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TASK : Provide a comprehensive discussion of the Anatomy and Physiology of the Circulatory system.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Circulatory system

The circulatory system is a network consisting of blood, blood vessels, and the heart. This network supplies tissues in
the body with oxygen and other nutrients, transports hormones, and removes unnecessary waste products.

The heart is made of specialized cardiac muscle tissue that allows it to act as a pump within the circulatory system.
The human heart is divided into four chambers. There are one atrium and one ventricle on each side of the heart. The
atria receive blood and the ventricles pump blood.
The human circulatory system consists of several circuits:
The pulmonary circuit provides blood flow between the heart and lungs.
The systemic circuit allows blood to flow to and from the rest of the body.
The coronary circuit strictly provides blood to the heart (not pictured in the figure below).


Blood from the heart is pumped throughout the body using blood vessels. Arteries carry blood away from the heart and
into capillaries, providing oxygen (and other nutrients) to tissue and cells. Once oxygen is removed, the blood travels
back to the lungs, where it is reoxygenated and returned by veins to the heart.
The main artery of the systemic circuit is the aorta which branches out into other arteries, carrying blood to different
parts of the body.


Organs Function
1. RBC (RED BLOOD CELLS) Carries oxygen
2. WBC (WHITE BLOOD Make up part of the immune system, fights bacteria or pathogens
3. PLATELETS For blood clotting
4. PLASMA A liquid that floats the blood cells, nutrients, and wastes
5. HEART he heart pumps blood around the body. It sits inside the chest, in front of the
lungs and slightly to the left side. The heart is actually a double pump made up
of four chambers, with the flow of blood going in one direction due to the
presence of the heart valves. The contractions of the chambers make the sound
of heartbeats.
6. RIGHT SIDE OF THE The right upper chamber (atrium) takes in deoxygenated blood that is loaded
HEART with carbon dioxide. The blood is squeezed down into the right lower chamber
(ventricle) and taken by an artery to the lungs where the carbon dioxide is
replaced with oxygen.
7. LEFT SIDE OF THE HEART The oxygenated blood travels back to the heart, this time entering the left
upper chamber (atrium). It is pumped into the left lower chamber (ventricle)
and then into the aorta (an artery). The blood starts its journey around the body
once more.
8. BLOOD VESSELS Blood vessels have a range of different sizes and structures, depending on their
role in the body
9. ARTERIES Oxygenated blood is pumped from the heart along arteries, which are
muscular. Arteries divide like tree branches until they are slender. The largest
artery is the aorta, which connects to the heart and picks up oxygenated blood
from the left ventricle. The only artery that picks up deoxygenated blood is the
pulmonary artery, which runs between the heart and lungs.
10. CAPILLARIES The arteries eventually divide down into the smallest blood vessel, the
capillary. Capillaries are so small that blood cells can only move through them
one at a time. Oxygen and food nutrients pass from these capillaries to the
cells. Capillaries are also connected to veins, so wastes from the cells can be
transferred to the blood.
11. VEINS Veins have one-way valves instead of muscles, to stop blood from running
back the wrong way. Generally, veins carry deoxygenated blood from the body
to the heart, where it can be sent to the lungs. The exception is the network of
pulmonary veins, which take oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
12. BLOOD PRESSURE Blood pressure refers to the amount of pressure inside the circulatory system as
the blood is pumped around.