

us/documentation/videos/index/

 http://learnwindowsazure.sourceforge.net/

 http://www.youtube.com/watch

10. Software's Trial Versions

 Take control of your Microsoft Azure cloud storage


 Easily monitor your Microsoft Azure diagnostics data
 Quickly streamline your Microsoft Azure workflow
DOWNLOAD FREE 30 DAY TRIAL

http://www.microsoft.com/en-in/download/

11. References (URL’S)

 Windows Azure is an integrated operating system

for cloud computing that facilitates the management of scalable

Web applications over the Internet.

 http://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Azure

 http://www.microsoftvirtualacademy.com/
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12. CASE STUDIES / PAPERS

1. Mazda: http://www.microsoft.com/casestudies/Mazda

2. Xerox:

https://customers.microsoft.com/Pages/CustomerStory

3. Lufthansa Systems:

http://www.microsoft.com/casestudies/Lufthansa-

Systems

4. Yahoo Hadoop (IaaS)

 This Case Study consists of

1. Company Name and its Cloud Name.

2. CEO

3. Introduction

4. Cloud Architecture

5. Services

6. Features

7. Advantages

8. Applications

9. Pictures/videos

10. Software (Trial version)


123

11. References( URL’s)

12. Case Studies / Whitepapers

1. Company Name and its Name

 The company name is Apache™ Hadoop®

 The Technique Name is Hadoop used in Big Data Analytics.

 Hadoop is a free, Java-based programming framework that

supports the processing of large data sets in a distributed

computing environment.

 It is part of the Apache project sponsored by the Apache

Software Foundation.

2. CEO - History of Hadoop


124

3. INTRODUCTION

 A top level Apache project, initiated and led by Yahoo!.

 The Apache Hadoop software library is a framework that allows

for the distributed processing of large data sets across clusters

of computers using simple programming models.

 Hadoop is a platform for processing large scale data sets in a

distributed fashion.

 Hadoop makes it possible to run applications on systems with

thousands of nodes involving thousands of Tera Bytes of Data

 Important characteristic of Hadoop is works on Distributed

model.

i. Hadoop Common - Common utilities


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ii. Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)

iii. Hadoop YARN - Yet Another Resource Negotiator

iv. Hadoop Map Reduce - Programming Model

Fig: Measuring the Data in Big Data System

Hadoop - Related Projects at Apache


126

i.Ambari: A web-based tool for provisioning, managing, and

monitoring Apache Hadoop clusters which includes support for

Hadoop HDFS, Hadoop MapReduce, Hive, HCatalog, HBase,

ZooKeeper, Oozie, Pig and Sqoop.

ii.Avro: A data serialization system.

iii.Cassandra: A scalable multi-master database with no single points

of failure.

iv.Chukwa: A data collection system for managing large distributed

systems.

v.HBase: A scalable, distributed database that supports structured

data storage for large tables.

vi.Hive: A data warehouse infrastructure that provides data

summarization and ad hoc querying.

vii.Mahout: A Scalable machine learning and data mining library.

viii.Pig: A high-level data-flow language and execution framework for

parallel computation.

ix.ZooKeeper: A high-performance coordination service for

distributed applications.
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Fig: Hadoop Eco System

4. Hadoop Architecture

 High-level Architecture: Apache Hadoop has two pillars:

1. Map Reduce - it’s a programming model to process large data

sets in parallel.

2. HDFS - Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is a file system

that spans all the nodes in a Hadoop cluster for data storage.
128

Fig: Hadoop Architecture

Hadoop Architecture consists of

 Job Tracker: Breaks bigger tasks to smaller pieces and sends to

the task trackers in slave nodes and process and combines the

results together.

 Name Node: Responsible to keep index of which data is residing

in which data nodes.

 Task Tracker: Process smaller pieces of task given to particular

node and sends report to job tracker.

 Data Node: Manages the pieces of data in that node.

 Job tracker runs in Name Node.

 Task tracker runs in Data Node.


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Fig: Map Reduce Process

5. Services

 Hadoop as a Service in the Cloud (HaaS) by Qubole Data Service

(QDS) .

 Amazon Web Services’ Elastic MapReduce (EMR).

 HDFS distributed filesystem.

 Map/Reduce job framework

 Can handle petabytes of data

 Redudancy and failover handling

 Works with Hadoop ecosystem with additional libraries.


130

6. Features

The following are Features

 Distributed Metadata

 Low Latency

 High Availability

 Scalable Map/Reduce model

 Map/Reduce API support

 Hive support

 Pig support

 Cascading support

 Library support for Hadoop eco system

7. Advantages

 Hadoop is extremely scalable

 Cost effective

 Flexible

 Fault tolerant

 Decrease Overload

 Processing of XML messages

 Web crawling and/or text processing


131

8. Applications

Yahoo! has ~20,000 machines running Hadoop

 Yahoo

 Amazon

 AOL (Messenger)

 Facebook

 Fox interactive media

 Google

 IBM

 New York Times

9. Pictures / Videos

Open-source software for reliable, scalable, distributed computing

 www.youtube.com/watch

 www.mapr.com/resources/videos

 www.hadooptutorials.info

10. Software Downloads

 Install Hadoop on Windows in 3 Easy Steps for Hortonworks

Sandbox.

 Step 1: Install VMware Player


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 Step 2: Install Hortonworks Hadoop Sandbox

 Step 3: Run Hadoop!

 http://hadoop.apache.org/releases.html

 https://hadoop.apache.org/

 http://www.hadoopwizard.com/install-hadoop

11. References

 Hadoop is an open-source, Java-based implementation

framework that uses Google's MapReduce.

 http://hadoop.apache.org/

 http://developer.yahoo.com/hadoop/

 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadoop

12. Case Studies

 Data Storage

 Online Publishing , Personalized Content Gravity

 Imaging or Videos

 Software As Service (SAS) and PaaS

 Retail

 Logistics

 Telecoms

 Health Care

 Banking and insurance


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5. OBIEE

 This Case Study consists of

1. Company Name and its Cloud Name.

2. CEO

3. Introduction

4. Cloud Architecture

5. Services

6. Features

7. Advantages

8. Applications

9. Pictures/videos

10. Software (Trial version)

11. References( URL’s)

12. Case Studies / Whitepapers


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1. Company Name and its Name

 The company name is Oracle

 The Cloud Name is OBIEE

 OBIEE stands for Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise

Edition 11g

 OBIEE versions 10g and 11g - it includes KPI, Alerts/Agents for

automated scheduling, Dashboards, reports, analysis and

Scorecards.

 Oracle Business Intelligence Suite EE delivers the full range of

Business Intelligence capabilities including interactive

dashboards, ad hoc inquiries, proactive intelligence and alerts,

enterprise and financial reporting and real-time predictive

intelligence

2. CEO

 The CEO of OBIEE is Larry Ellison

LARRY ELLISON
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 In September 2005, Oracle Corporation announced that it had

agreed to purchase Siebel Systems for close to six billion USD.

 Apart from the obvious benefits of eliminating a competitor, with

this acquisition Oracle obtained Siebel’s CRM product range

and a business intelligence tool, called “Siebel Business

Analytics Platform” By December 2006 Oracle had rebranded

the business intelligence tool, calling it “Oracle Business

Intelligence Enterprise Edition”

 Oracle Corporation Stable release 11.1.1.7 - April 2, 2013.

 Written in C++, Java.

 Operating system support : Windows, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX.


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3. Introduction

 What is Oracle Business Intelligence: Provides a set of web-

based tools for reporting and analyzing data.

 Based around dashboards, built around graphs, tables, pivots

etc.

 Multiple server architecture that splits data access /

presentation elements.

 Based on Siebel Analytics technology.

 Integral part of Oracle Fusion Middleware

 Connects to multiple data sources

 Oracle DB & Exadata

 SQL Server, DB/2, Teradata


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 Essbase, Oracle OLAP

 ADF View Objects etc

 Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition(OBIEE) is a

business intelligence system for the enterprise that delivers

abilities for reporting, ad hoc query and analysis, online

analytical processing (OLAP), dashboards, and scorecards.

 OBIEE is a comprehensive suite of enterprise BI products that

delivers a full range of analysis and reporting capabilities along

with a unified, highly scalable and modern architecture .

 Provides users with accurate and consistent insight to the

information.

 Users can access the information through, web-based

interactive dashboards, workspaces, search bars, enterprise


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resource planning (ERP) and customer relationship

management (CRM) applications, mobile devices, and Microsoft

Office applications.

4. Architecture

5. Services

 Oracle Business Intelligence Suite EE delivers the full range of

Business Intelligence capabilities including interactive

dashboards, ad hoc inquiries, proactive intelligence and alerts,

enterprise and financial reporting and real-time predictive

intelligence.

 OBIEE (Dashboards, Reports, Meta Data (RPD),

Informatica, DAC, Data Warehouse)

 All BI Applications (OBIA)

 Financial Reporting Studio


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 Smart View

 OTBI (Fusion)

 Data warehouse design

 Application design

 ETL development

 Dashboard design and development

 Upgrades and conversions

6. Features

 Easy to use ad hoc query and analysis

 Comprehensive suite of data visualizations

 Pixel perfect enterprise reporting

 Highly scalable multidimensional OLAP server

 Powerful geospatial mapping and visualization

 Ability to act on insight by invoking business processes from

within BI

 Common Enterprise Information Model

 Faster Deployment

 Reduced Cost

 Secure and Scalable

7. Advantages
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8. Applications

1. Very Large - Global Corporations, Banks, Mining

2. Large - Government Agencies, Technology, Manufacturing,

Consultancies

3. Military - Ministry of Defence, Army, Navy, Airforce

4. Medium - Retailers, Transport

5. Small - Consultancies, Sports clubs

Any organization that has any data to analyze!!

9. Pictures/videos
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http://www.oracle.com/us/solutions/business-

analytics/business-intelligence/

http://www.oracle.com/us/bi-enterprise-edition-plus-ds-

078848.pdf

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/bi-enterprise-

edition/tutorials/index.html

10. Software (Trial version)

 OBIEE delivers the most robust set of reporting, ad-hoc query

and analysis, OLAP, dashboard, and scorecard functionality

with a rich end-user experience that includes visualization,

collaboration, alerts, and more.

 OBIEE versions 10g and 11g - it includes KPI, Alerts/Agents for

automated scheduling, Dashboards, reports, analysis and

Scorecards.

 http://www.oracle.com/us/downloads/index.html

11.References( URL’s)
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 Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition (OBIEE) 11g

allow users to create reports and dashboards

 http://www.oracle.com/us/solutions/business-

analytics/business-intelligence/

 http://www.oracle.com/us/downloads/index.html

 http://www.oracle.com/us/bi-enterprise-edition-plus-ds-

078848.pdf

 http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/bi-

enterprise-edition/tutorials/index.html

12. Case Studies / Whitepapers

 http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/features/idc-

business-analytics/index.html

 http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/press/1895958

6. IBM - Bluemix

 This Case Study consists of

1. Company Name and its Cloud Name.

2. CEO

3. Introduction

4. Cloud Architecture

5. Services

6. Features
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7. Advantages

8. Applications

9. Pictures/videos

10. Software (Trial version)

11. References( URL’s)

12. Case Studies / Whitepapers

1. Company Name and its Name

 The company name is IBM

 The Cloud Name is IBM® Bluemix™.

 IBM® Bluemix™ is an open-standard, cloud-based platform for

building, managing, and running all types of applications

(mobile, smart devices, web, big data).

 Capabilities include Java™, mobile back-end development,

application monitoring, as well as features from ecosystem


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partners and open source, all through an as-a-service model in

the cloud.

2. CEO - History of Hadoop

 The CEO of IBM- Bluemix is Ginni Rometty and Jeff Lawson.


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 IBM Bluemix is an amazing deployment environment that allows

you to mix and match runtimes, services and add-ons to suit

your specific needs.

3. INTRODUCTION

 “A platform where developers can act like kids in a sandbox -

except this box is enterprise-grade.”

 IBM Bluemix is open to general availability.

 Platform as a service (PaaS) is a service model where providers

deliver not only infrastructure but also middleware (databases,


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messaging engines and so on) and solution stacks for

application build, development and deploy.

 Bluemix is a PaaS offering from IBM based on open standards

and cloud to build, deploy, manage and run Omni-channel

applications like web and mobile, big data and other smart

services.

 IBM Bluemix™ is the newest cloud offering from IBM.

 Bluemix is a platform as a service (PaaS) offering based on the

Cloud Foundry open source project that promises to deliver

enterprise-level features and services that are easy to integrate

into cloud applications.

 Blue mix allows you to create apps with the efficiency of a cold-

blooded cyborg.

4. Bluemix Architecture

 Bluemix enables application capacity, control, creation, and

consumption in the cloud.

 Bluemix is an environment for you to build applications and use

services when you develop applications.

 Bluemix deploys virtual containers utilizing Open Stack to host

deployed applications as indicated in the diagram.

 Users interact with the infrastructure by Bluemix user interface,

a web-based user interface (UI).

 Clients (mobile applications or web applications hosted

externally or on Bluemix or human users using web browsers)


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can use REST/HTTP application programming interfaces (API)

to interact with the hosted applications.

Fig : IBM Bluemix High Level Architecture

Fig: IBM Bluemix


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5. Services

 User Modeling

 Message Resonance

 Relationship Extraction

 Cloud Integration

 Mobile Quality Assurance

 Monitoring and Analytics

 SQL DB

6. Features

Blue Mix provides the following features:

 A range of services that enable you to build and extend web and

mobile apps fast.

 Processing power for you to deliver app changes continuously.

 Fit-for-purpose programming models and services.

 Manageability of services and applications.

 Optimized and elastic workloads.

 Continuous availability.

 A variety of popular programming languages and frameworks

like Android, iOS, HTML/JavaScript, Java, Ruby and PHP are

offered in Bluemix environment.

7. Advantages

 Reduce time for application/infrastructure provisioning

 Allow for flexible capacity


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 Help to address any lack of internal tech resources

 Reduce Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

 Accelerate exploration of new workloads – social, mobile, big

data.

8. Applications

 CRM Apps

 HR Databases

 Deployments

 Customized apps

 Social networks

 Enterprise apps, education, Banking etc.

9. Pictures / Videos

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZR_jDitw0Sc

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZR_jDitw0Sc
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10. Software Downloads


151

11. References

 IBM Bluemix is an open-standards, cloud-based platform

for building, managing, and running apps of all types,

such as web, mobile, big data, and smart devices.

 https://www.ng.bluemix.net/

 https://ace.ng.bluemix.net/#/store/cloudOEPaneId=s

tore

 https://www.ng.bluemix.net/docs/

 https://bluemix.net/

 http://thoughtsoncloud.com/2014/04/ibm-

codename-bluemix/

 http://www.slideshare.net/AjitYohannan/100-blue-

mix-days-technical-training
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 http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2014

/03/27/blue-mix-ibm-services-meet-softlayer-cloud/

12.Case Studies

 Retail industry

 Social networks

 Ex: Flickr, Twitter etc.

http://www-01.ibm.com/software/ebusiness/

jstart/portfolio/bluemixRetail.html