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Application of the Karhunen-Loeve Transform for Natural Color Images Analysis

R.K. Kouassi

J.C. Devaux

P. Gouton

M. Paindavoine

Laboratoire d’Electronique, d’Informatique et d’Image

Universit4 de Bourgogne

BP400 21011 Dijon Cedex FRANCE

Abstract

The current systems of images capture are based on Red, Green and Blue (R,G,B) principles. But,this model of capturing color zmages is different from hu- man visual system. So, to obtain a representation which approaches the human system, one uses the in- tensaty and chrominance space. As this representa- tion zs non-lanear, it introduces an instability of color. Thus, to analyze natural color images, we use the Karhunen-Loeue space, which allows a largest decorre- lution of color components, a best definition of colors a,nd a compression ratio increasing for very homoge- neous images.

1

Introduction

The calculation of correlation coefficients and the spatial representation of color images allow us to establish a comparative study between RGB (Red, Green, Blue), HSI (Hue, Saturation, Intensity) and I<L (Karhunen-Loeve) spaces. In fact, color images olitained from current acquisition systems (RGB) give a. mixture of colors and intensity which prevents to analyze them separately. It is possible to reduce the correlation between the color components by using the HSI space. As the HSI transformation is non-linear, the inverse transformation does not allow to find ini- tial colors. The KL transform exists since some years. Thanks to the computers performance, the use of the KL

transform is interesting for color images analysis. This transform produces a new three-dimensional and or- thogonal space with interesting properties for the anal- ysis of color images. This space gives an optimal spa- tial representation of natural color images.

In the first part, we

introduce

Then,

the second part is based on the properties of corre-

convert RGB space into HSI and KL spaces.

the basic transformations which allow to

This paper has three parts.

1058-6393/98 $10.00 0 1998 IEEE

lation between color components and storage of color images. Finally, in the last part, we propose to anal- yse the properties of color in some approximation of KL transform. This study is based on eight kinds of natural color images.

2 Transformation from RGB space to HSI and KL spaces

2.1 Transformation from RGB to HSI

This transformation needs two parts [l].The first one consists in separating the intensity and the color data of a color ima.ge. This operation is obtained by the following matrix :

1

-31

z

-A

2

Y is the intensity (I) axis, C1 and C2 are the axis which define the color. The second part expresses the color by its Hue (H) and its Saturation (S).

S=Jm

If S = 0 then H

Else {

if G > B

if G < B

= 0

H = arccos

H = 2II - arccos

9

C1

s

2.2 Transformation from RGB to KL

The vectorial relationship that allows to define the

KL

are respectively the “original color image vector” , the mean vector of the“origina1 color image”, the trans-

formation matrix and the transformed vector [a].

space is : K = A(I - ml) where I, ml, A and K

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CRGB=

~RR$RG

~GR~GG~GB

~BR~BG~BB

~RB

Table 1: Mean correlation coefficients

The analysis of the table shows that the compo- nents of the images are very correlated in the RGB space (the values are closed to the unit). In the HSI space, the correlation coefficients are lower and we ob- tain a quasi total non-correlation with the KL space.

3.2 Storage of color images in KL space

We express in the table 2 bellow the ratios of the volume occupied by each image in RGB space to its volume in KL space.

IVolume KL I T I E,(%)

Parrots

Planes

Woman

1 SDheres

I-

I

13.1x IO6

,

I

3.2 x

lo6

I

2.6 x

lo6

I

45.3 x lo6

I

I 0.86

1

I

0.19 I

0.16

I

I 2.73

I

I

I

Table 2: Volume ratios

5.73

9.54

3.72

13.30

I

I

T represents this ratio. E, represents the mean quadratic error between the original color image and the color image obtained after the compression in the KL space.

The analysis of the table 2 shows that it is possible to reduce the volume of spatial representation by using the KL space. We explain the decrease by a concen- tration of data around the two main axes (liL1, KLa) of the KL space [4]. These results are very interest- ing and allow to do compression on images. Indeed, one pixel of color image is initially coded on 24 bits in the space RGB. In the KL space, this number of bits can be reduced without debasing the initial color quality. Here, we have fixed the total number at 19 bits to represent one pixel in the KL space, that gives a compression ratio of 20 %. In some cases, this num- ber can be decreased to obtain acceptable compression ratio between 20% and 30%.

In the next pages, we present, on the left column, original color images and, on the right one, the color images obtained after compression. These samples show that the compression of color images in the KL space is interesting : the quality of colors after com- pression is nearly the same to the initial quality for natural color images.

For the image ”SPHERES”, the KL transform leads to an expansion of color. This result explains the im- portance of the mean quadratic error obtained on this

image (13.3%).

As for the image “PLANES”, we obtain a quadratic error of 9.54% what is high for an image, that seems to be visually homogeneous, with very few colors. We can explain this result by the fact that colors in this image are spatially distant (Blue is far from White and Black, even far from White). For colors that are spatially distant, the color compression is not possible by KL transform.

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Parrots

Parrots after compression

Planes

Planes after compression

Woman

Woman after compression

House

House after compression

Lighthouse

Lighthouse after compression

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Pond

Mountains

Spheres

Put asides these exceptions, the compression of the color images in the KL space gives very good results for the images of our study.

4 Approximation of the KL space to study natural color images

This part presents the approximation of the KL transform. In fact, some linear transforms (as discret Fourier transform, Hadamar transform, Haar trans- form, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) or Discrete Even Sine Transform (DEST)) are approximations of the I<L transform for decorrelation between the com- ponents of color image. But, these approximations are interesting only for stationary color images. For this study, we just treat DCT and DEST trans- forms.

4.1 Theory of the approximation

of the

KL space

The main difficulty introduced by KL transform, is the necessity to compute the transformation ma- trix and the eigenvectors of covariance matrix for each

Pond after compression

Mountains after compression

Spheres after compression

To accelerate the processing, it is nec-

essary to know a transformation matrix for all color

images.

The approximation of the KI, transform by linear

transforms, which derived from Fourier tranform, is

well-known [5]. We analysis.

extend results in the case of color

color image.

DCT is given by the next relationship :

A

1

-

u3 - JN

- for

U = 1 and j

A,j

= Gcos( ('j

-

2N - 1')'

and j

= 1,

,N

= 1,

,N

for

U = 2,

,

N

DEST is given by the next relationship :

Auj = Gsin(I-)

for U = 1,

,

N -

1 and

J

= 1,

,

N

A,j

These relationships allow to construct simply the transformation matrix (eigenvectors matrix of covari- ance matrix in the KL transform). We obtain thus

= &sin(-)

for U = N and j

= 1,

,

N

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three orthogonal vectors that define the three images plans (the components of the color image in the new space), that one can compare to the three images de-

fined by the three KL axes.

components: A,j with U = 1,2,3and j = 1,2,3.

4.2 Analysis of results

We just examine for KL approximation, natural and homogeneous images (with mean quadratic errors inferior to 6%). Thus, by computing the coefficients of correlation between components in DCT and DEST spaces, we obtain tables 3 and 4.

Each vect,ors has three

Parrots

0.02

14 x lo6

Woman

0.51

6.3 x

lo6

House

0.07

6.1 x

lo6

Lighthouse

0.28

2.9 x

lo6

Pond

0.47

1.7 x

lo6

tXGmntains j 0.20

j

5.6 x lo6

0.860

0.384

0.370

0.180

0.120

1 0.340 1

I

Table 3:Coefficients of correlation in DCT space

DEST

1

4

I VolumeDEST 1

T

Parrots

1 0.141

 

1.7 x

lo6

I 1.00

 

8.7 x 10

House

9.0 x 10

7.0 x

10

Pond

5.3 x

10

Mountains

1 0.32

I

11.4 x lo6

[

0.67

Table 4: Coefficients of correlation in DEST space

4 and T represent respectively the mean correla- tion coefficient between components and the ratio of the volume of the image in the DCT or DEST spaces by its volume in the RGB space. These results confirm the previous analysis in the approximation of the KL space for homogeneous and natural color images. Coefficients of correlation are weak as well as volumic ratios. By comparing these two tables, we can see that DCT space approximate better the KL space, than the DEST space.

5

Conclusion

This study shows properties of non-correlation and storage of data by using the KL space rather than RGB or HSI spaces. In HSI space, we can not differ- entiate Red and Black in the Hue component. So, the KL space is important for the compression of color images. However, it is necessary to specify that re- sults, on the compression, have been obtained for a compression ratio of 20%. But, it is possible, in some cases, to increase the ratio to 30%, specially when im- ages present very few colors and when these colors are spatially neared. One can use an approximation of the KL space by DCT or DEST spaces with natural homogeneous color images. In order to improve this method, we are now exper- imenting the multiresolution approach.

References

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approche

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Savoie, France, 1995.

la base Teinte-Luminance-Saturation :

[a]I.A. Ocadiz Luna, Analyse en composantes prin- cipales d’une image couleur, Thkse de 1’UniversitP:

de Grenoble, France, 1985.

[3] M. Kunt, Traitement nume‘rique des images, Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Roman- des, collection Glectriciti, v01.2, 1993.

[4] A. Brun Buisson, V. Lattuati, D. Lemoine, “Prksegmentation d’images couleur par la trans- formke de Karhunen-Loeve,” Quartozrhme Col- loque GRETSI, Juan-les-Pins, pp. 743-746, 1993.

[5] M. Unser, “On the approximation of the dis- crete Karhunen-Loeve transform for stationary

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pp. 743-746, 1984.

Szgnal

Proccsszng Laboratoty,Vol. 7,

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