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Phishing: Web Forgery (also known as “Phishing”) is a form of identity theft that
occurs when a malicious Web site impersonates a legitimate one in order to trick you
into giving up sensitive information such as passwords, account details, or credit card
numbers. Phishing attacks usually come from email messages that attempt to lure
the recipient into updating their personal information on fake, but very real looking,
Web sites. In the field of computer security, phishing is the criminally fraudulent
process of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords
and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic
communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites,
auction sites, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to
lure the unsuspecting public. Phishing is typically carried out by e-mail or instant
messaging,[1] and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose look
and feel are almost identical to the legitimate one. Phishing is a technique used to
gain personal information for purposes of identity theft, using fraudulent e-mail
messages that appear to come from legitimate businesses. These authentic-looking
messages are designed to fool recipients into divulging personal data such as
account numbers and passwords, credit card numbers and Social Security numbers.

2. Skimming: Skimming is the theft of credit card information used in an otherwise

legitimate transaction. It is typically an "inside job" by a dishonest employee of a
legitimate merchant. The thief can procure a victim’s credit card number using basic
methods such as photocopying receipts or more advanced methods such as using a
small electronic device (skimmer) to swipe and store hundreds of victims’ credit card
numbers. Common scenarios for skimming are restaurants or bars where the
skimmer has possession of the victim's credit card out of their immediate view. The
thief may also use a small keypad to unobtrusively transcribe the 3 or 4 digits Card
Security Code which is not present on the magnetic strip. Instances of skimming have
been reported where the perpetrator has put a device over the card slot of an ATM
(automated teller machine), which reads the magnetic strip as the user unknowingly
passes their card through it. These devices are often used in conjunction with a
pinhole camera to read the user's PIN at the same time. This method is being used
very frequently in many parts of the world, including South America, e.g. in Argentina
and Europe, e.g. in the Netherlands. Another technique used is a keypad overlay that
matches up with the buttons of the legitimate keypad below it and presses them
when operated, but records or transmits the key log of the PIN number entered by
wireless. The device or group of devices illicitly installed on an ATM are also
colloquially known as a "skimmer". Recently-made ATMs now often run a picture of
what the slot and keypad are supposed to look like as a background, so that
consumers can identify foreign devices attached. Skimming is difficult for the typical
cardholder to detect, but given a large enough sample, it is fairly easy for the card
issuer to detect. The issuer collects a list of all the cardholders who have complained
about fraudulent transactions, and then uses data mining to discover relationships
among them and the merchants they use. For example, if many of the cardholders
use a particular merchant , that merchant can be directly investigated. Sophisticated
algorithms can also search for patterns of fraud. Merchants must ensure the physical
security of their terminals, and penalties for merchants can be severe if they are
compromised, ranging from large fines by the issuer to complete exclusion from the
system, which can be a death blow to businesses such as restaurants where credit
card transactions are the norm.
3. Carding is a term used for a process to verify the validity of stolen card data. The
thief presents the card information on a website that has real-time transaction
processing. If the card is processed successfully, the thief knows that the card is still
good. The specific item purchased is immaterial, and the thief does not need to
purchase an actual product; a Web site subscription or charitable donation would be
sufficient. The purchase is usually for a small monetary amount, both to avoid using
the card's credit limit, and also to avoid attracting the card issuer's attention. A
website known to be susceptible to carding is known as a cardable website.

4. VISHING: Vishing is the criminal practice of using social engineering over the
telephone system, most often using features facilitated by Voice over IP (VoIP), to
gain access to private personal and financial information from the public for the
purpose of financial reward. The term is a combination of "voice" and phishing.
Vishing exploits the public's trust in landline telephone services, which have
traditionally terminated in physical locations known to the telephone company, and
associated with a bill-payer. The victim is often unaware that VoIP makes formerly
difficult-to-abuse tools/features of caller ID spoofing, complex automated systems
(IVR), low cost, and anonymity for the bill-payer widely available. Vishing is typically
used to steal credit card numbers or other information used in identity theft schemes
from individuals.The typical vishing scam makes use of Voice over Internet protocol
(VoIP), which allows people to talk over their computer lines, and can allow for
multiple dialings of numbers at the same time. Scammers may work from a list of
regional phone numbers or even from a phone book, but what they mainly do is call
everyone they can and leave an automated message saying the person’s credit card
or bank account has been compromised, depleted or closed. When this process is
done by email it’s called phishing, instead of vishing

13. Neologism: - A Neologism (neos 'new') + (logos 'speech') is a newly coined

word or phrase Neologisms (are often created by combining existing words) that may
be in the process of entering common use, but has not yet been accepted into
mainstream language. Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person,
publication, period, or event.

14. Synonyms: - are different words with almost identical or similar meanings.
Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a
synonym is called synonymy. For e.g. Student & Pupil are synonyms.