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This chapter includes the review of related literature and studies which are significant and relevant to
the study.

Related Literature
Amita Legaspi (2004) discussed in her article that the unavailability of learning materials
is just one of the problems still hounding the country’s new basic education program, K to 12, in
the three years of its implementation.
Yen Paunan, a Grade 7 Filipino teacher at Caloocan High School, said they are utilizing
“Kayumanggi,” a textbook used in the previous curriculum, in their classes due to the absence
of reference materials from DepEd.
“Mga three years na ang K to 12 this school year pero kulang parin sa mga need ng
mga bata like books na akma sa curriculum. Sa Filipino, ang nagiging reference namen ay
workbook,” the teacher for 11 years told GMA News Online.

According to Dona Z. Pazzibugan, A quarter of the Philippines’ nearly 100 million

population are students-some 21 million of them enrolled in more than 46,000 public schools
and the rest in private facilities, according to statistics from the Department of Education
(DepEd) for the school year 2011-12. (Figures from the last school year remain unavailable.)
On May 15, President Aquino signed into law the program mandating Filipino pupils to
attend kindergarten, six years of elementary school education, four years of junior high school
and two years of senior high school. The signing officially ended the country’s 10-years basic
education cycle, which now exists only in Angola and Djibouti.

New learning materials under revised curriculum for grade two and grade eight (formerly second
year high school ) will again be delivered late, as in last year when the K + 12 program was rolled out. As
in the previous year , teachers did not have enough time prepare. They only had a five-day mass training
just before the start of classes.

Still, this second year of the program’s implementation should be better as the DepEd gains
experience, said Armin Luistro, the education secretary and former president of Dela Salle University, in
a recent interview.

“It’s not generally understood and quite hard to explain that the K to 12 is a curriculum reform that
involves changes in textbooks, changes classrooms, retooling of teachers, etc.,” said Luistro .”Even of
there is no K to 12, we have to address the backlog in classrooms, toilets, teachers, etc.”


Julia Tab oh (2015) stated in her article “Lack of materials Hinders Student Success”, stated that
According to the Global Partnership for Education, education is one of the most important investments a
country can make in its people and its future. With this is mind , it’s no wonder the government and
many people and positions of power stress the importants of making sure that American children get an
education, and the phrase “Stay in School” has been repeated several times by various celebrities.As
much as its importance is stressed, however, one cannot receive a proper education without the right
resources. Getting the suitable materials means having adequate funding, which many schools lack due
to governmental budget cuts. In Meredith Broussard’s article, “Why Poor Schools Can’t Win at
Standardized Testing,” she addresses the lack of proper funding which results in the lack of resources in
Philadelphia public schools that students need to succeed . This is an issue that is all too common among
many schools in the nation but is continuously overlooked. While Broussard uses statistics , facts, and
numbers to prove the lack physical .material in schools, she doesn’t emphasize enough the lack of
manpower that also helps the school move forward and students get the proper education.

Account to Kaufhold et al., Current studies of stress in special education teachers indicated that a
main component of this stress was frustration due to lack of materials. A statement from a teacher
surveyed by researchers MacDonald and Spence substantiated this point. This teacher stated:

I did not have an adequate supply of textbooks, teacher’s manuals or basic consumable materials. The
computer in my classroom was better suited for a museum than for instructions. I spent a lot of personal
time soliciting donations from retail business that carried school supplies.”

Educational researchers Able and Sewell reported the same conditions in a similar study. These
writers concluded, “A reported source of teacher stress included financial constraints and a lack of
educational supplies.” In addition, they found that special education teachers often had to support their
own classroom by purchasing supplies, materials, audiovisual aids plus computer software. (Able and

Brittany Johnson (2012), I interviewed a school teacher who discussed the daily effects on students from
the lack of school supplies. She has given me a list of certain topic with brief explanation. The main
direct problem is that the students have to share everything. It takes longer to teach a 30 minutes lesson
because we have to pass around the books and other resources as we go. Sometimes, we have to break
up into small groups and teach the same lesson a few different times. Small groups are great for children
to learn, but they also need to be taught in a whole group. The students need to learn how to act, react,
participate in whole group discussion. This problem takes more learning time away from the lass as
whole and results in not getting through all of the materials.

Related Studies


With respects to teacher, school facilities affect teacher recruitment, retention, commitment, and
effort. With respect to students, school facilities affect health, behavior, engagement, learning, and
growth in achievement. Thus researchers generally conclude that without adequate facilities resources,
it is extremely difficult to serve large numbers of children with complex needs.

According to the US General Accounting Office (GAO) almost three-fourths of existing US schools
in 1996 was constructed before 1970. Of these schools, about one-third of schools had need of
extensive repair or replace or replacement and almost two-thirds had at least one inadequate building
feature such as substandard plumbing, roofing, or electrical systems. Moreover, 58-percent had at least
one unsatisfactory environmental condition such as inadequate ventilation, acoustic, or physical

Thus, facility quality is an important predictor of teacher retention and students learning. The
physical and emotional health of student and teachers depend on the quality of the physical location,
which makes establishing safe, healthy building essential. (sites.PSU.educ.)

Mharjhay Dela Cruz stated in his study that lack of classroom materials has a big impact in the
process of Teaching and Learning. Through this problem teaching learning process will not become
productive and conductive. Classrooms lack basic materials that the teacher need. Many classroom lack
of enough books, art supplies and technology to provide same instruction.