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9 Wave phenomena

9.1 Simple harmonic motion


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Displacement, velocity, and acceleration calculations 1


Assume simple harmonic motion in each example.
1 A spring-mass system is oscillating. A stopwatch is started as it travels through equilibrium. If its frequency is
5.0 Hz and its amplitude is 0.12 m, find:
a its maximum displacement
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b its maximum velocity
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c its maximum acceleration
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d its equation of motion
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e its velocity at t = 0.15 s
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2 A 0.45 kg object causes a vertical spring to stretch 0.16 m. What is the period of this combination when it is
oscillating?
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3 A pendulum has a period of 1.23 s. Determine the length of this pendulum if is located near the surface of the earth.
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9.1 Simple harmonic motion

4 An object is vibrating with a frequency of 40.2 Hz and amplitude of 0.148 m. When its displacement is
0.111 m determine its velocity.
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5 An object is vibrating at a frequency of 45 Hz. When a stopwatch is started, the object is vibrating at its
maximum displacement of 0.022 m.
a State the equation of motion.
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b What is the object’s displacement at 0.014 seconds?
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6 A spring’s constant is 12.2 N/m. The spring is attached to a vertical wall and rests on a horizontal, frictionless
table. A mass of 1.25 kg is attached to the other end of the spring. When the mass is pulled back a maximum
displacement of 0.0888 m and let go it oscillates back and forth, find:
a the maximum velocity
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b the maximum acceleration
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9 Wave phenomena

9.1 Simple harmonic motion


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Displacement, velocity, and acceleration calculations 2


Look at this graph and answer the questions below.

1 State the equation of the wave above.


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2 What is the amplitude?
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3 What is the period?
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4 What is the maximum speed?
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5 What is the maximum acceleration?
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6 What is the equation of the velocity graph?
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7 Sketch the corresponding acceleration-time graph.

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9.1 Simple harmonic motion

8 Using the pendulum as an example, describe how you would set up an experiment to obtain a displacement
of 0 m when time = 0 seconds.
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9 Wave phenomena

9.1 Simple harmonic motion


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Energy transfer
1 A system executing simple harmonic motion has a potential energy of 0.80 J when the displacement is at a maximum.
a What is the kinetic energy of this system at equilibrium?
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b What is the speed of this system when the potential energy is 0.80 J?
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2 The amplitude of a spring-mass system is 2.0 cm. When the displacement is 0.5 cm, what is the potential energy
divided by the kinetic energy?
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3 If the amplitude of a spring-mass system is tripled, by how much does the total energy increase?
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4 a Which of the waves above shows speed-time and which shows kinetic energy-time for a body displaying
simple harmonic motion?

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9.1 Simple harmonic motion

b When t = 0.3 seconds, what is the potential energy of the system? (ignore units)
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c Sketch on the axes above the potential and total energies as a function of time.
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9 Wave phenomena

9.2 Single-slit diffraction


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Single-slit diffraction 1
1 A screen is placed 1.52 m in front of a single-slit that is 0.0000125 m wide. If the distance from the centre of the
central maximum to the first minimum is 0.0652 m, what is the wavelength of the monochromatic light that was
used as a source?
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2 What is the angular width of the central maximum in question 1?
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3 The angular width of the central maximum is 5.22o when light of wavelength 511 nm falls on a single-slit.
What is the distance from the centre of the central maximum to the second minimum if the screen is 1.76 m
from the slit?
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4 The central maximum is measured to be 0.0765 m wide when the screen is 1.84 m away from the slit. If the
wavelength of the light source is 606 nm, what is the width of the slit?
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5 Look at the diagram below. The angle from the second minimum on the right to the second minimum on the left
is 14.2o when the wavelength of the source is 488 nm as shown below. What is the width of the slit?
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9 Wave phenomena

9.2 Single-slit diffraction


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Single-slit diffraction 2
1 A monochromatic source has a wavelength of 422 nm. The light passes through a single-slit which is 1.27 m
away from a screen. The width of the slit is 2.84 × 10–6 m.
a Find the distance from the centre of the central maximum to the first minimum.
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b Find the width of the central maximum in metres.
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c Find the width of the central maximum in radians.
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d If the wavelength is increased by a factor of 1.50 does the distance from the centre of the central maximum
to the first minimum go up by the same factor? Calculate this distance just to make sure.
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2 The distance from the centre of the central maximum to the third minimum is 0.0128 m. If the width of the slit is
3.42 × 10–5 m and the wavelength of the light is 555 nm, find the distance from the slit to the screen.
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3 The same slit as above is 2.65 m away from the screen. What is the difference in the width of the central
maximum (in metres) when light of 502 nm is replaced with light of 602 nm?
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9.2 Single-slit diffraction

4 What is the maximum width (in degrees) of the central maximum?


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5 A light source shines through a single-slit of width 5.94 × 10–7 m. Determine the minimum wavelength that
will produce no minimum fringes on the screen.
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6 A light source of wavelength 631 nm shines through a single-slit of width 2.94 × 10–6 m. What is the
maximum number of minimum fringes on one side of the central maximum if the screen is 3.00 m away
from the slit?
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9 Wave phenomena

9.2 Single-slit diffraction


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Single-slit diffraction 3
1 The wavelength of a light source shining through a single-slit of width 2.34 × 10–5 m is 625 nm. If the screen is
4.44 m away, how far is it from the second minimum on the right to the third minimum on the left?
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2 What is the ratio of the width of the central maximum to the distance between the first and third minimum
fringes on one side?
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3 The wavelength of a light source shining through a single-slit of width 4.34 × 10–5 m is 525 nm. If the screen is
2.44 m away, how far is it from the centre of the central maximum to the second minimum?
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4 The screen for problem three is shown below. Mark on the screen the locations for the first two minima on each
side of the central maximum.

5 The angular width of the central maximum is 28.4°. If a light source of λ = 616 nm shines through the single-slit
determine the width of the slit.
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9 Wave phenomena

9.3 Interference
Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Diffraction grating worksheet


1 Light of wavelength 444 nm is incident on a diffraction grating that has 8560 lines per cm. What is the first
order angle?
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2 What is the second order angle in question 1?
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3 What is the maximum number of orders in question 1?
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4 Light of wavelength 712.0 nm produces a first order maximum at an angle of 41.40°. How many lines per cm
are on this diffraction grating?
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5 Light of wavelength 652 nm is incident upon a diffraction grating whose slits are 1.64 × 10–3 cm apart. If the
grating is 1.47 m from the screen, what is the distance from the central dot to the first order dot on the screen?
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6 Light of wavelength 631 nm is incident upon a diffraction grating. It produces a second order dot on the
screen that is 1.46 m from the central dot when the screen is 1.98 m from the diffraction grating. A different
wavelength produces a first order dot that is 0.562 m from the central dot on the screen when the screen is
the same distance away from the diffraction grating. What is the wavelength of the second source?
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7 How many lines per cm are on the diffraction grating in question 6?
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9 Wave phenomena

9.3 Interference
Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Thin film interference


1 A thin film of oil (n = 1.42) rests on water (n = 1.33). The viewer looking from above views a wavelength of
451 nm. Calculate the minimum film thickness.
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2 White light is incident upon a soap bubble of thickness 114 nm and index of refraction 1.36. What wavelength
will be at the centre?
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3 Light of wavelength 503 nm is viewed directly above a soap film whose refractive index is 1.36. How thick is
the film?
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4 Light of wavelength 484 nm is normally incident on an air film that is 605 nm thick between two glass plates.
Show that a bright area will be seen.
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9 Wave phenomena

9.4 Resolution
Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Resolution worksheet 1
1 The Hubble Space Telescope has a primary mirror of diameter 2.40 m. Assuming that the wavelength of a light
source is 555 nm, determine the angle of resolution for the lens.
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2 If two objects are 2.28 × 1013 m away, what is their minimum separation if we are to see them with the Hubble
Space Telescope?
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3 Two distant objects are 3760 m apart. What is the maximum distance from the Hubble Space Telescope if they
are just resolved with 555 nm light?
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4 What is the angular resolution limit for a telescope that has a mirror diameter of 2.54 m if the wavelength of
light is 525 nm?
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9.4 Resolution

5 Two twins, Monique and Unique have pupil diameters of 3.00 mm and x mm respectively. A vehicle has
headlights 1.62 m apart and is coming towards them at night with the lights on. If there is a 122 m difference
between when the twins can resolve the two headlights, what is the diameter of Unique’s pupils? Assume that
the wavelength of light is 555 nm.
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6 What are the two possible distances that Unique resolves the headlights in question 5?
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9 Wave phenomena

9.4 Resolution
Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Resolution worksheet 2
1 Two identical yellow spheres each of radius 80.0 × 10–6 m are shown below. If the wavelength of the light is
575 nm and the spheres are just resolved, how far away from the spheres are you? Assume that your pupil
diameter is 4.00 mm.

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2 If the spheres in question 1 are blue with a wavelength of 412 nm, would the distance away be greater?
Calculate the answer.
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3 What is the relationship between the two wavelengths and the two distances? Write an equation to show this.
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4 A student is playing a video game where he is detecting two objects moving towards a base. These
objects are 4.08 m apart. The antenna’s radius for the radar detection system is 1.62 m and operates
on a wavelength of 0.0222 m. How far away are the objects?
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9 Wave phenomena

9.5 Doppler effect


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Doppler effect worksheet 1


The diagram below shows two sources of identical visible wavelengths. The top source is stationary and the bottom
source is moving away at 0.75 c. In the time that it takes the top wave to travel eight complete wavelengths to the
observer, the bottom source reaches observer 2. Assuming that the amplitude is the same for each wave, sketch the
resulting waves after time t has passed. Use the dots to help with your sketch. Explain why the bottom wave would
appear to have a reddish tinge.

Observer 1 Source 1

X . . . . . . . X

Observer 2 Source 2

X . . . . . . . X

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9.4 Resolution

5 A scientist can detect with the naked eye two objects on a moon of a planet in our solar system that is
5.91 × 1011 m away. If the scientist has pupils of diameter 5.00 mm and the wavelength of the light emitted
is 555 nm, how far apart are the objects?
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6 Ganymede is the largest moon in our solar system (diameter = 5.26 × 106 m). Do you think the scientist in
question 5 has made a mistake? Explain.
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7 A diffraction grating has x lines per mm. Spectral lines of 615.40 nm and 615.74 nm are resolved in the third
order spectrum using a beam with a diameter of 0.1 mm. Solve for x.
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9 Wave phenomena

9.5 Doppler effect


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Doppler effect worksheet 2


1 A stationary source gives off a tone of 603 Hz. An observer is approaching in a vehicle travelling at 25.1 ms–1.
If the speed of sound is 348 ms–1, determine the apparent frequency heard by the observer.
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2 A stationary source gives off a tone of 1640 Hz. An observer is driving away from the source in a vehicle
travelling at 18.1 ms–1. If the speed of sound is 356 ms–1, determine the apparent frequency heard by the
observer.
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3 A stationary observer hears a car travelling towards her at 26.2 ms–1. If the car is emitting a frequency of 552 Hz
and the speed of sound is 339 ms–1, determine the apparent frequency heard by the observer.
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4 A stationary observer hears a car travelling away from her at 16.4 ms–1. If the car is emitting a frequency
of 406 Hz and the speed of sound is 351 ms–1, determine the apparent frequency heard by the observer.
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5 A car is moving away from a stationary observer at a speed of 23.9 ms–1. It emits a sound of frequency 865 Hz
and the observer hears an apparent frequency of 811 Hz. What is the speed of sound in air at that time?
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6 A car is moving towards a stationary observer. The car emits a frequency of 616 Hz and the observer hears an
apparent frequency of 659 Hz. If the speed of sound is 347 ms–1, find the speed of the car.
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9.5 Doppler effect

7 An observer in a vehicle is driving towards a stationary speaker at 17.7 ms–1 that is emitting a frequency. If
the speed of sound is 364 ms–1 and the observer hears an apparent frequency of 559 Hz, what is the frequency
that the speaker emits?
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8 An observer in a vehicle hears an apparent frequency that is lower than the stationary source emitted
frequency. Is the observer driving towards or away from the source?
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9 Wave phenomena

9.5 Doppler effect


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Doppler effect worksheet 3


1 A stationary source gives off a tone of 851 Hz. An observer is approaching in a vehicle travelling at 34.5 ms–1.
If the speed of sound is 342 ms–1, determine the apparent frequency heard by the observer.
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2 A stationary source gives off a tone of 1880 Hz. An observer is driving away from the source in a vehicle
travelling at 28.1 ms–1. If the speed of sound is 347 ms–1, determine the apparent frequency heard by the
observer.
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3 A stationary observer hears a car travelling towards her at 36.2 ms–1. If the car is emitting a frequency of 889 Hz
and the speed of sound is 361 ms–1, determine the apparent frequency heard by the observer.
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4 A stationary observer hears a car that is travelling away from her at 27.4 ms–1. If the car is emitting a frequency
of 474 Hz and the speed of sound is 348 ms–1, determine the apparent frequency heard by the observer.
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5 A car is moving away from a stationary observer at a speed of 35.9 ms–1. It emits a sound of frequency 704 Hz
and the observer hears an apparent frequency of 621 Hz. What is the speed of sound in air at that time?
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6 A race car is moving towards a stationary observer. The car emits a frequency of 446 Hz and the observer hears
an apparent frequency of 519 Hz. If the speed of sound is 361 ms–1, find the speed of the car.
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9.5 Doppler effect

7 An observer in a vehicle is driving towards a speaker (at 19.6 ms–1) that is emitting a frequency. If the speed
of sound is 348 ms–1 and the observer hears an apparent frequency of 629 Hz, what is the frequency that the
speaker emits?
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8 An observer in a vehicle hears an apparent frequency that is higher than the stationary source emitted
frequency. Is the observer driving away from the source?
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9 Wave phenomena

9.5 Doppler effect


Name: ………………………………. Date: ……………………………….

Doppler effect worksheet 4


1 An observer is travelling in a car at 26.8 ms–1 towards a source that is moving towards the observer at 15.2 ms–1.
If the speed of sound is 361 ms–1 and the frequency of the source is 444 Hz, what is the apparent frequency that
the observer hears?
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2 A rotating body has a tangential speed at the edge of 3450 ms–1. If the source is emitting a wavelength
of 656 nm, what are the maximum and minimum wavelengths expected due to Doppler shift? (ignore s.f.)
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3 Microwaves of frequency 1.92 × 109 Hz experience a maximum frequency of 1.92006 × 109 Hz due to the
Doppler effect. If these microwaves are incident on a moving object, determine the speed of the moving object.
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4 A transmitter/receiver makes an angle of 28.4° with the direction of blood flow in an organ in the human body in
which ultrasound is transmitted. If the frequency of the ultrasound is 30.4 kHz and the speed of sound in body
tissue is 1540 ms–1, find the blood flow rate when the change in frequency due to the Doppler effect is 28.9 Hz.
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5 A galaxy emitting hydrogen at a wavelength of 671 nm is 15 nm greater than the wavelength measured
in the laboratory. What is the speed of this galaxy compared with earth?
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QUESTIONS

Questions
1 (IB) b) Explain why the magnitude of the tension in
The variation with displacement x of the the string at the midpoint of the oscillation is
acceleration a of a vibrating object is shown greater than the weight of the pendulum bob.
below. c) The pendulum bob is moved to one side
until its centre is 25 mm above its rest
a/m s−2
3000 position and then released.
point of suspension
2000
rigid support

1000

x/mm
−0.6 −0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
0.80 m
−1000

−2000

25 mm
−3000
pendulum bob

a) State and explain two reasons why the (i) Show that the speed of the pendulum
graph indicates that the object is executing bob at the midpoint of the oscillation is
simple harmonic motion. 0.70 m s–1.
b) Use data from the graph to show that the (ii) The mass of the pendulum bob is 0.057 kg.
frequency of oscillation is 350 Hz. The centre of the pendulum bob is 0.80 m
below the support. Calculate the
c) State the amplitude of the vibrations.
magnitude of the tension in the string
(9 marks) when the pendulum bob is vertically
2 (IB) below the point of suspension.
a) A pendulum consists of a bob that is (10 marks)
suspended from a rigid support by a 3 (IB)
light inextensible string. The pendulum a) A particle of mass m attached to a light
bob is moved to one side and then spring is executing simple harmonic motion
released. The sketch graph shows how in a horizontal direction.
the displacement of the pendulum bob
undergoing simple harmonic motion State the condition (relating to the net force
varies with time over one time period. acting on the particle) that is necessary for it
to execute simple harmonic motion.
displacement
b) The graph shows how the kinetic energy EK of
the particle in (a) varies with the displacement
x of the particle from equilibrium.
0 0.07 EK /J
0 time
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
Copy the sketch graph and on it clearly label
0.02
(i) a point at which the acceleration of the
0.01
pendulum bob is a maximum.
(ii) a point at which the speed of the 0
01
02
03
04

05
05
04

03
02

01

pendulum bob is a maximum.


0.
0.
0.
0.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.





x/m
387
9 WAVE P H E NOM E N A ( A H L)

(i) On a copy of the axes above, sketch


a graph to show how the potential
energy of the particle varies with the
Z Q
displacement x. ϕW
(ii) The mass of the particle is 0.30 kg. Use data
b Y
from the graph to show that the frequency X
f of oscillation of the particle is 2.0 Hz.
P
(8 marks)
4 (IB)
a) Describe what is meant by the diffraction slit screen
of light.
The angle ϕ is small.
b) A parallel beam of monochromatic light
a) On a copy of the diagram, label the half
from a laser is incident on a narrow slit.
angular width θ of the central maximum of
The diffracted light emerging from the slit is
the diffraction pattern.
incident on a screen.
b) State and explain an expression, in terms of
screen
λ, for the path difference ZW between the
slit rays ZP and XP.
c) Deduce that the half angular width θ is
parallel light given by the expression
0.40 mm C
wavelength 620 nm λ
θ=_
b
1.9 m d) In a certain demonstration of single slit
diffraction, λ = 450 nm, b = 0.15 mm and
The centre of the diffraction pattern produced the screen is a long way from the slits.
on the screen is at C. Sketch a graph to show Calculate the angular width of the central
how the intensity I of the light on the screen maximum of the diffraction pattern on the
varies with the distance d from C. screen.
c) The slit width is 0.40 mm and it is 1.9 m (8 marks)
from the screen. The wavelength of the 6 (IB)
light is 620 nm. Determine the width of the Monochromatic parallel light is incident on two
central maximum on the screen. slits of equal width and close together. After
(8 marks) passing through the slits, the light is brought to a
focus on a screen. The diagram below shows the
5 (IB) intensity distribution of the light on the screen.
Plane wavefronts of monochromatic light are
incident on a narrow, rectangular slit whose I
width b is comparable to the wavelength λ of
the light. After passing through the slit, the
light is brought to a focus on a screen.
The line XY, normal to the plane of the slit, is
drawn from the centre of the slit to the screen.
The points P and Q are the first points of
A B
minimum intensity as measured from point Y.
distance along the screen
The diagram also shows two rays of light
incident on the screen at point P. Ray ZP leaves a) Light from the same source is incident on
one edge of the slit and ray XP leaves the centre many slits of the same width as the widths
of the slit. of the slits above. On a copy of the diagram,
draw a possible new intensity distribution
of the light between the points A and B on
the screen.
388
QUESTIONS

A parallel beam of light of wavelength a) State the phase change that occurs when
450 nm is incident at right angles on a light is reflected from
diffraction grating. The slit spacing of the (i) surface A
diffraction grating is 1.25 × 10–6 m.
(ii) surface B.
b) Determine the angle between the central
The light incident on the plastic has a
maximum and first order principal
wavelength of 620 nm. The refractive index of
maximum formed by the grating.
the plastic is 1.4.
(4 marks)
b) Calculate the minimum thickness of the
7 (IB) film needed for the
Light of wavelength 590 nm is incident light reflected from surface A and surface B
normally on a diffraction grating, as shown to undergo destructive interference.
below.
(5 marks)
grating 6.0 × 105 9 (IB)
lines per metre
first order The two point sources A and B emit light of
light wavelength
zero order the same frequency. The light is incident on
590 nm
a rectangular narrow slit and, after passing
first order
through the slit, is brought to a focus on the
screen.

The grating has 6.0 × 10 5 lines per metre.


a) Determine the total number of orders of
diffracted light, including the zero order,
A
that can be observed.
b) The incident light is replaced by a beam of B
light consisting of two wavelengths, 590 nm point
and 589 nm. sources
slit
State two observable differences between
a first-order spectrum and a second-order screen
spectrum of the diffracted light.
a) B is covered. Sketch a graph to show how
(6 marks)
the intensity I of the light from A varies
8 (IB) with distance along the screen. Label the
Monochromatic light is incident on a thin film curve you have drawn A.
of transparent plastic as shown below. b) B is now uncovered. The images of A
and B on the screen are just resolved.
Using your axes, sketch a graph to show
how the intensity I of the light from B
varies with distance along the screen.
C Label this curve B.
c) The bright star Sirius A is accompanied by a
much fainter star, Sirius B. The mean distance
of the stars from Earth is 8.1 × 1016 m. Under
monochromatic A B ideal atmospheric conditions, a telescope with
light an objective lens of diameter 25 cm can just
film
resolve the stars as two separate images.
The plastic film is in air. Assuming that the average wavelength
Light is partially reflected at both surface A and emitted by the stars is 500 nm, estimate the
surface B of the film. apparent, linear separation of the two stars.
(6 marks)

389
9 WAVE P H E NOM E N A ( A H L)

10 (IB) a) Explain, using a diagram, any difference


between f ’and f.
a) Explain what is meant by the term
resolvance with regards to a diffraction b) The frequency f is 3.00 × 102 Hz. An
grating. observer moves towards the stationary
car at a constant speed of 15.0 m s–1.
b) A grating with a resolvance of 2000 is used
Calculate the observed frequency f ’ of
in an attempt to separate the red lines in
the sound. The speed of sound in air is
the spectra of hydrogen and deuterium.
3.30 × 102 m s-1.
(i) The incident beam has a width of 0.2 mm.
(5 marks)
For the first order spectrum, how many
lines per mm must the grating have? 13 (IB)
The wavelength diagram shown below
(ii) Explain whether or not the grating is
represents three lines in the emission spectrum
capable of resolving the hydrogen lines
sample of calcium in a laboratory.
which have wavelengths 656.3 nm and
656.1 nm. A B C
(6 marks)
11 A source of sound approaches a stationary
observer. The speed of the emitted sound
and its wavelength, measured at the source,
wavelength
are v and λ respectively. Compare the wave
speed and wavelength, as measured by the A distant star is known to be moving directly
observer, with v and λ . Explain your away from the Earth at a speed of 0.1c. The
answers. (4 marks) light emitted from the star contains the
12 The sound emitted by a car’s horn has emission spectra of calcium. Copy the diagram
frequency f, as measured by the driver. An and sketch the emission spectrum of the
observer moves towards the stationary car at star as observed in the laboratory. Label the
constant speed and measures the frequency of lines that correspond to A, B, and C with the
the sound to be f ’. letters A*, B*, and C*. Numerical values of the
wavelengths are not required. (3 marks)

390
IB Physics
Assessment paper: 9 Wave phenomena (AHL)

1. A sound emitting source moves along a straight line with speed v relative to an
observer at rest.

The speed of sound relative to the medium is c. The observer measures the speed of
sound emitted by the source as
A. c.
B. c + v.
C. c – v.
D. v – c. (1)

2. A source of sound emits waves of wavelength λ, period T and speed v when at


rest. The source moves away from a stationary observer at speed V, relative to
the observer. The wavelength of the sound waves, as measured by the observer
is
A. λ + vT.
B. λ – vT.
C. λ +VT.
D. λ – VT. (1)

3. In order that the interference between the waves emitted by two light sources
can be observed, it is essential that the sources must emit waves that
A. have the same amplitude.
B. are in phase.
C. have the same colour.
D. have a constant phase difference between them. (1)

4. A police car, sounding its siren, is travelling at constant speed towards a


stationary observer. The sound emitted by the siren is of constant frequency.
The frequency of the sound as heard by the observer is higher than that heard
by the driver of the police car. The reason for this is that
A. the wavefronts received by the observer are closer together than the
wavefronts received by the driver.
B. the speed of the wavefronts is greater as measured by the observer than by
the driver.
C. the speed of the wavefronts is less as measured by the observer than by the
driver.
D. the wavefronts received by the observer are further apart than the
wavefronts received by the driver. (1)

© Oxford University Press 2015


www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/acknowledgements 1
IB Physics
Assessment paper: 9 Wave phenomena (AHL)

5. A stationary source emits sound of frequency f0. An observer is moving towards


the source at constant speed along the path indicated by the dotted line. The
observer passes very close to the source at time T.

Which one of the following graphs best shows the variation with time t of the
frequency f heard by the observer?

(1)

6. A wooden block is at rest on a horizontal frictionless surface. A horizontal


spring is attached between the block and a rigid support.

The block is displaced to the right by an amount X and is then released. The
period of oscillations is T and the total energy of the system is E.
X
For an initial displacement of which of the following shows the best estimate
2
for the period of oscillations and the total energy of the system?

Period Total energy


A. T E
2
B. T E
4
C. T E
2 2
D. T E
2 4
(1)

© Oxford University Press 2015


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IB Physics
Assessment paper: 9 Wave phenomena (AHL)

7. Two lamps producing light of the same colour are placed close to one another. A
two source interference pattern is not observed because
A. the lamps do not emit light of a single frequency.
B. the phase difference between the light from the lamps is continually
changing.
C. the intensity of the light emitted by the lamps is not the same.
D. the two lamps are not exact point sources. (1)

8. Light from a double slit arrangement produces bright and dark fringes on a
screen in the region near point P, as indicated in the diagram below.

The light from the two slits has equal amplitudes on reaching point P. Which
one of the following gives the change, if any, in the appearance of the bright and
the dark fringes when the amplitude of the light wave from one slit is reduced?

Bright fringes Dark fringes


A. Remains the same Remains the same
B. Becomes less bright Remains the same
C. Becomes less bright Becomes more bright
D. Remains the same Becomes more bright
(1)

9. Waterwaves of wavelength 2.0 m are produced by two sources S1 and S2. The
sources vibrate in phase.

Point P is 1 m from S1 and 3 m from S2. S1 alone and S2 alone each produce a
wave of amplitude a at P. Which one of the following is the amplitude of the
resultant wave at point P when S1 and S2 are both emitting waves?
A. 2a
B. a
1
C. a
2
D. Zero (1)

© Oxford University Press 2015


www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/acknowledgements 3
IB Physics
Assessment paper: 9 Wave phenomena (AHL)

10. In a double-slit experiment using coherent light of wavelength λ, the central


bright fringe is observed on a screen at point O, as shown below.

At point P, the path difference between light arriving at P from the two slits is
4λ. Which of the following correctly describes the observed fringe pattern?

number of dark
nature of fringe at P fringes between O
and P
A. bright 3
B. bright 4
C. dark 3
D. dark 4
(1)

© Oxford University Press 2015


www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/acknowledgements 4
IB Physics
Assessment paper: 9 Wave phenomena (AHL)

1. This question is about sound waves.


In order to demonstrate two-source interference of sound waves, two
loudspeakers are connected to the same output of a signal generator. The
loudspeakers are fixed 4.0 m apart. In the diagram below, the line AB is parallel
to the loudspeakers and at a distance of 10.0 m from the loudspeakers. Point P
is midway between the loudspeakers.

Katerina walks along the line AB carrying a microphone connected to a detector.


She registers a sound that alternates in intensity from loud to quiet.

a) Describe the conditions necessary for a sound of minimum intensity to be


registered at Q.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (3)
As Katerina runs along the line AB she counts the number of loud sounds
registered in a given time. The frequency of the sound emitted by both
loudspeakers is 360 Hz and the speed of sound in air is 330 m s–1.

b) Estimate the speed at which she is running if the maximum sounds occur
with a frequency of about 2 Hz.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (6)
(Total 9 marks)

© Oxford University Press 2015


www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/acknowledgements 5
IB Physics
Assessment paper: 9 Wave phenomena (AHL)

2. This question is about the interference of waves.


The diagram below shows an arrangement (not to scale) for observing the
interference pattern produced by the superposition of two light waves.

S1 and S2 are two very narrow slits. The single slit S ensures that the light
leaving the slits S1 and S2 is coherent.

a) Define coherent.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (1)

b) Explain why the slits S1 and S2 need to be very narrow.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2)
(Total 3 marks)

3. The properties of sound waves


The Doppler effect can be used to determine the speed of an object.
A train approaches and then passes by a stationary observer. The train is
moving with constant velocity and emits a sound of constant frequency. The
observer hears the frequency change from 490 Hz to 410 Hz. The speed of
sound in air is 340 m s–1. Estimate the speed of the train.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4)
(Total 4 marks)

© Oxford University Press 2015


www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/acknowledgements 6
IB Physics
Assessment paper: 9 Wave phenomena (AHL)

4. This question is about resolution.


a) State the Rayleigh criterion for the images of two point sources to be just
resolved.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2)

A man is walking along a straight path at night towards two light sources as
shown below.

When the man is 150 m from the sources, the images of the two sources are just
resolved by his eye. The wavelength of the light from each source is 590 nm and
the diameter of the aperture of his eye is 5.0 mm.

b) Estimate the distance between the two sources.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (3)
(Total 5 marks)

5. This question is about diffraction.


Plane wavefronts of monochromatic light of wavelength are incident on a
rectangular slit of width b. After passing through the slit, the light is brought to a
focus on a screen distance D from the slit as shown below. The width of the slit
is comparable to the wavelength of the incident light and b D. The point P on
the screen is opposite the centre of the slit.

© Oxford University Press 2015


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IB Physics
Assessment paper: 9 Wave phenomena (AHL)

The sketch graph below shows that the variation with angle of the intensity of
the light on the screen.

a) Explain this intensity distribution qualitatively.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (3)

b) The single slit experiment is replaced by two rectangular slits of width b.


The distance between the centre of the slits is equal to 2b.
On the axes below, draw a sketch of the intensity distribution on the screen.
(The intensity distribution of a single slit is shown by the dotted line.)

(2)
(Total 5 marks)

© Oxford University Press 2015


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IB Physics
Assessment paper: 9 Wave phenomena (AHL)

6. A wedge shaped film of air is made by separating two thin, flat glass plates by a
spacer.

It is arranged for light from a monochromatic source to be incident on the plates


by reflection from another glass plate P. The light reflected from the wedge is
viewed from above as shown in the diagram. A system of equally spaced,
parallel fringes is observed. (The diagram is not to scale.)

a) State what happens to the phase of the light waves reflected from the upper
surface of the plate labelled A in the diagram.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2)

b) The wavelength of the light is 560 nm. Calculate by how much the width of
the wedge changes between one bright fringe and the next bright fringe.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2)
(Total 4 marks)

© Oxford University Press 2015


www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/acknowledgements 9
49 In a binary star system, two stars orbit a common b When the stars are in the position shown in
point and move so that they are always in the diagram below, the observer on Earth
diametrically opposite positions. Light from both measures two wavelengths in the received
stars reaches an observer on Earth. Assume that light, 6.50 × 10–7 m and 6.76 × 10–7 m.
both stars emit light of wavelength 6.58 × 10–7 m. Determine the speed of each of the stars.
a When the stars are in the position shown star B
in the diagram below, the observer on
Earth measures a wavelength of light of
6.58 × 10–7 m from both stars. Explain why
there is no Doppler shift in this case.
towards Earth

star A

towards Earth
star A star B

Exam-style questions

1 A ball of mass m is attached to two identical springs of spring constant k as shown. Initially the springs have their
natural length. The ball is displaced a small distance to the right and is then released.
ball

A B

What is the period of oscillation of the ball?


m 1 m 3 m 1 m
A 2π B 22π C 22π D 2−2π
k k k k

2 A particle performs simple harmonic oscillations with amplitude 0.1 mm and frequency 100 Hz. What is the
maximum acceleration of this particle (in m s−2 )?
A 0.2π B 0.4π C 2π2 D 4π2

390
3 Which of the following graphs shows the variation with time of the potential energy of a particle undergoing
simple harmonic oscillations with a period of 1.0 s?
E /J 1.0 E /J 1.0

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0.0 0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
A t /s B t /s

E/J 1.0 E /J 1.0

0.5 0.5

0.0 0.0
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
t /s t /s
0.5 0.5

1.0 1.0
C D

4 Light of wavelength λ is incident normally on a slit of width b. A screen is placed a distance D from the slit. What is
the width of the central maximum measured along the screen?
λ 2λ λD 2λD
A B C D
b b b b

5 Light of wavelength λ is incident on two parallel slits. An interference pattern is formed on a screen behind the slits.
The separation of the slits and the width of the slits are both decreased. Which of the following is correct about the
separation and the width of the bright fringes?

separation width
A increases increases
B increases decreases
C decreases increases
D decreases decreases

6 Two radio wave emitting stars are separated by a distance d and are both a distance r from Earth. Radio waves of
wavelength λ are received by a radio telescope of diameter b on Earth. The two stars will be well resolved by the
telescope if which condition is satisfied?
d λ d λ r λ r λ
A < 1.22 × B >1.22 × C < 1.22 × D > 1.22 ×
r b r b d b d b

9 WAVE PHENOMENA HL 391


7 Coherent light of wavelength λ is incident on two parallel slits that are separated by a distance d. Angle θ is the
smallest angle for which the two rays shown interfere destructively on a screen far from the slits.

θ
d

Which of the following could be correct?


λ 3λ
A d sin θ = B d sin θ = λ C d sin θ = D sin θ = 2λ
2 2

8 A train sounding its horn goes past a train station without stopping. The train moves at constant speed. Which is
correct about the frequency of the horn measured by the observer?
A keeps increasing then keeps decreasing
B keeps decreasing then keeps increasing
C is constant and high then constant and low
D is constant and low then constant and high

9 Light is incident essentially normally on a thin film of thickness t and refractive index 1.5. The film is on
transparent glass of refractive index 2.5.

Which of the following conditions on the wavelength in oil leads to destructive interference of the reflected light?
A λ = 6t
B λ = 3t
C λ=t
D λ = 1.5t

10 Light is incident on N very thin parallel slits and an interference pattern is formed on a screen a distance away.
The number of slits is increased while the separation of two consecutive slits stays the same. Which is correct as
N increases?
A the number of secondary maxima decreases
B the intensity of the secondary maxima increases
C the primary maxima become narrower
D the distance between the central maximum and the first primary maximum to the side increases

392
11 The graph shows how the acceleration of a particle varies with displacement from a fixed equilibrium position.
a /m s–2
10

−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3
x/cm

−5

−10

a Use the graph to explain why the particle is performing simple harmonic oscillations. [3]
b Determine:
i the amplitude of oscillations [1]
ii the frequency of the motion. [2]
c i The mass of the particle is 0.25 kg. Calculate the maximum potential energy of the particle. [2]
ii Determine the speed of the particle when its kinetic energy equals its potential energy. [3]
d Sketch a graph to show how the kinetic energy varies with displacement. [2]

12 In a Young two-slit experiment, a source of light of unknown wavelength is used to illuminate two very narrow
slits that are a distance 0.120 mm apart.

θ
3.60 m

not to scale

Bright fringes are observed on a screen a distance of 3.60 m from the slits. The separation between the bright
fringes is 1.86 cm.
a i Explain how the bright fringes are formed. [2]
ii Determine the wavelength of light. [3]
b Draw a graph to show how the intensity of the light observed on the screen varies with the angle θ. The
intensity at the screen due to one slit alone is 20 W m−2.You may neglect the slit width. [3]
c i The two slits are replaced by a diffraction grating. The light in a makes a second order maximum at an
angle of 58°. Calculate the number of rulings per mm for this grating. [2]
ii Another wavelength of visible light creates a maximum at the same angle as in c i but at a different
order. Determine this wavelength and the order of its maximum. [4]

9 WAVE PHENOMENA HL 393


13 Monochromatic light of wavelength 5.0 × 10−7 m in air is incident on a rectangular piece of glass of refractive
index 1.60 that is coated by a thin layer of magnesium fluoride of refractive index 1.38.
incident light

magnesium fluoride d

glass

a Copy and complete this diagram by drawing the paths of the two rays, originating with the incident ray,
that will interfere in the eye of an observer looking down on the glass from above. [2]
b Indicate on the diagram points at which reflected rays undergo phase changes. [2]
c Calculate the least thickness d of this coating that will result in no light being reflected. Assume that the
ray is incident normally. [3]

14 The graph shows the interference pattern for a number of very thin parallel slits.
Intensity

15

10

–20 –10 0 10 20
θ /degrees

a Justify that the number of slits is 4. [2]


b List a total of four ways in which this pattern changes as:
i the number of slits increases but their separation stays the same
ii the number of slits stays the same but their separation decreases. [4]
c It is required to resolve two lines in the spectrum of hydrogen: a line with wavelength 656.45 nm in 11H
and a line of wavelength 656.27 nm in the isotope 21H. Calculate the least number of slits per mm
required to resolve these two lines in the second order at an angle of 15°. [3]

394
15 The graph shows the single-slit diffraction pattern for monochromatic light from one point source.
Intensity
1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

–0.3 –0.2 –0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3


θ /mrad

The wavelength of light is 5.0 × 10–7 m.


a Calculate the slit diameter assuming that it is circular. [2]
b A second source is placed at distance of 3.0 cm from the other source.
i On a copy of the axes above draw the diffraction pattern from the second source in the case
in which the two sources are just barely resolved. [2]
ii Calculate the distance of the two sources from the slit. [2]

16 a State what is meant by the Doppler effect. [1]


b Illustrate the Doppler effect for the case of a moving source using wavefront diagrams. [2]
c Outline one practical application of the Doppler effect. [2]
d A disc of radius 0.20 m rotates about its axis making eight revolutions per second. Sound of frequency
2400 Hz is emitted in all directions from a source on the circumference of the disc. The sound is
received by an observer far away from the disc. Determine the range of frequencies and the range of
wavelengths that the observer measures. [4]

9 WAVE PHENOMENA HL 395


Topic 4.1a Kinematics of SHM Problems (I)
Conceptual Questions
(These questions are not in an IB style but instead designed to check your understanding of the concept of this topic. You
should try your best to appropriately communicate your answer using prose)

1. Give some examples of everyday vibrating objects. Which exhibit SHM, at least approximately?

2. Is the acceleration of a simple harmonic oscillator every zero? If so, where?

3. How could you double the maximum speed of a simple harmonic oscillator?

4. If a pendulum clock is accurate at sea level, will it gain or lose time when taken to a higher altitude? Why?

Calculation-based Questions
1. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude of 0.18m what is the total distance it travels in one period?

2. If a pendulum undergoes exactly 20 oscillations in 34.6s, calculate (a) its frequency; (b) its angular frequency.
3. A child on a swing went through exactly five complete oscillations in 10.4s. (a) What was the period? (b)
What was the frequency?

4. A mass oscillates between two springs with a frequency of 1.4Hz. (a) What is the angular frequency? (b)
What is its acceleration when its displacement is 1.0cm, 4.0cm, and when it passes through the equilibrium
position?

5. An oscillating mass is set in motion with SHM. It is at its maximum displacement of 12cm when a stopwatch
is started, and its period of oscillation is 2.4s. Calculate (a) the displacement after 3.3s; (b) its maximum
speed; (c) its speed after 5.6s; (d) its speed when its displacement is 8.8cm.
Topic 4.1b Kinematics of SHM (II) Problems
Calculation Based
1. A mass attached to a spring is stretched a distance A from the equilibrium position and released. State the distance
from the equilibrium at which the acceleration becomes half of its initial maximum acceleration. [1 mark]

2. A 0.60 kg mass vibrates on a horizontal spring according to the equation: 𝑥 = 0.45 cos 6.40𝑡, where x is in metres and t
is in seconds. Determine:
a. The amplitude. [1 mark]
b. The frequency. [1 mark]
c. The Period. [1 mark]
d. The spring constant, k [2 marks]

3. The displacement of a particle executing SHM is given by y = 5.0cos (2t) where y is in millimetres and t is in seconds.
Calculate:
a. the initial displacement of the particle,
b. the displacement at t = 1.2s,
c. the time at which the displacement first becomes -2.0mm,
d. the displacement when the velocity of the particle is 6.0mm/s.
4. An object oscillates according to the equation: 𝑣 = −0.12 cos 2.0𝑡, where v is in m/s and t is in seconds. Determine the
expression for the displacement as a function of time. [2 marks]

5. A particle undergoes SHM. Its position against time is displayed using the following graph:

3.0
Displacement (m)

-3.0
Time (s)
Using the information provided on the graph:
a. State the amplitude. [1 mark]
b. State the Period. [1 mark]
c. Calculate the angular frequency. [1 mark]
d. State the expression for the displacement as a function of time. [1 mark]

0.1
6. A particle undergoes SHM with amplitude 4.0mm and angular frequency of 2.0 s-1. At t = 0, the displacement is mm.
√3
Determine the expression for the displacement in the format:
𝑥 = 𝐴 cos(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛿).
[3 marks]

(Hint: to determine the phase difference, set t = 0).


Topic 9.2 and 9.4 Diffraction and Resolution Problems
Conceptual Questions (solutions not included)
(These questions are not in an IB style but instead designed to check your understanding of the concept of this topic. You
should try your best to appropriately communicate your answer using prose)

1. For diffraction by a single slit, what is the effect of (a) increasing the slit width, (b) increasing the wavelength?

2. By what factor could you improve resolution, other things being equal, if you use blue light (wavelength =
450nm) rather than red (wavelength = 700nm)?

3. Give at least two advantages for the use of large reflecting mirrors in astronomical telescopes.

4. Atoms have diameter about 10-8cm. Can visible light be used to “see” an atom? Explain.

Calculation-based Questions (solutions not included)


5. If 580nm light falls on a slit 0.0440mm wide, what is the full angular width of the central diffraction peak?

6. When blue light of wavelength 440nm falls on a single slit, the first dark bands on either side of the centre
are separated by 55.0°. Determine the width of the slit.

7. A single slit of width 1.50μm is illuminated with light of wavelength of 500.0nm. Find the angular width of
the central maximum.

8. Microwaves of wavelength 2.80cm fall on a slit and the central maximum at a distance of 1.0m from the slit
is found to have a half width (i.e. distance from the middle central maximum to the first minimum) of 0.67m.
Find the width of the slit.
9. From the information shown determine the wavelength used to obtain the single-slit diffraction pattern
shown. The screen is 0.60m from the slit and the slit width is 2.30cm. What kind of wave is most likely used?

10. What is the angular resolution limit (in degrees) set by diffraction for a 254cm diameter mirror of the Mt.
Wilson telescope? (wavelength = 550nm).

11. Two stars 15 light years away are barely resolved by a 55cm telescope. How far apart are the stars? Assume
the wavelength = 550nm and that the resolution is limited by diffraction.

12. How far away can a human eye distinguish two car headlights 2.0m apart? Consider only diffraction effects
and assume the eye pupil diameter is 5.0mm and a wavelength to 550nm.

13. The Earth and Moon are separated by about 400x106m. When Mars is 8x1010m from Earth, could a person
standing on Mars resolve the Earth and its Moon as two separate objects without a telescope? Assume pupil
diameter of 5.0mm and a wavelength of 550nm.
Topic 9.3 Diffraction Problems
Calculation-based Questions
1. If 580-nm light falls on a slit 0.0440mm wide, what is the full angular width of the central diffraction
peak?
[2 Marks]

2. Monochromatic light falls on a slit that is 2.60x10-3mm wide. If the angle between the first dark
fringes on either side of the central maxim um is 35.0° (dark fringe to dark fringe), what is the
wavelength of light used?
[2 Marks]
3. A single slit, 1.0mm wide, is illuminated by a 450-nm light. What is the width of the central
maximum (in cm) in the diffraction pattern on a screen 5.0m away?
[3 Marks]

4. How wide is the central diffraction peak on a screen 2.30m behind a 0.0348mm wide slit
illuminated by a 589nm light?
[3 Marks]
Topic 9.5 Doppler Effect Problems
Conceptual Questions
(These questions are not in an IB style but instead designed to check your understanding of the concept of this topic. You should
try your best to appropriately communicate your answer using prose)

1. Is there a Doppler shift if the source and observer move in the same direction, with the same
velocity? Explain.

2. If the wind is blowing, will this alter the frequency of the sound heard by a person at rest with
respect to the source? Is the wavelength of velocity changed?

3. The diagram shows various positions of a child in motion on a swing. A monitor is blowing a whistle
in front of the child on the ground. At which position, A through E, will the child hear the highest
frequency for the sound of the whistle? Explain your reasoning.
Calculation-based Questions
1. The predominant frequency of a certain fire engine’s siren is 1550Hz when at rest. What frequency
do you detect if you move with a speed of 30.0m/s (a) toward the fire engine, and (b) away from it?
[3 Marks]

2. You are standing still. What frequency do you detect if a fire engine whose siren emits at 1550Hz
moves a speed of 32m/s (a) toward you, or (b) away form you?
[3 Marks]

3. A Doppler flow meter uses ultrasound waves to measure blood-flow speeds. Suppose the device
emits sound at 3.5MHz, and the speed of sound in human tissue is taken to be 1540m/s. What is
the change in frequency detected by the device if blood is flowing through a leg artery at 2.0cm/s
directly away from the sound source?
Topic 9 (New) [105 marks]
1a. Monochromatic light from two identical lamps arrives on a screen. [1 mark]

The intensity of light on the screen from each lamp separately is I0.
On the axes, sketch a graph to show the variation with distance x on the screen of the intensity I
of light on the screen.

Monochromatic light from a single source is incident on two thin, parallel slits.
1b. Monochromatic light from a single source is incident on two thin, parallel slits. [3 marks]

The following data are available.

Slit separation = 0.12 mm


Wavelength = 680 nm
Distance to screen = 3.5 m
The intensity I of light at the screen from each slit separately is I0. Sketch, on the axes, a graph
to show the variation with distance x on the screen of the intensity of light on the screen for this
arrangement.

1c. The slit separation is increased. Outline one change observed on the screen. [1 mark]

There is a proposal to power a space satellite X as it orbits the Earth. In this model, X is
There is a proposal to power a space satellite X as it orbits the Earth. In this model, X is
connected by an electronically-conducting cable to another smaller satellite Y.

2a. Satellite X orbits 6600 km from the centre of the Earth. [2 marks]
Mass of the Earth = 6.0 x 10 24 kg
Show that the orbital speed of satellite X is about 8 km s –1.

Satellite Y orbits closer to the centre of Earth than satellite X. Outline why

2b. the orbital times for X and Y are different. [1 mark]

2c. satellite Y requires a propulsion system. [2 marks]

The cable between the satellites cuts the magnetic field lines of the Earth at right
2d. The cable between the satellites cuts the magnetic field lines of the Earth at right [3 marks]
angles.

Explain why satellite X becomes positively charged.

2e. Satellite X must release ions into the space between the satellites. Explain why [3 marks]
the current in the cable will become zero unless there is a method for transferring
charge from X to Y.

The magnetic field strength of the Earth is 31 µT at the orbital radius of the
2f. The magnetic field strength of the Earth is 31 µT at the orbital radius of the [2 marks]
satellites. The cable is 15 km in length. Calculate the emf induced in the cable.

The cable acts as a spring. Satellite Y has a mass m of 3.5 x 10 2 kg. Under certain
circumstances, satellite Y will perform simple harmonic motion (SHM) with a period T of 5.2 s.

2g. Estimate the value of k in the following expression. [3 marks]

T = 2π√ m
k

Give an appropriate unit for your answer. Ignore the mass of the cable and any oscillation of
satellite X.

2h. Describe the energy changes in the satellite Y-cable system during one cycle of the [2 marks]
oscillation.
Yellow light from a sodium lamp of wavelength 590 nm is incident at normal incidence on a
double slit. The resulting interference pattern is observed on a screen. The intensity of the
pattern on the screen is shown.

3a. Explain why zero intensity is observed at position A. [2 marks]

3b. The distance from the centre of the pattern to A is 4.1 x 10 –2 m. The distance from the [2 marks]
screen to the slits is 7.0 m.

Calculate the width of each slit.

Calculate the separation of the two slits.


3c. Calculate the separation of the two slits. [2 marks]

The double slit is replaced by a diffraction grating that has 600 lines per millimetre. The resulting
pattern on the screen is shown.

3d. State and explain the differences between the pattern on the screen due to the grating [3 marks]
and the pattern due to the double slit.

The yellow light is made from two very similar wavelengths that produce two lines in
3e. The yellow light is made from two very similar wavelengths that produce two lines in [3 marks]
the spectrum of sodium. The wavelengths are 588.995 nm and 589.592 nm. These
two lines can just be resolved in the second-order spectrum of this diffraction grating. Determine
the beam width of the light incident on the diffraction grating.

A student is investigating a method to measure the mass of a wooden block by timing the period
of its oscillations on a spring.

4a. Describe the conditions required for an object to perform simple harmonic motion [2 marks]
(SHM).

A 0.52 kg mass performs simple harmonic motion with a period of 0.86 s when attached to the
A 0.52 kg mass performs simple harmonic motion with a period of 0.86 s when attached to the
spring. A wooden block attached to the same spring oscillates with a period of 0.74 s.

4b. Calculate the mass of the wooden block. [2 marks]

4c. In carrying out the experiment the student displaced the block horizontally by 4.8 cm [3 marks]
from the equilibrium position. Determine the total energy in the oscillation of the
wooden block.

4d. A second identical spring is placed in parallel and the experiment in (b) is repeated. [3 marks]
Suggest how this change affects the fractional uncertainty in the mass of the block.
With the block stationary a longitudinal wave is made to travel through the original spring from
left to right. The diagram shows the variation with distance x of the displacement y of the coils of
the spring at an instant of time.

A point on the graph has been labelled that represents a point P on the spring.

4e. State the direction of motion of P on the spring. [1 mark]

4f. Explain whether P is at the centre of a compression or the centre of a rarefaction. [2 marks]

5a. Outline the conditions necessary for simple harmonic motion (SHM) to occur. [2 marks]
A buoy, floating in a vertical tube, generates energy from the movement of water waves on the
surface of the sea. When the buoy moves up, a cable turns a generator on the sea bed
producing power. When the buoy moves down, the cable is wound in by a mechanism in the
generator and no power is produced.

The motion of the buoy can be assumed to be simple harmonic.

–1.
5b. A wave of amplitude 4.3 m and wavelength 35 m, moves with a speed of 3.4 m s [3 marks]
Calculate the maximum vertical speed of the buoy.

5c. Sketch a graph to show the variation with time of the generator output power. Label the[2 marks]
time axis with a suitable scale.
Water can be used in other ways to generate energy.

5d. Outline, with reference to energy changes, the operation of a pumped [2 marks]
storage hydroelectric system.

5e. The water in a particular pumped storage hydroelectric system falls a vertical distance [2 marks]
of 270 m to the turbines. Calculate the speed at which water arrives at the turbines.
Assume that there is no energy loss in the system.

5f. The hydroelectric system has four 250 MW generators. Determine the maximum time [2 marks]
for which the hydroelectric system can maintain full output when a mass of 1.5 x 1010
kg of water passes through the turbines.

Not all the stored energy can be retrieved because of energy losses in the
5g. Not all the stored energy can be retrieved because of energy losses in the [2 marks]
system. Explain two such losses.

A student investigates how light can be used to measure the speed of a toy train.
A student investigates how light can be used to measure the speed of a toy train.

Light from a laser is incident on a double slit. The light from the slits is detected by a light
sensor attached to the train.
The graph shows the variation with time of the output voltage from the light sensor as the train
moves parallel to the slits. The output voltage is proportional to the intensity of light incident on
the sensor.

6a. Explain, with reference to the light passing through the slits, why a series of voltage [3 marks]
peaks occurs.

The slits are separated by 1.5 mm and the laser light has a wavelength of 6.3 x 10 –7 m.
6b. The slits are separated by 1.5 mm and the laser light has a wavelength of 6.3 x 10 –7 m. [1 mark]
The slits are 5.0 m from the train track. Calculate the separation between two adjacent
positions of the train when the output voltage is at a maximum.

6c. Estimate the speed of the train. [2 marks]

A student investigates how light can be used to measure the speed of a toy train.

Light from a laser is incident on a double slit. The light from the slits is detected by a light
sensor attached to the train.
The graph shows the variation with time of the output voltage from the light sensor as the train
moves parallel to the slits. The output voltage is proportional to the intensity of light incident on
the sensor.
As the train continues to move, the first diffraction minimum is observed when the light sensor is
at a distance of 0.13 m from the centre of the fringe pattern.

6d. Determine the width of one of the slits. [2 marks]

Suggest the variation in the output voltage from the light sensor that will be observed
6e. Suggest the variation in the output voltage from the light sensor that will be observed [2 marks]
as the train moves beyond the first diffraction minimum.

In another experiment the student replaces the light sensor with a sound sensor. The
6f. In another experiment the student replaces the light sensor with a sound sensor. The [2 marks]
train travels away from a loudspeaker that is emitting sound waves of
constant amplitude and frequency towards a reflecting barrier.

The graph shows the variation with time of the output voltage from the sounds sensor.

Explain how this effect arises.

Police use radar to detect speeding cars. A police officer stands at the side of the road
7a. Police use radar to detect speeding cars. A police officer stands at the side of the road [6 marks]
and points a radar device at an approaching car. The device emits microwaves which
reflect off the car and return to the device. A change in frequency between the emitted and
received microwaves is measured at the radar device.
The frequency change Δf is given by

2fv
Δf =
c
where f is the transmitter frequency, v is the speed of the car and c is the wave speed.
The following data are available.
Transmitter frequency f = 40 GHz Δf = 9.5 kHz Maximum speed allowed = 28 m s–1

(i) Explain the reason for the frequency change.


(ii) Suggest why there is a factor of 2 in the frequency-change equation.
(iii) Determine whether the speed of the car is below the maximum speed allowed.

Airports use radar to track the position of aircraft. The waves are reflected from the
7b. Airports use radar to track the position of aircraft. The waves are reflected from the [2 marks]
aircraft and detected by a large circular receiver. The receiver must be able to resolve
the radar images of two aircraft flying close to each other.
The following data are available.
Diameter of circular radar receiver = 9.3 m Wavelength of radar = 2.5 cm Distance of two
aircraft from the airport = 31 km

Calculate the minimum distance between the two aircraft when their images can just be
resolved.

Monochromatic light is incident normally on four thin, parallel, rectangular slits.


Monochromatic light is incident normally on four thin, parallel, rectangular slits.

The graph shows the variation with diffraction angle θ of the intensity of light I at a distant
screen.

I0 is the intensity of the light at the middle of the screen from one slit.

8a. Explain why the intensity of light at θ=0 is 16I0. [3 marks]

The width of each slit is 1.0µm. Use the graph to


8b. The width of each slit is 1.0µm. Use the graph to [4 marks]
(i) estimate the wavelength of light.
(ii) determine the separation of two consecutive slits.

8c. The arrangement is modified so that the number of slits becomes very large. Their [4 marks]
separation and width stay the same.
(i) State two changes to the graph on page 20 as a result of these modifications.
(ii) A diffraction grating is used to resolve two lines in the spectrum of sodium in the second
order. The two lines have wavelengths 588.995nm and 589.592nm.
Determine the minimum number of slits in the grating that will enable the two lines to be
resolved.

A longitudinal wave is travelling in a medium from left to right. The graph shows the variation
A longitudinal wave is travelling in a medium from left to right. The graph shows the variation
with distance x of the displacement y of the particles in the medium. The solid line and the
dotted line show the displacement at t=0 and t=0.882 ms, respectively.

The period of the wave is greater than 0.882 ms. A displacement to the right of the equilibrium
position is positive.

9a. (i) Calculate the speed of this wave. [4 marks]


(ii) Show that the angular frequency of oscillations of a particle in the medium
is ω=1.3×103rads−1.

One particle in the medium has its equilibrium position at x=1.00 m.


9b. One particle in the medium has its equilibrium position at x=1.00 m. [4 marks]
(i) State and explain the direction of motion for this particle at t=0.
(ii) Show that the speed of this particle at t=0.882 ms is 4.9ms −1.

The travelling wave in (b) is directed at the open end of a tube of length 1.20 m. The
9c. The travelling wave in (b) is directed at the open end of a tube of length 1.20 m. The [3 marks]
other end of the tube is closed.
(i) Describe how a standing wave is formed.
(ii) Demonstrate, using a calculation, that a standing wave will be established in this tube.

© International Baccalaureate Organization 2019


International Baccalaureate® - Baccalauréat International® - Bachillerato Internacional®

Printed for Concordian International School


Topic 9: Wave phenomena

1. The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of a particle undergoing simple
harmonic motion.

Which graph correctly shows the variation with time t of the acceleration a of the particle?

(1)

2. The phenomenon of diffraction is associated with

A. sound waves only.

B. light waves only.

C. water waves only.

D. all waves.
(1)

3. The diagram below shows the arrangement for a Young’s double slit experiment.
single slit double slit

S1

monochromatic light source S

S2

The function of the single slit is

A. to direct the light towards S1 and S2.

B. to ensure equal intensities of light at S1 and S2.

C. to produce coherent light at S1 and S2.

D. to reduce the intensity of light at S1 and S2.


1
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
(1)

4. The waves from two light sources meet at a point. Which condition is essential for interference to be
observed?

A. Constant phase difference between the waves

B. Equal amplitude of the waves

C. Equal frequency of the waves

D. Equal intensities of the waves


(1)

5. Light from a double slit arrangement produces bright and dark fringes on a screen in the region near point
P, as indicated below.

P
coherent
light

double slit screen


not to scale

The light from the two slits has equal amplitudes on reaching point P.

Which one of the following gives the change, if any, in the appearance of the bright and the dark fringes
when the amplitude of the light wave from one slit is reduced?

Bright fringes Dark fringes

A. Remains the same Remains the same

B. Becomes less bright Remains the same

C. Becomes less bright Becomes more bright

D. Remains the same Becomes more bright


(1)

6. Water waves of wavelength 2.0 m are produced by two sources S1 and S2. The sources vibrate in phase.

S1 S2

1m 3m

Point P is 1 m from S1 and 3 m from S2. S1 alone and S2 alone each produce a wave of amplitude a at P.
Which one of the following is the amplitude of the resultant wave at point P when S1 and S2 are both
emitting waves?

A. 2a B. a

1
C. a D. Zero
2
(1)
2
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
7. Which of the following is a correct description of the Doppler effect?

A. Change in frequency of light due to motion of the source of light.

B. Change in frequency of light due to relative motion between the source of light and the observer.

C. Change in observed frequency of light due to relative motion between the source of light and the
observer.

D. Change in observed frequency of light due to change in velocity of the source of light.
(1)

8. Which one of the following diagrams best represents wavefronts produced by a source of sound of
constant frequency as it moves at constant speed towards a stationary observer at O?

A. B.

O O

C. D.

O O

(1)

9. A source of sound moves directly towards a stationary observer. The frequency of the sound detected by
the observer is different from the source frequency because

A. the loudness of the sound increases as the source moves towards the observer.

B. the apparent wavelength of the sound is longer.

C. the speed of sound relative to the observer is increased.

D. the apparent wavelength of the sound is shorter.


(1)

10. A source of sound emits waves of wavelength λ, period T and speed v when at rest. The source moves
away from a stationary observer at speed V, relative to the observer. The wavelength of the sound waves,
as measured by the observer is

A. λ + vT.

B. λ – vT.

C. λ +VT.

D. λ – VT.
(1)

3
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
11. A sound emitting source moves along a straight line with speed v relative to an observer at rest.

Observer

The speed of sound relative to the medium is c. The observer measures the speed of sound emitted by the
source as

A. c.

B. c + v.

C. c – v.

D. v – c.
(1)

12. A stationary source emits sound of frequency f0. An observer is moving towards the source at constant
speed along the path indicated by the dotted line. The observer passes very close to the source at time T.

stationary source

observer

Which one of the following graphs best shows the variation with time t of the frequency f heard by the
observer?

A. f B. f

f0 f0

T t T t

C. f D. f

f0 f0

T t T t
(1)

4
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
13. Two binary stars emit radio waves of wavelength 6.0 × 10−2 m. The waves are received by a radio
telescope whose collecting dish has a diameter of 120 m. The two stars are just resolved if their
minimum angular separation in radians is of the order of

A. 2 × 104.

B. 2 × 102.

C. 5 × 10–2.

D. 5 × 10–4.
(1)

Short answer questions.

14. Simple harmonic motion

(a) A body is displaced from equilibrium. State the two conditions necessary for the body to execute
simple harmonic motion.

1. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

2. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) In a simple model of a methane molecule, a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom can be regarded as
two masses attached by a spring. A hydrogen atom is much less massive than the carbon atom such
that any displacement of the carbon atom may be ignored.

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x from its equilibrium
position of a hydrogen atom in a molecule of methane.

The mass of hydrogen atom is 1.7 × 10–27 kg. Use data from the graph above

(i) to determine its amplitude of oscillation.

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

5
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
(ii) to show that the frequency of its oscillation is 9.1 × 1013 Hz.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) to show that the maximum kinetic energy of the hydrogen atom is 6.2 × 10–18 J.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) On the grid below, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the speed v of the hydrogen
atom for one period of oscillation starting at t = 0. (There is no need to add values to the speed
axis.)

(3)

(d) Assuming that the motion of the hydrogen atom is simple harmonic, its frequency of oscillation f is
given by the expression

1 k
f ,
2 mp

where k is the force per unit displacement between a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom and mp is
the mass of a proton.

(i) Show that the value of k is approximately 560 N m–1.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Estimate, using your answer to (d)(i), the maximum acceleration of the hydrogen atom.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(Total 13 marks)
6
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
15. This question is about diffraction.

Plane wavefronts of monochromatic light of wavelength  are incident on a rectangular slit of width b.
After passing through the slit, the light is brought to a focus on a screen distance D from the slit as shown
below. The width of the slit is comparable to the wavelength of the incident light and b  D. The point P
on the screen is opposite the centre of the slit.

b P

D
slit

screen

The sketch graph below shows that the variation with angle  of the intensity of the light on the screen.
intensity

 

(a) Explain qualitatively, this intensity distribution.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) The angle  =  is the angular half-width of the central maximum of the intensity distribution and
λ
is given by the expression  = . Derive an expression in terms of D,  and b for the half-width d
b
of the central maximum.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

7
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
(c) The single slit is replaced by two rectangular slits of width b. The distance between the centre of
the slits is equal to 2b.

On the axes below, draw a sketch of the intensity distribution on the screen. (The intensity
distribution of a single slit is shown by the dotted line.)

intensity

 
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

16. This question is about the interference of waves.

(a) State the principle of superposition.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

A wire is stretched between two points A and B.

A B

A standing wave is set up in the wire. This wave can be thought of as being made up from the
superposition of two waves, a wave X travelling from A to B and a wave Y travelling from B to A. At
one particular instant in time, the displacement of the wire is as shown. A background grid is given for
reference and the equilibrium position of the wire is shown as a dotted line.

A B

8
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
(b) On the grids below, draw the displacement of the wire due to wave X and wave Y.

Wave X

A B

Wave Y

A B

(4)

The diagram below shows an arrangement (not to scale) for observing the interference pattern produced
by the superposition of two light waves.

S1

monochromatic
light source S O

S2

single slit

double slit Screen

S1 and S2 are two very narrow slits. The single slit S ensures that the light leaving the slits S1 and S2 is
coherent.

(c) (i) Define coherent.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

9
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
(ii) Explain why the slits S1 and S2 need to be very narrow.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

17. This question is about resolution.

(a) State the Rayleigh criterion for the images of two point sources to be just resolved.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

A man is walking along a straight path at night towards two light sources as shown below.

light
sources

path man
not drawn to scale

When the man is 150 m from the sources, the images of the two sources are just resolved by his eye. The
wavelength of the light from each source is 590 nm and the diameter of the aperture of his eye is 5.0 mm.

(b) Estimate the distance between the two sources.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)
18. This question is about the Doppler effect.

The diagram below shows wavefronts produced by a stationary wave source S. The spacing of the
wavefronts is equal to the wavelength of the waves. The wavefronts travel with speed V.

10
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
1
(a) The source S now moves to the right with speed V. In the space below, draw four successive
2
wavefronts to show the pattern of waves produced by the moving source.

(3)

(b) Derive the Doppler formula for the observed frequency f0 of a sound source, as heard by a
stationary observer, when the source approaches the stationary observer with speed v. The speed of
sound is V and the frequency of the sound emitted by the source is f.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

The Sun rotates about its centre. The light from one edge of the Sun, as seen by a stationary observer,
shows a Doppler shift of 0.004 nm for light of wavelength 600.000 nm.

(c) Assuming that the Doppler formula for sound may be used for light, estimate the linear speed of a
point on the surface of the Sun due to its rotation.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

19. A student uses a diffraction grating to view the visible part of the sodium emission spectrum.

(a) Explain how the diffraction grating is able to separate light into component wavelengths.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Sodium light is incident normally on a grating having 6000 lines per centimetre. Calculate the
angle at which light of wavelength 589.6 nm will be seen in the first order spectrum.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

11
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
20. Monochromatic parallel light is incident on two slits of equal width and close together. After passing
through the slits, the light is brought to a focus on a screen. The diagram below shows the intensity
distribution of the light on the screen.

A B distance along the screen

(a) Light from the same source is incident on many slits of the same width as the widths of the slits
above. Draw on the above diagram, a possible new intensity distribution of the light on the screen
between the points A and B on the screen.
(2)

A parallel beam of light of wavelength 450 nm is incident at right angles on a diffraction grating. The slit
spacing of the diffraction grating is 1.25 × 10–6 m.

(b) Determine the angle between the central maximum and first order principal maximum formed by
the grating.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

21. This question is about thin film interference.

Monochromatic light is incident on a thin film of transparent plastic as shown below.

monochromatic A B
light
film

The plastic film is in air.

Light is partially reflected at both surface A and surface B of the film.

(a) State the phase change that occurs when light is reflected from

(i) surface A;

.........................................................................................................................
(1)
12
Topic 9: Wave phenomena
(ii) surface B.

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

The light incident on the plastic has a wavelength of 620 nm. The refractive index of the plastic is 1.4.

(b) Calculate the minimum thickness of the film for the light reflected from surface A and surface B to
undergo destructive interference.

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(3)
(Total 5 marks)

22. This question is about thin film interference.

A thin film of colourless oil floats on water. Light is reflected from the upper and the lower surfaces of
the film as shown below. observer

ray A ray B

The refractive index for light in the oil is greater than the
refractive index for light in the air. air
The refractive index for light in the oil is less than the
refractive index for light in the water. oil d

The light has wavelength  in the oil. water

(a) State, in terms of , a value for the thickness d that


causes rays A and B to interfere destructively when viewed as shown. Assume that the incident
light is approximately normal to the film. Explain your answer.

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(3)

(b) White light is now incident on the oil film. Explain why, for one thickness d of the oil film, the
film appears to have a purple (magenta) colour.

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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

13