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CONTENTS
FEATURES

LIGHT DATA COMMS REVIEW - FUZZY SET


Voice, data and video services at the end of every COMPARATOR 1054
telephone line? Richard Wilson of Electronics Neural networks in hardware can perform high
Weekly assesses the fibre comms developments in speed pattern recognition. Stephen Franks looks
the pipeline. at the latest in development systems for the PC.

OZONE FRIENDLY PROFIT? 1058


BUSY LINES 1039 With the ozone layer under attack, it is good to
Coherent lasers offer the prospect of optical know that the electronics industry is doing its hit to
broadcasting through frequency division multi- save the world.
plex. This might lead to a generation of telephones
which tune into an optical line in the same way INTERFACING WITH C 1066
that a radio tunes into a programme.

THE HOW? AND WHY? OF FDDI 1040


There is a twist in the optical fibres: copper DISTORTING POWER SUPPLIES 1084
á systems can use the 100Mhit/s FDDI chip technol- Audio intermodulation distortion can arise from
ogy developed for optical systems. This guarantees poor power supply rejection, says Greg Ball.
d widespread adoption of the protocol.
PIONEERS 1090
OPTICAL MAN -POWER 1042 Walter Schottky, man of harriers, defects, emis-
The asynchronous transfer mode makes the hest sion, diodes and noise.
use of broadband fibres by allowing the integration
of both wide and narrow band service in a single CFA: WORKING ASSUMPTION? 1094
digital optical network. This may deliver the Is it possible to synthesise the Poynting vector
technology to take optical fibres directly to your directly to make the world's smallest MF and I -IF
door. transmitting aerial? This seems to be - yes .. .

HARNESSING NEURAL NETWORKS 1047 REVIEW - BARGAIN BLOWING 1101


Neural networks are more than a laboratory A PC hooked up to a PLD/eprom programmer
curiosity. And commercial software can make life reduces programming costs. But is it cost effec-
easier for the programmer. tive? Brian Frost investigates.

REGULARS

COMMENT 1027 In next month's issue. Cúk - pronounced chook -


Teaching women a lesson
power conversion offers all the desirable features of
switched mode power supply technology without the
RESEARCH NOTES 1029 drawbacks. It combines high efficiency, low switching
Tuning into an earthquake, semiconductors for noise and low component count. In all, a much better
waste disposal, inverse squares and Venus power supply techno.ogy.
unveiled.

UPDATE 1034
New chips for simplest computer, movement on Magellan at Venus: p1032
static DAT, graphics processor hits 200mops.
HDTV at IBC, AM stereo for UK gets hearing.
APPLICATIONS 1061
Current feedback op -amp, motor drive IC, current
sources and sinks.

CIRCUIT IDEAS 1074

NEW PRODUCTS CLASSIFIED 1080


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RF CONNECTIONS 1107
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I 02 El ECTRO\ ICS wORLI) + \VI RECESS \\ ORLD December 199(1


COMMENT

Teaching women a lesson


CONSULTING EDITOR First the good news. Secretary of State degrees. It is not untypical for a year's
Philip Durrington
081-66/ 8632
for Education John MacGregor has intake of 61) students to include just
wrested a further £51111 million from the tour women. The fault for this, like
EDITOR Treasury to shore up the education everything else, rests Iirmly with the
Frank Ogden system. primary and secondary education
081-6613/28 The had news is that funding isn't a system. Sex discrimination lies at the
complete answer to the malaise which root of everything which is \\ rong in
DEPUTY EDITOR runs through schools and colleges. engineering education although it is 1w
.lonalhall Campbell Girls want to he vets. doctors and no means clear where the
081-661 8638 lawyers. Boys expect to he lawyers. discrimination starts.
doctors and vets. I lardly anyone- with The circular logic runs like this. The
ILLUSTRATION the exception of overseas students - vast majority of primary school
Roger Goodman
considers engineering as a worthy teachers are women who themselves
DESIGN & PRODUCTION profession. received an arts rather than science
Altar Kerr College lecturers working in based education. This promotes a firm
electronics and engineering link between gender and subject matter
EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION departments will tell you that their in the pupils they teach. It also implies
Lindsey Gardner immediate problems aren't connected that personal enthusiasm, so necessary
081-66136/4 with funding. This wasn't always the ill effective teaching. is more likely to
case. Economic constraints have forced be tilted towards arts than sciences.
ADVERTISEMENT MANAGER closure. The Physics Department at The secondary education system
Jan Thorpe
081-6613130
Bangor was compelled to auction its employs a greater percentage of men.
equipment and close down its mostly engaged for science and sports.
DISPLAY SALES MANAGER activities. UM 1ST, with a worldwide This simply serves to reinforce the link
Shona Finnie reputatioi for engineering technology between gender and occupation. Girls
081-66/ 8640 transfer, a powerhouse of innovation, quickly get the idea that engineering
had to implement savage cuts. Even so, science is not for them. Boys wishing to
ADVERTISEMENT ADMINISTRATION courses in physics. electronics and pursue engineering are unlikely to have
Karen Raines engineering remain unfilled. received a rigorous grounding in basic
081-6618649 The same university teachers will tell science from an arts based primary
you that UK course students who do school. It is hardly surprising that
ADVERTISING PRODUCTION
Melanie Green
apply for engineering courses engineering faculties don't see too
081-66/8469 habitually lack a proper foundation in many well qualified British students of
basic maths; they seldom possess an either gender.
PUBLISHER appreciation of calculus for instance. Since the universities produce so few

i.
Susan Downey Overseas students- typically around 25 women engineering science graduates.
081-6618452 per cent of intake - seem better there are correspondingly few available
equipped. to the primary education workforce.
FACSIMILE The basic education received in The logic wheel turns full circle.
081-66/ 8939 I long Kong, Singapore and other Far Engineering faculties are trying to
Eastern countries provides an help themselves by offering tour year
REED BUSINESS apparently excellent grounding for an courses: students spend the first year
not PUBLISHING
engineering degree. This student sector on foundation science and maths- the
GROUP
Fin-MOM, World 4 Wnrin, World
takes a disproportionate number of so called access course. The
is published monthly USPSN1754I1 By post.
current issue L2.25. hack issues Id ¡bailable) 12 511 Order and payment, to 333
FJry Cronin World A Works World. Quadrant House. The Quadrant. Sunup.
Firsts and Upper Seconds even though, Government, alarmed at the collapse
Surrey SM2 SAS Cheques should he madi payable to Read Business Publishing
Group Cdnorial ó Adserllning offices E1/TV Quadrant thane. The Quadrant.
in the opinion of their teachers, the of A Level science, has agreed to fund
Sutton. Surrey S312 SAS Telephones Ldnonal 1111íK,1 3614. Adrcnoos,
11h1ú61 3130. 1114661 4.469 Tries 4921144 RELO BP G (EEP)
sector's basic aptitude is no greater this in full. However, it cannot be a
0111-n614939 (Groups II fl 1111 Srwslrod, - Quadrant Publishing Setsn-o, No
11141-1911 32411 Subscription rates
1 50.0 (normal rate) (3) UK and 135 outside
than the British counterpart. In the complete answer.
UK Subscriptions: Quadrant Suhx'npnnn Sets ices. Oalhrld House.
I'rrrvmnunl Road. 11a5uards Heath. Susses RIllb 31)14 Telephone 11144 words of one lecturer, it is simply that There is only one solution. Science
+41212 Please notify a change of address I1n Sl lh dal airmail Recd Business
Pubinbing (USA). Subscriptions Office. 2115 1 42nd Street. NY 111117 the British students "like to spend must be taught more effectively at the
Ihrneas ad , rrlbtn agents: /ranee and Belerun, Pierre Slussard. 1r-2í1 Place
de la Madelei . Pans 75110h In lud Sta in al Amrrka. lay Fennman. Recd more time in the bar." lower education levels and without
Business Publbhmg Ltd. 2111 E 42nd Street. NY 111117 Telephone 1212)
467.2149). Telex 23427 USA mailing al4nla Mercury ~might International Female engineering undergraduates regard to gender.
I id. Inc.. BRIM Englehard Mc. ',send N 1 071111 2nd class postage pan' at
Rahway 5.1 Postmaster - send address to the aloe are even more scarce than decent Frank Ogden
© Reed Business Publishing Ltd 194.. ISSN 1)166-3244.

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD 1027


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CIRCLE NO. 126 ON REPLY CARD

1028 ELECTRONICS \WORLD + N"IRELESS \VORLD December 1990


RESEARCH NOTES

Tuning into an earthquake


It's hardly surprising to find the atmospheric signals reverberate mostly around 5Onts in duration, much
Japanese applying electronics to the art between the Earth and the ionosphere longer than the ills pulses normally
of earthquake prediction; they do, in a waveguide mode that generates associated with atmospheric phe-
after all, have more than their fair predominantly horizontal underground nomena. Examination of the chart
share of both. Until now though, the fields. A system responsive only to the recordings showed other similar exam-
performance of most systems has fallen vertical component was therefore ples of advance warning signals, often
far short of practical usefulness. From assumed to provide a useful degree of lO hours or more before following
memory, the best idea so far has discrimination. earthquake.
involved attaching a pair of croe. clips What Fujinawa and Takahashi did Unlike the experiments with potted
to a pot plant and measuring the was to install two electrodes, one an plants, this latest approach to earth-
potentials! insulated steel pipe 603m below the quake prediction has a very sound
The latest and somewhat more scien- surface and another a 40m diameter theoretical basis. Several laboratory
tific approach comes from the Japanese circle of earthed wire immediately experiments on rocks indicate that,
National Research Institute for Earth above the steel pipe and one metre prior to catastrophic fracture, numer-
Science and Disaster Prevention and below the surface. ous "microfractures" occur which cause
the Communications Research Labora- Electromagnetic signals were electron expulsion and positive charge
tory in Tokyo. It's based on the fre- recorded in the range 1-9kHz over a accumulation. The rate at which these
quent anecdotal reports over the last period of several months, during which microfractures open up then deter-
ten years of bursts of electromagnetic local seismometers recorded a number mines the character of the resulting
radiation preceding seismic or volcanic of sizeable earthquakes. There were electromagnetic radiation. The
activity. enough seismic and volcanic events to Japanese recordings show evidence
In their recent paper (Nanrre, Vol. slake possible a valid statistical com- both of intermittent radiation which
347, No 6291) Yokio Fujinawa and parison between the mechanical and they attribute to fracture of hard -
Kozo Takahashi explain how systema- electrical signals. crystal rocks and continuous radiation,
tic research has been hampered by high Perhaps the clearest example of pre- possibly from volcanic intrusion.
urban levels of noise, which effectively monitory radiation, shown in the Altogether, this new research indi-
drown any signals of seismic origin. figure, is where large bursts of ELF/ cates that it should he possible to
They therefore set about developing a VLF energy were detected six hours predict shallow earthquakes, reliably
novel electrode system to measure only before a magnitude 4.9 earthquake that several days in advance.
the vertical component of the under- took place 100km south-west of Tokyo Other monitoring stations are now
ground electric field in a deep bore- on 5th July, 1989. This anomalous being set up in Japan to increase
hole. This configuration, they say, is radiation consists of large pulses, reliability and also to open up the
very effective in reducing signals Radiation pattern before and after Tokyo possibility of precise source location
caused by lightning discharges and earthquake of July 5, 1989 at (a), using measurement of phase differ-
other atmospheric phenomena. Such compared with normal radiation. Picture ences between the stations.
by courtesy of Nature.

M4.9
a 4,5 July 1989
mV
15-
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December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD+WIRELESS WORLD 1029


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CIRCLE NO. 127 ON REPLY CARD


1030 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990
RESEARCH NOTES

Semiconductors for waste disposal


Chemists in Wales and the USA have is that, while ozone or bleach are very
found that it is possible to harness effective at destroying organic wastes.
semiconductors to break down organic they are also potentially dangerous or
waste and convert it into harmless unpleasant. Semiconductor waste dis-
by-products. The semiconductors in posal on the other hand is a relatively
question are based not on silicon or safe helping hand for some of the
exotic III -V compounds, but on a mechanisms by which chemicals break
humble everyday material, titanium down naturally in the environment.
dioxide. TiO2 is the white pigment At present, Sandia National Labor-
which now replaces lead compounds in atories in the USA are developing
paint. some of these ideas with a pilot indust-
Andrew Mills of the University Col- rial -scale plant for destroying benzene
lege of Wales in Swansea explained on and other organic solvents. The hope is
the BBC World Service programme that titanium -dioxide coated surfaces
Science in Action how semiconductor could he made to work in conjunction
waste disposal grew from earlier with artificial sources of CV light. It
experiments in photochemistry, the might also be possible to run a cheaper :;
holy grail of which is to use sunlight to system in which less toxic or volatile 1t£
split water into unlimited supplies of chemicals could be pumped into >----e 7,
hydrogen and oxygen. This aim is still
dogged by the need for complex
lagoons containing Ti02-coated sub-
strates. In that way the small amounts '}L _

catalysts and by problems of efficiency. of UV in sunlight could carry out the


Given semiconductor material like decomposition in a slower, albeit
titanium dioxide it is possible, though, cheaper process.
to harness the high-energy photons of Andrew Mills, however, shares with under the seat would then ensure the
UV light to perform other chemical your columnist a greater interest in instant demise of all those germs and
reactions, notably the breakdown of bogs than in lagoons. He suggests, other unmentionables that lurk in and
many noxious and vile -smelling indust- tongue in cheek, that some enterprising around the bend. Clever idea, Dr
rial waste products. Mills says that manufacturer could coat the inside of a Mills. but how do you explain away
TiO2 will mineralize most organic pol- toilet bowl with a layer of titanium sunburn on the parts that even foreign
lutants. converting them harmlessly to dioxide. The addition of the UV lamp holidays cannot reach???
carbon dioxide and water.
The process is remarkably similar to
what happens in a photovoltaic cell,
Inverse square law rules OK
where the light energy separates elec- The inverse square law, hated by gen- standard mass was weighed at different
trons and holes across a potential bar- erations of schoolkids, is something depths down a 1001)m deep mine in
rier. But where a photocell needs a most engineers instinctively take for Australia. Obviously, these deviations
refined structure with lead -out wires to granted. Whether it's radiation from a could have been due to measurement
generate electricity, the behaviour of point source or forces between bodies, errors or to incorrect assumptions
is much simpler -
semiconductors in photochemical cells
in theory at least.
An electron -hole pair, separated by
the same relationship between ampli-
tude and distance seems to apply.
In recent years, however. there have
about the mechanics or geology of the
Earth. Frank Stacey and his resear-
chers did, however, consider all the
a barrier. constitute potential energy, been numerous suggestions that gravity possible sources of systematic error and
not just in the electrical sense but also may violate the inverse square law. found that the deviation from the
in the chemical sense. (Think of a Physicists have even proposed a fifth inverse square law simply wouldn't go
rechargeable cell where electrical and fundamental force of nature that could away.
chemical energy can he interchanged). he disturbing the nice simple Newto- Now a similar experiment has been
Andrew Mills and his fellow workers nian formula describing the attraction reported (Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 65, No
have exploited the fact that a spare between two bodies. Research 10) by a team from the Lawrence
electron is a chemical reducing agent, described in these columns (June, Livermore National Laboratory and
whilst a hole is a powerful oxidizing 1988, March, 1989) has provided tenta- the California Institute of Technology.
agent. tive evidence of the existence of a very The holes they used were a cluster
To make use of the oxidizing prop- weak force that operates over varying in depth from a few hundred
erties of holes, any spare electrons intermediate distances and which could metres to 4km that have been drilled in
must first react chemically with oxygen he responsible for deviations from the the Nevada desert to characterise the
from the atmosphere. something that well -established laws of gravity. geology prior to underground nuclear
can easily he arranged by aerating the One of the classical experiments weapons tests. Every parameter of the
mixture. The holes then behave just appeared to show a consistent variation experimental holes was measured and
like any other powerful oxidizing agent from the expected measurements as a corrections made for the terrain and
such as bleach or ozone. The difference

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD+ WIRELESS WORLD 1031


RESEARCH NOTES

even for the state of the tides. there has been no evidence of depar- first turned its solar panels towards the
When the measurements of gravity ture from the laws of classical physics. Sun to maintain its electrical supplies
were made at various depths, the What the groups have probably been and then began sweeping the sky with
deviation from the inverse square law measuring are systematic uncertainties its antenna. This is a standard recovery
turned out to be greater, not less than caused by density anomalies deep procedure which ensures that contact
that previously reported by the Austra- within the Earth. That being the case, will eventually be re-established.
lian workers. It was, however, consis- they conclude that such anomalies are Fourteen hours later, contact was
tent between the different holes in the likely to exist anywhere around thEarth re-established, only to be lost again five
Nevada desert. where such experiments arc days later. Up to that point NASA
The fact that the departure from attempted. engineers had been trying to read out
theory differs between the two research It looks, therefore, as if what we al,learned the state of the on -hoard memories to
groups is considered to be good news. about gravity in 0 -level physics try and discover precisely what had
Had the two teams recorded identical still has many years to run. Moreover, gone wrong. This they did using a
departures from the inverse square if there are any minor infringements of low -gain antenna that can only send
law, it would have been tempting to the inverse square law, a radically new data at a slow rate.
resurrect the now -discounted sugges- set of experiments will be needed to Fortunately, the same fail-safe proc-
tions of a non -Newtonian force of uncover them. edure enabled contact to be re-
gravity. As it is, the Americans believe established, though the fact that
Magellan orientated itself incorrectly
twice suggested the possibility of a
Venus unveiled software error somewhere in the sys-
tem. For the time being, and to avoid a
After a series of nail-biting technical NASA engineers pieced together what repetition, ground controllers have
hitches the American space probe had happened.
sent commands to disable the part of
Magellan has sent back some of the The first fault is thought to have the fault protection system that appears
most amazing pictures of the planet been the result of a high-energy cosmic to be generating the glitches.
Venus. Huge craters and rivers of ray hitting and damaging a computer
Radar pictures taken through the
solidified lava indicate that Venus was, that keeps a continuous check on the
visually impenetrable clouds that per-
and probably still is a very active planet performance of two other on -board manently shroud Venus are truly spec-
geologically. Unlike the Earth, where computers. As a result, a back-up tacular. Let's not forget, however, the
water and ice have eroded the rocks, system was activated and it too failed. very considerable engineering involved
Venus has some spectacularly jagged Magellan, which is supposed to orien- in getting them here. Servicing a soph-
mountains and valleys. tate itself by locking onto the star
isticated computer system millions of
In one respect we're extremely for- Sirius, locked onto another star and miles away is no mean feat!
tunate to have these pictures, because ended up with its antennas pointing
Magellan was plagued with difficulties away from Earth. Research notes is written by John Wil-
soon after completing its tortuous 1.5 When this happened, the spacecraft son of the BBC World Service
billion kilometre journey to Venus. Image taken from the first set of radar
After a test orbit in which the radar data collected by Magellan, showing
system was instructed to look down fault -sounded troughs in the Lavinia
onto the planet's surface, radio contact region of Venus. Area in picture is 28km
was lost with Earth. Fourteen hours wide, 75km long. Right, an impression of

`
later, when contact was re-established, the !Magellan spacecraft approaching
Venus. Pictures by courtesy of NASA.

In
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1032 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


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December 1990 ELECTRONICS \VORLD+WIRELESS WORLD


UPDATE

Lasers on wafers
IBM's researchers believe the company processing using so-called photonic centre of the well which will cause the
will have integrated lasers onto integrated circuits earlier this year same effect is a measure of the
semiconductor logic devices and used using similar technology. luminescence of the well.
them in computer systems in the next IBM sees the devices as the solution Careful characterisation and full
two years. The fabrication process, to data transmission between parts of a wafer testing should eventually lead to
developed at the US giant's Zurich mainframe distributed between higher production yields. The Zurich
research labs. is now being added to its different sites. Earlier this year it researchers have now handed the work
manufacturing lines. demonstrated a data link which could over to developers in the US who will
Various techniques are used to make transmit and receive I Gbyte/s using a turn it into a repeatable production
the devices. but few of them are serial data stream. Parallel data moving process.
exclusive to IBM. Only the scanning at that rate is hard to synchronise so At the moment IBM has run full
tunnelling microscope (STM) used to that bits on different lines arrive at wafer testing on lasers built on 2in
check the devices and a polishing different times. wafers. The next stage is to use 3in
process are proprietary. The chips are made using gallium wafers with just lasers on them and to
IBM is not the only company to have arsenide. The high electron mobility test devices with mixed logic and light
integrated lasers and logic. AT&T's allows the logic parts to run at much sources.
Bell Labs demonstrated optical data higher speeds than silicon devices. The The company will then go into
Atomic structures under the STM: lasers are easier to fabricate using production of the devices. The
individual atoms on the surfaces of gallium arsenide because lavers of prototype receiver used in the 1Gbyte/s
materials picked out by IBM's indium can be grown to form the light trial included 80O(1 transistors as well as
microscope. Top picture shows the sources. the photodiode. The latter consisted of
grooves produced by etching the edges of The lasers are grown using two multiple quantum well structures
laser structures. Picture of the DNA-recA compound beam epitaxy (CBE) in next to each other without the lasing
protein complex (middle) is fuzzy because which solid elemental sources are mirrors. The receiver had a sensitivity
the material is an insulator, so charge heated and molecules deposited onto of -22d13m.
builds up on the surface, impairing the the semiconductor surface. The devices Rob Cawey, Electronics Weekly
STM. Contrast this effect with that in the follow the multiple quantum well
bottom picture, which shows the atomic structure already v idespread among
structure of a gold surface laser makers.
The real difference between other
lasers and these devices comes after the
structures have been grown. Instead of
forming the lasing cavities by cleaving OBITUARY
the crystals, IBM etches grooves in the
W.A. SCOTT MURRAY BSc, PhD
wafer surface. Sandy Murray died last April after a
The edges of the etched grooves are number of illnesses, aged 64.
then polished to form mirrors. This He will be remembered by readers of
part of the process gives IBM an edge Wireless World during the 1980s as one of
over other companies like STL which a group of "heretics" who were making
serious enquiries into the way that modern
also has submicron semiconductor
physics was going since Einstein
etching technologies. published his relativity theory: his Heretics
A second advantage with the Guide to Modern Physics series of articles
polishing technique is that it leaves the was published in this journal in 1982 and
lasers on the wafer. Each device can he resulted in lively correspondences and
tested without having to he handled articles by others of the same persuasion.
individually and the yield should also Sandy Murray started his career as a
Dartmouth cadet and served in the Royal
he improved. Navy during the second half of WWII, after
which he took a first degree with honours
in physics at Manchester under Prof
Special microscope is key P.M.S. Blackett and a second in the radio
The STM has been used to map the astronomy: whilst at Jodrell Bank he
characteristic luminescence of the discovered the Faraday rotation of radio
quantum wells across the surface of the waves in the ionosphere.
He joined the Royal Radar
laser.

,
Establishment in 1954, where he was
Quantum wells can he found by instrumental in the reception of the first -
. t moving the tip of the STM across the ever transatlantic satcom signals in the UK
iLf _ -- r
surface until an electron from the tip and later designed and directed the
Malvern satellite tracking radar. He retired
falls down a hole. That electron will
then cause light in the form of a photon from the Scientific Civil Service in
1982. A.M.
to he released. The distance from the

1034 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS \1 ORLI) December 1990


UPDATE

Static dat joins audio battle


The hi-fi industry now has another Tandy made an announcement of traditional format of recording on one
standards battle on its hands. The future technology, it was to promise half of the tape width in one direction
R-dat system, with rotating heads, the Thor recordable CD system. and then on the other half in the other
versus DCC, a digital compact cassette Tandy's share prices benefited but direction, DCC is not a flip -over
which records with stationary heads. Thor never appeared. format. The cassette need not be taken
The Japanese are hacking R-dat, Japanese sources believe that out and turned over. DCC has been
with decks just reaching 13ritish shops. Matsushita, maker of Panasonic and designed from day one for auto -
Philips developed DCC, and now has Technics equipment, wants to support reverse.
the hacking of all the major record l'hilips on DCC but is hamstrung The 16 head segments lay down, and
companies except CBS. Of course because the Japanese government fears play hack from, 16 very narrow parallel
Sony, owner of CBS, has a heavy commitment to DCC would slow sales tracks spread across the tape width. 8
investment in R-dat. Although DCC of R-dat machines. In mid September a for each stereo pair. Tape speed
will not he ready for sale until 1992, the joint Philips/Matsushita announcement remains the same as for conventional
possibilities for market confusion are was still on the cards. But in early cassettes, 4.75cm per seconds.
already obvious. October Philips went it alone. At this low speed. and with only
The Philips announcement came If Matsushita follows, then other eight parallel linear tracks per stereo
after nine months of rumour and Japanese majors (including Sony) are pair. it is impossible to record the
speculation. Philips had been secretly likely to do so too, in domino fashion. several Megabits per second needed for
"selling" the idea of DCC to the record Then DCC might make national news. 16 -hit linear PCM with control sub -
companies who are notoriously loose - The new DCC cassette will be the codes and error correction as in the
tongued. Record company executives same size as a conventional analogue case of CD. DCC relies on a new
are also notoriously ignorant of audio cassette, but styled quite coding technique, called precision
technical matters. so it is hardly differently. with a closed top and adaptive sub -band coding (pasc) which
surprising that the leaks were very sliding tape cover. The tape inside the has been developed mainly as a method
garbled. cassette will be the same as the of broadcasting digital stereo over
The long-awaited formal chromium dioxide video tape sold in conventional radio channels for digital
announcement from Philips was brief hulk to duplicators of VI IS video audio broadcasting (dab).
and said very little, except that DCC cassettes. The pasc processor samples the
relies on "revolutionary coding" The recorder will have a signal at the standard digital recording
techniques. conventional stereo pair of heads for frequences of R-dat. 32kHz. 44. kHz
I

The national press and media have analogue recording and playback, and and 48kí Iz, and then analyses the
been slow to see the significance of in addition, a solid state head for digital content of the sound, right across the
Philips' announcement. There was no recording. This head is divided into 16 frequency range. Where signals are
consolidated press release. Philips eery narrow segments. spread across audible to human ears, precise coding
referred only to "major companies" the width of the tape. Each head is used. Where signals are likely to be
support mg the system. The major segment is itself divided into two parts, inaudible, less precise coding, with
record companies (Polygram. BMG/ a magneto -resistive element for fewer bits, is used.
RCA, EMI and WEA) never have. and playback, and magneto -inductive for This drastically reduces the data
probably never will have, any interest recording. rate. Philips claims that with pasc,
in, or contact with, anyone outside the Although DCC follows the DCC can offer the equivalent of 18 -bit
showbiz and music press. digital code, which is two bits (12dB)
So far only one hardware company, better than CD or R-dat. Philips says
Tandy of the US, has hacked DCC. DCC allows a dynamic range of 110dB
Tandy has a downmarket image in the which gives sound quality 'equivalent
audio world and has never taken press Sony's 55ES R-IMT player. A fight on its to that of compact disc".
relations seriously. Also the last time hands? Barry Fox

......,

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el

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD 1035


UPDATE

Leading -edge
software
AM stereo gets UK hearing ARS Microsystems' dV/dt software
AM stereo broadcasting could at last performance than standard AM. and so
he about to take off in the UK. Two
allows designers of digital circuits to
could wean UK listeners from low-cost,
local radio stations, Orwell in Ipswich sketch and analyse timing
lower -quality AM receivers.
characteristics on a PC. The package
and Capital in London. look set to he
Orwell started test broadcasts in costs less than £700 and does not
on -air with test transmissions by the
June. and Capital is understood to he require a netlist or behavioural models,
end of the year.
waiting only for Department of Trade so can be used before the schematic
Receiving stereo on the AM hand is
a familiar concept to radio listeners in
and Industry approval before stage of design. Signal edges are
commencing its tests. The BBC and the displayed on -screen in the timing
the US, where two alternative systems
exist. Of these. C-Quam, pioneered by
receiver manufacturers are currently diagram, with maximum and minimum
taking a "wait and see" attitude, but uncertainties defined by the user.
Motorola, is proving the most
there can he little doubt that, if the Clock speeds, propagation delays and
attractive, mainly because of the
Independents popularise the system, wait states can he interactively varied,
company's ability to produce single
Auntie and the equipment makers will so that designers can look at the effects
microchips which will handle the
not he far behind. of, for instance, speeding up the entire
broadcasts, and hence to beat its rival,
design, or using cheaper components.
Kahn Communications, on receiver C-Quam maintains compatibility
Such changes ripple through the entire
price. with existing radios by transmitting the
Meanwhile. the AM hand in the UK sum of the two stereo channels as
timing diagram, without the need to
re -analyse the system completely.
is becoming progressively less popular standard AM, and phase modulating
Common -path and common -part
with listeners who, where possible. the stereo information - the difference
analyses are available.
choose the better reception and stereo between the two channels - onto the
The package could be particularly
capability of FM broadcasts. Figures existing carrier. This scheme avoids the
released by the IBA this year show hiss problems associated with weak FM
useful in the design of bus -based
systems, such as VME or Nubus, where
that, for the first time. FM is stereo reception and takes advantage
timing between hoards needs to he
.

"predominantly used" by more of AM's more even coverage of its


listeners than AM. But C-Quam
verified to ensure the proper granting
service area to reduce localised loss of
produces perceptibly better audio reception - useful for mobile reception.
of bus requests, interrupts and so on.

Virtual vision blurs reality


"Not living in the real world", is a own promise of an alternative reality University's Advanced Robotics
criticism often levelled at anyone not where users can enter and interact with Research company is expecting to use a
having his or her feet firmly fixed to the a computer -generated three system to help develop its design of
ground. But Bristol -based systems dimensional universe will have very complex robot remote control.
designers Division Ltd hope that their practical down-to-earth applications. The basic component of the system is
The principle of the system is that an a terminal providing a physical
operator. watching a three dimensional interface between the user and the
image on a stereoscopic viewer, is able computer environment. Input and
to move around inside a machine - output channels include the visual
generated "virtual reality" simply by display channels, tactile input, audio
movements of the head. In this way channel etc.
computer generated objects and scenes Hand and head movements are
can be looked at from any viewpoint so captured through the wearing of
that the user has the illusion that they sensors, for example a glove interface,
are solid and "real". and speech too, can be used to interact
Adding to the reality, the with the computer world.
movements of the user's hand can he The extremely large processing
translated into three dimensional requirements for a full system mean
movements within the virtual reality that a single, or even limited number of
allowing interaction with the computer processors is going to limit
images. So for example in a computer performance and Division is pursuing
model of a room, a user could reach parallel architecture to support existing
out, turn the computer generated and future requirements.
handle and "open" the door. A complete distributed virtual
Applications ranging from fluid environment system (DVS) consists of
dynamics to molecular modelling are a network of different virtual
thought possible, though the Division environment terminals and a single
Picking up and manipulating "atoms" by system is not yet being used in a application server such as a Vax.
hand is possible in virtual reality. practical situation. However Salford

1036 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


UPDATE

"Radiation at work" debate heats up


There is good reason to believe that higher risk, he said. exposure guidelines between 311 and
workers in jobs with high exposure to Dr Dennis also considered the 300MHz. where maximum coupling
non -ionising radiation are facing likelihood of miscarriage in women with the human body occurs, should he
increased health risks, says Dr John using VDUs more than 20 hours a reduced.
Dennis, ex -Assistant Director of the week. In the US a Congressional Office Regarding residential exposure, Dr
National Radiological Protection of Technology Assessment has recently Dennis discussed the work of
Board. concluded that emerging evidence no Wertheimer and Leeper. and Savitz.
Speaking at a London seminar longer allows categorical assertions and calculated that by setting the figure
dealing with the subject of NI that there are no risks from very low given for the relative risk against the
exposure at work, Dr Dennis focused frequency (VLF) and extremely low measured fields from their data, the
on the evidence linking an increased frequency (ELF) radiation. percentage of childhood leukemia in
exposure. to workers with an elevated As yet there are no international the US due to magnetic fields reduces
risk of brain tumour. He estimated a standards for VDU exposure levels, to 2.5-10%, rather than the 10-15%
33% increased risk, from current although the Swedes seem to be originally assessed by Savitz. The
research, but said this was still low leading the way, allowing ELF and difference in overhead versus
compared with the higher risks from VLF electric and magnetic fields of underground residential distribution of
car accidents and other activities. 25V/m and 2.5mG, and 2.5V/m and electricity between the US and UK
The increased risk of leukemia in 0.25mG respectively. produced considerably lower magnetic
electrical and electronic workers Dr In the case of microwave irradiation. fields in UK homes, he said.
Dennis assessed at 20%, indicating an Dr Dennis' assessment of existing The seminar was organised by Dale
absolute excess risk of 10 per million studies was that no particular risk has Electronics, manufacturer of
per year, but compounds in the yet been substantiated. Nonetheless. electromagnetic spectrum monitors.
workplace may also contribute to this new evidence could suggest that Simon Best

IBC '90: year of HDTV


For the last IBC to he held in Brighton. standards and upward compatible with
HDTV formed a major core of both 1250 line 50Hz MAC.
the technical papers and many of the It was clearly stated and
exhibition stands. demonstrated that the European PAL
Apart from better quality images, standard was not yet ready to lie down
there were other unusual consumer and give way to another system. MAC
boxes on the Hitachi stand. The Lap or otherwise. Improved definition (1 -
watch VCR is a portable £1300 multi - PAL), Extended definition (E -PAL),
standard receiver/VCR built to the Quality PAL (Q -PAL), and even I -
VHS format, with a 5in LCD colour PAL -M, a modified and phase error PHILIPS

display. The Hitachi video printer compensated system were all


(£1500) is capable of grabbing a video explained. The BBC demonstrated a
frame from either RGB or PAL inputs system described as (Weston) Clean
and producing a print priced at about PAL that had been derived from
40p per copy, in about two minutes. technology developed within the
F
Ferguson offered a wide screen 1250 Eureka -95 project. This was said to
line TV receiver consisting of French give rise to a range of possible PAL Making it big in Europe: Eureka HDTV.
circuitry and an Italian CRT. This is enhancements. The PAL -Plus group But will it become more than simulated
expected to retail at about £3000. and others reported on the advances pictures?
The 36in diagonal, 16:9 aspect ratio made with the ghost cancelling
tube displays the standard PAL signal receiver, a feature that has benefits for accompany each programme. These
using line doubling to achieve both vision and teletext signals. The labels are transmitted about once each
improved picture quality. The receiver fact that a MAC system produces second while a programme is running.
is equipped with a control function so better quality pictures and is easily A VCR equipped for this system stores
that the viewer can switch between the extendable to high definition, seems to a list of the wanted labels. plus network
standard 4:3 and wide screen formats carry less import when the high level of source, with the time window in which
to suit the transmitted signal. Also capital already invested in the PAL the programme is expected. When the
included are features that allow a system is taken into consideration. recorder finds a match between wanted
second image to be displayed either as The automated VCR programming and broadcast labels, recording starts
picture -in -picture (pip) or picture - concept has been further enhanced by a and continues until a change of
outside -picture (pop). The receiver BBC development. The system uses programme generates a change of
design is compatible with current teletext to broadcast a label to label. The VCR then switches off.

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD+WIRELESS WORLD 1037


UPDATE

Intel's 80X86 processors. chosen as the - reckoned to be the next great thing in At the higher performance end of
heart of the IBM PC, seem to be non-volatile memory technology. the market, AMD has produced a
impossible to keep out of the news at AMD's effort is a Mbit chip with an
1 floating-point version of its 29000 risc
the moment. Latest developments access time of 9Ons, built in the processor, dubbed the 29050. The idea
include law suits, portable PCs and 1 micron technology used for its eproms is to get the chip into embedded
imitations. and eeproms. Intel, slightly further applications, particularly those
Litigation involves Intel's rival chip - advanced, has come up with a range of involving graphics processing such as
maker and erstwhile collaborator, credit -card -sized storage devices based laser printers, where the company says
AMD. The two companies set up a on its own flash chips. with capacities of it expects to see several design wins in
technology agreement in 1982, but the up to 4Mbyte. The company says that the first half of next year. The 40MHz
relationship deteriorated very soon these could replace floppy and hard part is pin -compatible with the existing
afterwards, and now Intel is trying to disks in many applications, and 28k type devices and has on -chip
stop AMD making its own version of demonstrated a PC -compatible card memory management, emphasising
the 80386. The whole messy business reader, based on the same form factor AMD's aim of making risc work with
has been referred to an independent as a standard disk drive. low-cost dynamic memory. On -chip
arbitrator, who has released a Again, portable computers will be a cache, however, is limited to l kbyte.
preliminary conclusion and has now set major target, since the cards are solid Within a couple of weeks of AMD's
about working out who gets what. state and can be read without all the chipset announcement, Intel had come
Every time the arbitrator delivers a physical trouble of spinning a disk up with one of its own. The 80386SL
judgement, both sides claim victory, so drive, leading to much lower power consists of a 20M I lz 386 core, cache
it is not surprising that, this time round. requirements. The cards stand up to controller, main memory controller,
Intel said that it was "pleased that the rough treatment much better than PC/AT and ISA bus interface,
judgement does not require the magnetic media. coprocessor interface and power
transfer of the 80386", whilst AMD AMD's engineering department has management on a single chip. Support
promised to go for $500 million obviously been working hard; not comes from the 82360SL, which
compensation and seek transfer of the content with the "miracle" 386, the handles functions such as serial and
386 in the next arbitration phase. company has come up with two parallel communications. DMA, hard
AMD has sampled a 386 -compatible products which put many of the disk control, and memory refresh.
product, which it describes as "a features of an IBM AT onto a single Once again, the focus is on notebook
miracle of re -engineering". In chip. The Am286ZX is aimed at the and laptop computers. so other new
response, Intel has taken out an desktop market, while the Am286LX low -power support chips such as flash
injunction forbidding AMD's use of adds power management to allow it to memory chips, keyboard controller,
the "386" tradename. Doubtless, the be used as the basis for portable and a modem chipset, have been
whole dispute will rumble on and on. computers. Production of 12MHz and added.
Just to drive home the rivalry, the 16MHz versions of the chips is Another company on the trail of
two companies chose the same day to scheduled for early next year, with Intel -based PC chipsets is Chips and
launch products based on flash eproms 20MHz parts to follow. Technologies, which has come up with
several new products and a new
Encapsulated radio: Don Cameron (left) and Gennadi Oparin testing European headquarters to go with
radio equipment in the capsule of their hot-air balloon, which made them.
the first hot-air flight from Britain to Russia. Co -Channel Electronics Chips says that the European PC
of Avonmouth supplied their own HF and VHF radio equipment, with market looks set to outdo both the US
satnav, Decca Navigator and a position transponderfrom other and Pacific rim in coming years, with
companies. This equipment, together with an automatic search particular emphasis on industrial
beacon, was built into the capsule, since space was extremely limited. computing. Hence the new base, which
or
t.

'. is in Switzerland. The products include


a 3 -chip set which will allow OEMs to
' build 80386DX-type PCs using only 15
components, plus memory. Direct -
\ CO cH.4,
mapped cache and processing speeds of
25 and 33MHz make this a fairly
high-performance beast, although
Chips describes it as "entry level".
Also on offer are 80386SX types,
including the Chipslite family, designed
for the growing laptop and portable
markets. These include on -chip flat -
panel graphics. mouse and
Jr communications port controllers, as
well as power management.

1038 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


LIGHT COMMS

ver the last twenty years


digital telephony and
optical fibres have radi-

Looking
cally' changed the way we
communicate. But we
have still only exploited a tiny proportion
of the full potential of optical com-
munications.

forward to
Current high speed systems carrying
seven and a half thousand simultaneous
telephone calls on a single strand of glass
are impressive enough.
But in theory the optical fibre has a

-
bandwidth of around 150 Tera I lertz -
busy lines
150 000 (NN) 000 (100Hz the equivalent
of 20 million television channels or more
than two billion digital telephone connec-
tions.
The practical challenge is to incorpo-
rate this ability to carry large volumes of
information, into fibre networks that
connect directly to customers' premises.
Radio transmission techniques first lesham, is that they make more efficient
developed over 50 years ago may hold
Voice, data and use of the fibre's full optical bandwidth.
the key. video services at the Single wavelength light is used to
transmit a data train along the fibre, with
Researchers at British Telecom's
Martlesham Research Centre are using end of a telephone? the opto -electronic detector which con-
coherent optical techniques analogous to verts ít hack into electrical data used in a
super-heterodyning in radio transmission In the following way analogous to a heterodyning radio
receiver.
as a solution.
At present. over half of BT's trunk
series of articles The incoming optical signal is com-
telephone network uses fibre optic trans- Richard Wilson bined with a second monochromatic
mission in a technique, perfected over sigral generated by a laser in the
the last ten years, called direct detection. assesses fibre optic receiver. The photodetector acts like an
Data is transmitted over the fibre by electrical mixer circuit, its output pro-
changing the optical intensity of a light
developments in the portional to the combined power of the
source or laser. At the receiving end the pipeline. two optical signals. In this way the
incoming signal can he boosted. A 20 -
optical data train is converted back into
an electrical signal with output directly fold enhancement could extend the
proportional to the optical power falling transmission lengths for 2.4Ghit/s to over
on the photo -detector. The lower the 100km.
received power the harder it is to
decipher the electrical data.
As the optical signal travels through
the fibre it becomes attenuated and the
data pulses broaden because different
wavelengths of light travel at different
speeds through the glass. This limits the
amount of information and distance it
can he carried.

Coherent approach
Direct detection systems under develop- Ma/
11111 111111

-
ment can achieve data rates of 2.-1Gbitis
equivalent to 25 UIIt) simultaneous
telephone calls. But attenuation and
.-
)0'7"
dispersive pulse broadening means the
optical signal must be electronically
reconstituted every 50km or so.
However BT researchers have shown ,

that coherent optics will create a new


class of system with 1000 times the
rl . .
l'.:. I.ii
bit-\
a

information carrying capacity.


,t4,
'I J
t 2.
-

The advantage of using coherent Coherent fibres can carry a large MIlllher of signals simultaneously, each with a
optical techniques. according to Dr discrete optical frequency. The time may arrive when you tune in a telephone as you
Roger Steele. a researcher in BT's cohe- would a radio. The picture shows a BT experimental coherent optical link between
rent optical systems group at Mart - Edinburgh, Galashiels and .Newcastle.

December 19911 ELECTRONICS \\ORLD+ WIRELESS WORLD 1039


LIGHT COMMS

Another advantage of coherent sys- ter networking to high definition televi- But Dr Steele believes that the distinc-
tems is the amount of information that sion and high speed facsimile, all services tion between coherent techniques and
can he carried. Coherent techniques will be available through a single optical traditional direct detection methods is
allow different optical channels to be fibre connection. not so clear-cut as first thought. He is
supported in the same fibre. working on a system offering the charac-
Last year BT demonstrated a coherent £20bn investment teristics of coherency but using commer-
optical system that transmitted two data Major investment is required to create a cially available lasers and optical filters.
channels each operating with light of a fibre network that connects to every Using a tunable filter to select the
different wavelength via an optical repea- home and office, perhaps £20hn will he wavelength Dr Steele claims that 10
ter 2(X)km between Edinburgh and New- needed for the UK. But technologists are channels can be created using existing
castle. Each channel carried a 622Mbit/s not waiting for the politicians to make up laser sources. A second filter would
data train, enough to handle almost 8(X) their minds and are already tackling the improve resolution to 100 channels.
telephone calls. technical problems. With the possibility of the first "cohe-
To prevent interference between the As BT's Dr Steele points out, one of rent -like" systems appearing in the UK
channels the wavelengths of light used the immediate stumbling blocks is to find network before the end of the decade,
were 7GHz apart, but even fibre with a a laser with the required spectral purity. maybe it isn't too fanciful to picture a
usable bandwidth of 501XX)GHz could "The ideal source hasn't yet been time when we'll tune our telephones like
support 7(XX) separate data channels. invented." he says. our radios.
Such information carrying capacity,
when it is introduced into the public
networks could transform our view of the
telephone.
Looking maybe 15 years into the
future Dr Peter Cochrane, a 13T strateg-
A twist in the tale
of optical fibres
ist for optical networks, draws a picture
of a coherent optical network without
telephone exchanges where a range of
voice, data and video services are avail-
able to the customer on what will be
called a passive optical network.
Customers select which of the services
they require and they then tune their Twisted pairs Fibre vs copper
receiver to the necessary wavelength, Fibre has everything going for it:
much the same as they would a radio
matching optical theoretically it has thousands of times
receiver. With the enormous capacity of networks in the capacity of copper, is less prone to
the optical medium such a passive optical electrostatic interference and is very
network would meet all our communica-
'performance? A lot difficult to tap into.
tion needs both for business and leisure more than copper is at But costs of fibre, electro -optic
activities. From videophones and compu- transmitters and receivers restricted
stake. use to high-performance systems in the
Mead fnd long-distance telephone network. In
computer networks requiring less than
20Mbit/s data rates, copper won over
fibre every time.
Since the mid -1980s local area net-
hotons are rapidly replacing elec- works (lans) and computer companies
trons as the world's favourite have stuck by copper with 10Mhit/s
communications medium. Ethernet championed by DEC and
Whether it is a transatlantic cable or a IBM's alternative Token Ring net-
data path between microprocessors in a works. But with computer power rising
super -computer, optical fibre seems to many lans are now hitting the perform-
hold all the answers for our com- ance limit. For example "You can flood
munications needs. Ethernet with one Unix server or even
But recent developments in the US a powerful PC", says Jeff King, Ian
are suggesting that copper and the product marketing manager at BICC
familiar twisted pair may yet have a Data Networks.
resurgence of popularity. In the late 1980s networking com-
For over 100 years copper cable has panies started getting serious about
Subscriber lermmal
been the commonest way to connect fibre lans. The technology was avail-
electronic equipment. From telephone able but a standard interface protocol
to personal computer, information has was needed that would steer a safe
been exchanged over two intertwined course through the mine -field of multi -
In a wideband distribution network using copper wires, the twisted -pair. Cheap vendor computer networks.
"tuned" coherent transmission, and reliable, it met most of our needs
customers can obtain different services until pushed to carry more data than it FDDI emerges
by selecting wavelengths on their could physically support. Then the For the last two years the US standards
receiver. world discovered optical fibre. body Ansi and some 80 computer

1040 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


LIGHT COMMS

Nearly all FDDI's 10O41bitls bandwidth n

will he available through improved ETHERNET NETWORK

protocol. Ansi is expected to complete the


FDDI standard early next year.

vendors have wrestled with the prob-


lem and the result is FDDI -
fibre -
distributed data interface (see box).
DUAL ATTACHED
DEVICE RX
PRI
TX
SEC
RX
SEC
TX
PRI
RX
PRI
TX
SEC
RX
SEC
TX
PRI
PRIMARY (PRI)
RING

This is a standard high -capacity


I(i(IMbit/s communications backbone
supporting a large number of lans, TX
PRI PRI
using a range of computer hardware
RX TX
and protocols. 100 Mbits/sec
SEC SEC
Although the standards process is TOKEN
RING
HOST
TX
not fully complete companies like Fib - RX
SEC SEC
tonics of the US believe the situation is
RX TX
stable enough to offer FDDI products.
"First applications of FDDI are in the
large data processing environments,
PRI

Cr PRI

namely the DEC and IBM sites TX RX TX RX


predicts Ian Milne, managing director PRI SEC SEC PRI
SECONDARY (SEC)
of Fibronics (UK). But key to FDDI's FDDI WORKSTATION
RING

future success is the endorsement and CONCENTRATOR


the announcement of products by the
likes of DEC', he adds. But FDDI may TX.Transmd
RX=Recerve
not have things all its own way; copper SINGLE ATTACHED WORKSTATIONS
is fighting back.
In July two US companies succeeded
in persuading Ansi to consider mod-
ifying the proposed FDDI standard to Saussy sees a 100m transmission length There were two problems to be
allow for use of copper in place of fibre as the target which will make FDDI/ solved: first the poor high -frequency
as a transport medium. ChipCom of twisted -pair an attractive alternative to response of the twisted -pair meant the
Massachusetts and Synoptics of Cali- fibre for 90% of all lans. To achieve transmitted signal had to he shaped so
fornia claim to have demonstrated data this ChipCom's system electrically fil- that the overall response of the system
transmission at the FDDI data rate of ters the data before transmission, to was tlat. Second, the FDDI coding
IO(IMhit/s over 100m of shielded compensate for high- and low - scheme created a low -frequency prob-
twisted -pair cable. frequency distortion as the signal pas- lem because its signal value was non-
ChipCom's engineering director Don ses down the cable. zero at DC, or zero frequency.
According to Saussy this is solved in
a fibre system by using capacitive cou-
What and wiry of FDDI pling into and out of the optical trans-
mitter and receiver. In an all -copper
FDDI fibre distributed data interface: providing interworking between protocols system this would create electro-
what it does is to put a high speed ',7andequipment from different suppliers, magnetic emission difficulties so Chip-
100Mbit/s communications backbone eFDDI has the capacity to meet the need Com were forced to use transformer
into companies using computers on local for increased throughput on computer
tºnetworks running high-performance
coupling to allow for the DC response,
area networks (lans). What it is, is a
proposed hardware and software stan- iiworkstations and supporting ever - requiring additional low -frequency
dard for implementing this backbone in ;increasing numbers of users. filtering.
most of the leading computer environs Most of FDDI's 100Mbit/s'information While Ansi mulls over the claims,
ments. carrying capacity is available to users which now have the hacking of DEC
An FDDI backbone uses an optical through the implementation of an according to Chi1Com's Saussy, other
fibre ring with two contra directional data :impro'ved token protocol which could
mean a 12 -20 -fold increase in data
FDDI manufacturers are playing down
paths each running at 10OMbit/s. The
dual bus ring can be up to 100km in throughput compared to traditional Ether- their importance.
length supporting a maximum of 1000 net or Token Ring networks. Part of this Jeff King of MCC simply does not
access points, or 500 if they are con- improvement is due to the use of a data believe 100m transmission over a
nected to both data paths for improved coding scheme which is more efficient twisted pair is practical. "It might he
reliability. than the' Manchester coding format used possible up to 50m, but it won't work
Current systems use multimode fibre ;on Ethernet and Token Ring protocols. on unscreened cable which will radiate
and low-cost light -emitting diodes as So far FDDI is only three-quarters of
optical sources and will support 2km of the waytowards a fully-fledged standard, like crazy".
fibre between connections. There are -but this has not stopped many manufac- Saussy responds that radiation is a
plans to extend this by using more turers from introducing products. Most concern but tests on shielded cable up
expensive single -mode fibre and higher - '.are convinced that the hard work in to lOOm complies with the strict West
power laser diode sources. creating the standard has been corn- German VDE emissions standard.
The standard has been created to be ,pleted ;and that all that 'remains is Fibronics. Ian Milne warns about the
compatible with existing Ian protocols; , approval
of network management soft-
and specifically the most common ones ware -'and that can be back -engineered false economy of non -fibre lans, "It is
Ethernet and Token Ring. As well as if necessary. all about the cost of ownership over a
10 -year period: although fibre systems

December 199(1 ELECTRONICS WORLD+ WIRELESS WORLD 1041


LIGHT COMMS

are a little more expensive to purchase Prospects for FDDI at least another year before FDDI
ultimately they win on the lower cost of starts to make an impression on the
maintenance, reliability and upgrada- Most manufacturers indicate that the market for networks connected directly
hility". first market for FDDI is not in the lans to workstations. Maybe the develop-
There is an enormous amount of on which the computers sit, but in ment of higher performance copper
twisted -pair in today's computer net- creating a broadband backbone which systems such as those of ChipCom and
works and it is this which at the end of will continue to support the copper Synoptics will make it all the more
the day could he the biggest asset to sytems such as Ethernet and Token difficult for FDDI to extend its market
companies like ChipCom and Synop- Ring. once the backbone networks are in
tics; introduction of fibre will he slow. Jeff King of 131CC believes it will he place.

-
munications spine extending across a city
or even further. Users will he able to

Man -power frees access remote databases, retrieving


1Mhyte of data in less than a second, or
transmit an A4 -page containing approx-
imately two million bits of information in

local networks under half a second. Through mans these


features will all he available on what is a
public data network.
The network uses a distributed switch
Metropolitan public wait that long. In North America the
demand by companies to send several
architecture, giving the user greater con-
trol of network management than is
networks could take million bits of data per second between common on current public data net-
buildings in different parts of cities has works, and also offers an open systems
the "local" out of lans led to development of a new class of interface to most software environments.
while moving a step high -capacity wide -area optical fibre net- This distributed queue dual bus
work, the metropolitan area network (DQDI3) architecture was developed by
closer to a broadband (man). the University of Western Australia and
future. The significance of mans is that they Telecom Australia, and a private com-
offer the high information -carrying pany, OPSX Communications, set up to
capacity and flexibility of tans but on a license the design. Now manufacturers
In Britain most of the long-distance geographic scale over a network oper- such as Alcatel of France and Siemens of
ated by public telephone companies or West Germany, are already trialling
telephone network uses optical fibre,
large private data network operators. mans in North America.
565Mbit/s -
with many routes capable of carrying
equivalent to four high -
definition television channels or 75(X)
Company computer networks will be
able to connect to a I40Mbitls com-
Dual bus architecture means it can
support full hi -directional communica-
simultaneous telephone calls. But final tion between nodes on the network, for
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) dedicated point-to-point connections or
connections to all homes and most office;
makes the best use of high capacity fibre shared operation in an open bus con-
is by old copper cable technology limiting
optic systems and could integrate figuration. High transmission rates are
data to a trickle at only 64 (XX) bit/s.
broadband and narrowband services in a achieved using data packets asynchro-
Companies and institutes are already
single digital network. nously switched around the network
sharing their processing power and data-
bases on local area networks (lans) and
taking advantage of fibre optics. Mean-
while the new FDDI - fibre distributed Video Library
Image databases
data interface offers a I(X)Mbit/s com- mow
munications backbone that can support
high-speed applications such as diskless
workstations and display of animated
graphics. But these optical lans hit a
performance bottleneck when they use
the public telephone network or ever' Broadband Trunk
Network ATM Distribution Service provider
dedicated 2Mbit/s lines to connect to
networks in other buildings and loca- High speed LA
tions. interconnect - -
The solution is a broadband optical
fibre connection to every home and
business, an ambitious plan and one
Video
which could take 20 years to realise ir.
1I conference
Britain and at a cost of some £2Ohn.
Video Telephone r

First Ian, now man


High Definition TV
But there are now signs that the orld':. Telephone
Mainframe interconnect
Data
business computer users may not need tc

The ATM future integration of broadband and narrowband services in a single digital network.

1042 ELECTRONICS WORLD + V IRELESS WORLD December 1990


LIGHT COMMS

within 125µs time -slots. Just as a train of


European network
carriages move from one station to the
next, the "train" of time slots carry data
The distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) applications could include the transmis-
from one computer terminal to another.
architecture originally developed in sion of medical X-ray scans between
The amount of data that can he carried Australia has been adopted as the basis hospitals or in industry with the transfer
in any frame of time slots depends on the of an American standard for mans. The of computer -aided design (cad) data.
hit rate of the buses and typical fibre IEEE802.6 protocol has already led to Like the German Bundespost, both
optic mans will support hit rates up to the swift development of man products, British Telecom and Mercury Com-
140Mhit/s. now being trialled in North America and munications are sure to recognise the
appearing in Europe next year. importance of mans for meeting the
Two European manufacturers, Sie- business needs of companies in the UK.
Asynchronous transmission mens and Alcatel, have developed sys- The appearance of operational mans in
Mans' other importance is that they tems based on the 802.6 standard which Europe has prompted the European
represent the first step towards broad- will be used in two German pilot networks standards body to act quickly and pro-
in Munich and Stuttgart. They will oper- duce a draft standard before the end of
band networks of even greater informa-
ate at up to 140Mbit/s and will connect the year.
tion carrying capacity using asynchro- computer networks within an area 50km True, nothing ever happens without a
nous data transmission in an asynchro- across to high-performance mainframe standard. The trick is to create the
nous transfer mode (ATM). computers and databases. Typical standard before the networks are built.
Public networks carry digital informa-
tion using synchronous transmission so
that the amount of data that can he adjusted to meet demand, making better band network means it will only happen
carried over a connection in the network use of high capacity fibre optic systems. if network operators can justify invest-
is unchanging even when it is not needed. Long-term the goal is to build broad- ment in terms of new business.
Wasted network capacity results. Using band fibre networks based on asynchro- The importance of mans is that over
the railway analogy, it is like having long nous transmission. Operating at multi - the next five years they will meet the
empty trains running all day on the gigabit data rates these will solve all our need for high-speed computer/computer
railways though they are only full for communications bottleneck problems communications, at the same time pro-
short periods in the rush-hour. ith capacity to spare to offer high- viding network operators with the next
With asynchronous transmission the definition TV services in the home. But commercially viable step towards a bot-
network capacity can more easily be the enormous cost of building this broad - tleneck -free broadband future.

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CIRCLE NO. 129 ON REPLY CARD CI FCL E NO. 130 ON REPLY CARD

December 199(1 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD 1(143


LETTER:

Testing assertions were - sound worse than one


My letter in the June 1990 issue
Fax and pax with easily audible
imperfections? It should he, of
about subjective amplifier course. that the amplifier
assessment having produced
With respect to the letter from social issues".
G.S. Brown in the September All of us in this field and in thought to sound superior had
some further correspondence imperfections of a kind felt to
(August and September issues). 1990 edition of EW&WW, I am other fields of technological
moved to make the following innovation should be worried constitute an improvement on
I feel that a reply is called for.
about the effects of our work on mere faithful amplification.
My letter was triggered off by observations.
read your periodical for the world. We have to live in it, which leads to the point made at
John Linsley I lood's articles in 1
the beginning of my June letter
the November and December information, but am also aware our kids do, and, with any luck,
of the fact that it is very easy to so do our grandchildren. It's about what constitutes the
1989 and January 1990 issues. in proper criterion for a reference
which my name appeared get carried away with any new very easy for us to ignore the
technical development, praising wider issues, but I feel strongly power amplifier.
several times. I pointed out that Mr Stanley asks why Quad
in my article Audible Amplifier the technical ingenuity of it that we shouldn't have an
whilst forgetting that it has to ostrich -like attitude to these changed from valve to transistor
Distortion is Not a Mystery in amplifiers in the late 1960s. and
exist in a world with real people. matters because, whilst
your November 1977 issue. to I can assure hint that this had
which he referred. I did not in Your magazine is one of the few protecting the head, the ostrich
that does carry discussions of the does tend to leave the rest of nothing whatsoever to do with
fact describe the substitution sound quality and everything to
test he mentioned. but rather a wider Issues of electronics itself open to being shot at. So,
please keep up the work; your do with economy and reduction
nulling or differential test, which technology. You should be
in size and weight. Ile says Peter
I credited to Peter Walker.
praised for that, and I do hope mix of technical and ethical is
that you will carry on doing so. spot on as far as I'm concerned. Walker. David faller and are
I I

(When my diagram for this was living with closed minds.


redrawn. the mixing resistors in There are few other widely Joe Pritchard,
access.ble journals that carry Systems Consultant
suggesting that we believe in
the op. amp. input were measurements alone and not in
inadvertently omitted.) items of interest for "those who Sheffield
are worried about the wider West -Yorkshire listening tests. I lowever, if he
I pointed out that such a will carefully re -read my letter,
nulling test enables one to listen he will see that it is virtually all
to all the imperfections of an switching unit provided by and therefore with longer time about listening tests. for the
amplifier at their true volume Hafler that enabled hint intervals between them. Martin nulling test is very much a
level. or at a higher level if conveniently to carry out the does not deny the validity of the listening test. I do find it rather
desired. while it is handling a above nulling or differential test nulling test, saying that the displeasing to he classified as an
programme under normal and also to perform a initial puzzlement was resolved objectivist. since I ant very
working conditions but without comparison test involving when it was found that interested in music and do quite
the quite large masking effect of listening either to the direct - comparisons made with the a lot of recording of professional
the programme itself. This, 1 path sound or to that coating via Hatter switch unit still present concerts, which involves much
stated. gives one greatly the amplifier under test. The showed no audible differences. critical listening to the subtleties
increased aural discrimination, I latter amplifier passed the whereas when done in his usual of reproduced sound.
so that small defects may be nulling test - no imperfections manner, the amplifier Though I do not like having to
heard that would be missed by could he heard - nor could any differences were quite evident. say this, it does seem to me that
even the most "golden eared" differences be heard on the Even if the above quality the people with closed minds are
listener, such as Martin Colloms comparison test. Nevertheless, degradation by the switching those such as Messrs. Colloms
may well be, when listening in Martin says. another amplifier. unit and extra connections was and Stanley who simply refuse
the ordinary manner. With which did not do so well as the genuine. which seems extremely to face up to the accumulated
sufficiently good amplifiers. no Hatler on the nulling test, was a unlikely, it still does not explain evidence of manv carefully
imperfections at all can be higher sorer "by our the nulling test result. How can carried out independent
heard. established presentation an amplifier with no audible subjective amplifier assessment
Martin Colloms reviewed the methods for sound quality" - imperfections- for the switching trials, such as the Stereo Review
Hafler XL -280 amplifier in Ili -Fi which involve comparisons unit can hardly have made them one I mentioned in my letter.
News. June 1987. using a made without a switching unit less audible than they really Another very carefully carried
out subjective amplifier
investigation was described in
Crossover distortion the American magazine Audio
Iwould like to add a few words crossover region. If Tr] current lohm or greater and quiescent Amateur. 1/1980. More recently
on the article Reducing is increased (by reducing R3) the current of 50mA or less and my attention has been drawn to
Crossover Distortion by Mr. distortion may be further open -loop bandwidth of 100Hz a 1988 presentation to the
Michael McLoughlin reduced. or less. A good class B amplifier Chicago Section of the AES by
(EW+WW, October 1990). Anot'ter point is the audibility is the result of design Thomas Nousaine, entitled
I agree that most of the of the crossover spikes. In my compromises in all performance Blind Tests Erposed, in which
crossover problem may be dealt article I have shown that much aspects, including thermal the results of 18 published
with by applying more feedback. more harm is done by secondary stability. I like Mr. investigations are taken into
But, from Fig. 3, it is evident effects of feedback -loop McLoughlin's idea of avoiding account.
that there is also a direct feed - bandwidth modulation and the thermal runaway problem by All the above investigations
forward signal path from the Trt instantaneous feedback cut-out zeroing the quiescent current, have shown that provided
the emitter to output. Also, at than by the spikes themselves, but the fig 3 circuit may not be sufficient care is taken to ensure
crossover, Tr3 and Tr' form a Actually all too often we have then regarded as a typical class very accurate matching of signal
second complementary pair seen audio amplifiers with small B output stage. levels, together with the
which is active for most of the heat -sinks and output -stage Erik Margan avoidance of any form of
time the signal spends in emitter degeneration resistors of Ljubljana Yugoslavia overloading and/or hum. then
when a sufficient number of tests

10.4 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 199(1


LETTERS

are carried out with a proper carefully considered and non - negligible, however, with the
understanding of statistical evasive answer. The answer is types and values of resistor used
Deja view
procedures. the panels of judges "yes"! Nulling tests, the results in the feedback network of mote It's always rewarding to learn
are found to he unable to of independent subjective trials normal amplifiers.) your articles provoke further
distinguish one well -designed such as the Stereo Review one, It is true that most practical thought and generate feedback
amplifier from another. The my own experiences in critical capacitors have an impedance (J.D. Ryan. Smooth sampling.
amplifiers do not have to he very subjective quality assessment which is more complex than that September 1990).
expensive, for a very high price over many years. together with a of an ideal capacitance - this has Certain parts of Mr Ryan's
is more likely to be indicative of fairly full professional been known for many decades- argument could be presented
unenlightened and extravagant understanding of the many and that, by rigging up an more incisively using sequences
design than of true virtue. subtleties of modern amplifier appropriate balanced circuit together with z -transforms.
Martin says I chose to deny design, leave me with no with two different types of thereby removing ambiguity.
the results of his 1985 trial at the possible grounds for giving any capacitor in it. queer frequency Unfortunately the filter analogy
AES, while the statistician's other answer. responses and step responses of a moving coil meter,
opinion was positive. This is not The notion that the main may he produced. and their presented as a damped second -
a fair comment. because I made interest of the world high- effects made audible if desired, order system is incorrect.
no such denial. All I did was to fidelity industry is better sound as Martin Colloms has done. Perhaps this note will provide a
point out that if the number of strikes me. I much regret to say, But to conclude from this that sense of direction and encourage
"similar" and "different" as highly naive. for I'm afraid the sound quality of practical you to re -read the text more
presentations had been made the main interest in the larger power amplifiers must therefore critically. I must confess that the
equal. there would have been no part of this industry today is in he audibly affected by the choice suggested references we re all
need for the statistician to have making a profit in any way it can of capacitor types is an appalling new to rite, Brown's algorithm I
prefaced her remarks by saying whilst fooling the customer into example of totally unjustified had never heard of.
she had assumed that if there believing that the aim is ever extrapolation. The only When faced with a fresh
was no difference between the better sound. There are, attributes required for a problem or new challenge I
amplifiers then the probabilities fortunately, still some firms coupling capacitor are that it subconsciously ask "Have I seen
of obtaining "similar" or which are splendid exceptions to should be free from significant it before"? The suggested/
"different" answers would be this sordid state of affairs. but a leakage and should have a preferred form of the algorithm:
50:50. The assumption is member of one of these told me sufficiently low impedarce over
certainly not a safe one to make, there are times when he almost the whole audio spectrum. Who New estimate = old estimate
so that the validity of the final feels ashamed to belong to the says this impedance oust to be + u (new sample - old estimate)
result becomes dubious unless industry. that of an ideal capacitance? I
the kinds of presentation were Encouraging a belief in can see no argument at All in looked suspiciously similar to
correctly proportioned, and significant differences between favour of this. the recurrence relationship
Martin has still given no expensive amplifiers. in the The degree of absurdity that which characterizes a first -order
information on this point. audible differences between can he reached by the "passive low-pass digital filter. Expressed
Mentioning this possible different types of passive component brigade" is in terms of sequences:
shortcoming in the trial components, cables. connectors, illustrated by the statement
procedure does not constitute a etc. no doubt helps to promote made by Martin in his letter in v(tt)=)'(n- l )+u(x(n)- f (a- I ))
denial of the result. sales, even if no actual sonic Hi -Fi News, March 199(1.
I find myself in total benefits results. Imaginative .. it is not all that difficult to (The cap or hat symbolizes an
agreement with all the views reviewing helps all this along hear performance differences estimate)
expressed by Douglas Self in and provides plenty of work for between single 10012 resistors Converting from sequences to
two excellent articles-one in the reviewers. used as the input loading for a transforms, we may express the
your July 1988 issue and one in With regard to passive fine moving -coil cartridge". This transfer function of the filter
Hi-Fi News. August 1988. and a components, I know of no is definitely total nonsense. and H(z) as:
letter from him and P.W. King genuine evidence whatever to anyone who can believe it can
Y(z) uz
in Hi -Fi News, August 1986 also suggest that these are ever a clearly believe and say almost H(z) =
casts doubts on the soundness of source of audible quality anything. I suspect that Martin,
X(z) z - I + u

the procedure in Martin's 1985 differences in any normal well - on reflection. must really know
trial. designed amplifier. Indeed, in a it is nonsense. As it stand. I am Clearly, the system pole is
One cannot help noticing, good amplifier with plenty of afraid it is liable to detract situated on the real axis, located
over the years, that Martin has overall negative feedback, the greatly from the general where z = I-u. Naturally for
several times come up against only passive components that credibility of Martin's other low-pass filtering the range of
the results of carefully organised could conceivably have any writings. the "smoothing constant" will he
independent trials that do not effect on sound quality would i think that, just like myself, 0<u<1. not 0 to I as advertised.
support the validity of his normally he the two resistors in Martin and his associates are not I'm not being pedantic. if you've
"established presentation the -arm, and decent resistors
13 actually all that good at judging got time check out the effect on
methods for sound quality". but of adequate rating simply do not very small and subtle differences the impulse response. For
that he has been only produce quality degradation - in sound reproduction, stability the system pole should
temporarily influenced by them. with a large margin to spare. (In especially when the lie within the unit circle. in this
His aim seems to have been to a high -output -impedance presentations are well spaced case the limits of stability are
search for any evidence that will current -drive amplifier I out in time. All human beings exclusively real determined by z
justify his rating system. rather designed for KEF Electronics have limitations in these = ± I. Obviously the range of
than to adopt an unprejudiced Ltd., a 0.2252 wire -wound respects. even if regarded as smoothing constant
attitude of trying to find out resistor used for current - "golden eared", and are, commensurate with a well
what is the truth about these monitoring was found to moreover, highly subject to behaved system will be 0<u<2.
matters. produce about 0.06% odd - psychological influences of For values of smoothing
Martin asks "Does Peter still harmonic distortion, which was various kinds. I suggest that it is constant in the range of 1<u<2.
need to imply that my subjective surprising. Investigation quite unrealistic for Martin to the filter exhibits high-pass
reporting is at best unreliable ultimately established that the feel that he is somehow an characteristics. the impulse
and unverifiable. and at worst, distortion was caused by B -H exception to all this. response oscillating at half the
imaginary?" This is a fair curve effects in the ferrous end Peter J. l3axandall sampling frequency.
question which deserves a caps. Such effects are quite Malvern Remembering that z = esT, we
Worcs.

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD+ WIRELESS WORLD 1045


LETTERS

substitute and commute steady state value. where n, is even


between domains to obtain the I hope this note helps to put
location of the s -domain pole (T the record straight and
is the sampling period). encour Ages readers to think
+ na(naI _ I)
[sin(n- I)u+sin(n- I)13]
about the statistical analysis of
s
In(1 - u)
data in signal processing terms.
Howard Hutchings + [sin(no+ l)u+sin(n+ 1)(3] sin nax}
n(na+
As usual the time constant of the Humberside College of Higher
filter is the reciprocal of the Education
system pole. Obviously small Hull. where no is odd, na# I.
values of u give rise to a large
time constant and the filter can
only track or follow trends
slowly, without overshooting the Two special cases are of interest: the symmetrically clipped
wave and the half -cycle clipped wave.
Symmetrical clipping. Figure 2 shows the sine wave with equal
positive and negative clipping. Angles u and (3 are equal and
Clipped -sine Fourier analysis dBp=dl3n.
The Fourier equation for Fig. 2 is
The analysis of a clipped sine wave is not often found in the
standard texts, at least in those I have to hand. The results of a
little DIY work may he of interest to other readers.
Asymmetrically clipped sine wave. Figure I shows the wave 2v {(ti+ sin22u
) sin x
y=vsinx with the negative half -cycle clipped to the value -v/C
and the positive half clipped to v/Cp. Clipping is usually referred
to in terms of "dB clipping"; in this case. r sin(na- I)u sin(n+ 1)u
` n(n- I) n(n+ 1)
dBp=201ogCdB
where no is odd, no 1.
Cr =lOdnt+zo
and
dBn=201ogCnd6 There are no even harmonics in
this case.
Cn= 10dAn2" Half-cycle clipping. The sine
wave of Fig. 3 is clipped on the
a =Siñ' '4a C.10"'"°'
The onset of clipping in the positive half -cycle only. Here. v
P
positive half-cycle occurs at an Cp=101aeo/20l p= n/2 and dBn=O. The relevant
angle u radians. When Cn,101a../20) equation is

x=u, y=vsinu=v/C
v/C=v sin u y u) si'u
sin u=l/C1, cosu
-n p -n)
Y= Tr{[(
Or
(n -a)
u=sin-1 1/Cp. v
a
i n

Similarly.
Cn
+ [u+) sil u
sinx
sin j3= l /Cn
or
I/C.
[cos(n,. - 1)u cos(n, + 1)u 1
cos ilex
f3=s)n-1 Fig. 1
+ ne(n, - I) ne(n, + I)

Note that, with no clipping, C),=C= I and u=(3= n/2; with


infinite clipping Cp=C=CO and u=13=0; with symmetrical
clipping, Ct,=C and u=(3. where ne is even
The Fourier equation for the waveform in Fig. I is
[ sin(n- 1)u sin(na+ 1)u 1
sinnx
}
na(na- I) na(na + I)
= ñ{ [cos (3-cosu+( -u)sinu-1\ -f3)sin(31 + +

sin22u sin20
+[u+(3+ ]sinx where no is odd. na# 1.

This reduces to the classic half -wave rectifier Fourier equation


[cos(n.- 1)u-cos(n,- 1)1 when u=0 and the odd harmonics disappear.
+ ne(ne-
James E. Diggins
South Ascot
[cos(ne+1)u-cos(ne+1)j3]cosncx
+ ne(ne+1) Berkshire

1046 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


NEURAL COMPUTING

oftware engineering advances


such as 4GLs have made soft-
ware cheaper and quicker to
develop. Nevertheless, a num-
ber of areas remains where the
'software bottleneck' is a problem - it's
Harnessing
neural
easier to see an application than to
code and debug it. A principal diffi-
culty is the so-called 'knowledge
acquisition bottleneck' that slows the
construction of artificial intelligence
and robotics applications.

networks
Exhaustively stating the rules
required by artificially intelligent sys-
tems to deal with all possible circumst-
ances is effectively impossible, even if
the principles could be extracted from
experts in the first place. Biological
systems deal with such problems in a (See box: what happens in a node?).
remarkably robust fashion - and they Neural networks are All the processing in a neural network
do not need to be programmed. learn-
more than a is carried out by these units - there is
ing instead from experience. The pat- no 'executive' or 'overseer.' Networks
tern recognition, motor control and
memory feats of the world of biology
laboratory curiosity. are trained on data for which 'the right
answer' is known, after which they
are so impressive it makes obvious They find should be able to generalise what they
sense to try to understand and repro- know, responding correctly to novel
duce the mechanisms involved. The applications in data. They represent a powerful
goal is reverse engineering the brain. alternative method of computing and
The result is neurocomputing. medical diagnostics, have already found a wide range of

Basics
weather forecasting, applications.

Artificial neural networks are densely financial markets. Pattern recognition. An archetypal
interconnected webs of simple proces- neural network application is pattern
sing units - hard -wiredor software They have the power recognition. Almost any pattern recog-
simulated - that are not
programmed to make sense out of nition problem can be cast in a form
but instead learn to solve problems. suitable for neurocomputing. and the
Such systems mimic physiology by rep- patterns. Nick Beard list of examples is very long. Neural
resenting neurones (nerve cells) as nets have not solved all the problems of
individual nodes or units. Each unit and Antonia Jones difficult pattern recognition tasks, but
receives signals from many other units. are now a valuable addition to the
If the necessary threshold is reached, explain. armoury. For example, they have been
the unit sends a signal to other units. used in sonar target classification,

A ballistics simulation using Neural Works software. This The PC platform provides a relatively easy method of setting up
network can predict an impact point within 5% of the figure networks. However, even with user fine tuning from entry fields
expected by classic calculation. like these; software nets run slowly.

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111-18 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December I99Ú


NEURAL COMPUTING

radar signal analysis, handwriting rec- What nappens Insid9 a node?


ognition and electrocardiogram inter-
pretation.
There are no explicit memory or proces- signals. The input is then transformed
sing locations in neural networks. Mem- according to the network transfer or
Image compression. Nets have been ory and processing capacity are implicit activation function. This is usually a
used to find efficient representations to in the interconnections between the sigmoidal curve function, though many
enable image specifications to be com- nodes. Also, there is no overall super- varieties of function have been studied,
pressed for transmission. The network visor, each node having the same simple such as step and linear functions. Gener-
was able to retrieve a high-fidelity features. It is the combined effect of ally, all that matters is that the function be
many such nodes acting in concert that continuous and non-linear. The math-
reconstruction of the image after trans- gives neural networks their power. A ematics of this observation are beyond
mission. (See diagram). node receives signals, transforms them the scope of this article, but interested
and sends signals on. Not all the sources readers are referred to McClelland and
System modelling. Chaotic systems - of signals will be of equal importance, so Rumelhart (1986). In summary, if the
dynamic systems that are theoretically a weight -a measure of this importance function is discontinuous, then it is non -
deterministic but unpredictable in prac- - is attached to each connection. It is by differentiable, which interferes with the
varying these connection strengths that
-
tice are commonplace. An example is
networks learn. The various inputs to a
development of the training algorithm
(see box Back propagation). If it is linear,
the weather. Many such systems are node are each multiplied by their respec- then the advantages of multiple layers
often treated as random, but if the tive weights and the results added are lost (see box The hidden layer).
underlying dynamics can be gleaned, together for the node input total. It is important to distinguish between
better predictions might follow than As in real neurones - nerve cells - two phases of network operation: learn-
statistical methods would suggest. Neu- connections may be stimulatory or inhibi- ing and recall. These are determined by
tory, and in artificial networks this means whether or not the node interconnections
ral nets are sometimes able to extract
simply positive or negative weights or weights are variable.
the underlying dynamics, and make
effective predictions. An obvious
application of such forecasting is eco-
nomic modelling, where the technique questions include: what network para- Unsupervised nets are simply pre-
has been used to better effect than digm should be used? Should it be sented with data, and self-organise
moving -average predictions. supervised or unsupervised? How without any external guidance (such as
should the data be represented? Should from the programmer). One example is
Getting the job done the application be fresh -coded, or is an the Kohonen topologising network.
The process of developing a neural off -the -shelf package available? This is a matrix of units with intercon-
network remains something of an There are a number of different nections that are stimulatory to near
alchemic business. Nevertheless, some paradigms to choose from, each with neighbours but inhibitory to more dis-
principles are emerging. The first ques- distinct strengths and weaknesses. A tant units. This is deliberately 'wired'
tion. as in any software development network is defined by three attributes: a`ter the human cerebral cortex. On
programme, is to decide precisely what the network architecture ('wiring dia- presentation of each item of the input
you want the system to do. With gram'), the transfer function (formula data, the interconnection weights of
neurocomputing, this means "asking individual units use to process signals), the maximally responding node are
the network the right question", and the training algorithm (the method updated. There is no 'correct answer'.
teaching it a meaningful classification by which the interconnections are the weights are changed by some frac-
system. For example. in training a adjusted in the light of experience). tion of the difference between the
credit -rating network, it is better to For detailed discussion of these, read- weight and the input signal. The net-
teach it to classify cases as "lend", "do ers are referred to Wasserman (1989). work converges on a 'feature map' of
not lend" or "refer- than to predict an A further distinction is between the data used to train it. One example
accurate loan risk probability. Further supervised and unsupervised nets. of an application for these networks is

Noise filtering with Neural Works. The input and output layers Results of processing: the lower trace shows the original trace
use the same number of processing elements so that the filtered with 30% noise addition, the upper trace the filtered result.
signal may be accurately reconstructed.

N019111L90111G IX/MP12 IY191,.1611k11<a [merit

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December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD+WIRELESS WORLD 1049


NEURAL NETWORK COMPUTING

What is the training input File (<AETBI*1> for default) 1


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105(1 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


NEURAL COMPUTING

the phonetic typewriter, already being


The hidden layer
implemented commercially.
In contrast, supervised networks use
sample vector pairs (input and output) There are usually three types of node:
which are presented to the network in input, output and hidden. These are
sequence. Desired outputs must he arranged in layers, usually fully intercon-
known, unlike unsupervised nets. A -
nected between layers i.e. each node is
connected to every node in the adjacent
training algorithm is applied to the layer. Input layers have their activation
network to adjust the inter -node con- set by the user: this is the data input.
nection strengths and effect learning. These input signals propagate through
The simplest supervised network is the network until a signal is formed at the
the perceptron, which was developed output layer. So the user has 'direct
access' to the input and output nodes. Fig.1. simple nets can only solve
in the 1950s by Frank Rosenblatt. This
However, in between are the hidden simple problems
is a network with only one layer of nodes. These are necessary for the However, the user has no direct con-
adjustable connections, and can learn netwcrk to form 'internal representations' nection with the hidden nodes, so train-
to classify patterns into two categories. of problems. Without them, there are ing them is difficult: how can we know
It has significant limitations, however, severe limits on the types of problems how these nodes should behave?
which were recognised by Marvin that nets can solve. Specifically, they are According to Minsky and Papert, seeking
unable to classify items that are not such solutions was likely to be a sterile
Minsky and Seymour Papert. Their linearly separable (see Fig.1). The clas- project. In fact, solutions to this problem
hook, Perceptions, effectively stopped sic example is the exclusive -Or (XOr) prompted the resurgence of research
neural networks research for two problem (A or B but not both). To solve and investment in neural networks in the
decades. Readers interested in a more XOr (and similar) problems, more layers last decade. One of the most successful
detailed history of neurocomputing are are required, to enable the network to has been the back -propagation of errors
referred to Simpson (1990). (See box: build an internal representation of the method, (see box Back propagation),
problem. another is simulated annealling.
hidden layer.)

Solutions rise dramatically. However, the result- by some means of determining the
Several techniques were developed ing network learns very quickly, and if lowest error point in the space.
which did overcome earlier limitations. the dimensional enhancement is car-
Back -propagation of errors. (see box: ried out appropriately, only a single
hack -prop) has proved a reliable 'work- layer network is needed. What happens?
horse' approach. Back -prop nets are A network does not always The basic operation of neural networks
multi -layered perceptrons, With a gra- immediately converge on the ideal is classifying patterns. This is roughly
dient descent learning method that also solution. The output error may settle equivalent to 'curve fitting' in the
finds weights for hidden layers in the on a stable high -error value, or else high -dimensional space. though in a
network. Patterns are presented to the may oscillate wildly between high and fashion that is not yet susceptible to
input layer of the network, producing a low error states. The process of train- rigorous mathematical analysis. A
random output because all the initial ing a network is one of searching an problem when training a network on
node -interconnection weights are ran- "error surface" for the set of intercon- complex datasets is 'false minima'. The
dom. These weights are then modified nection weights that will solve the training process involves searching an
by the hack -propagation algorithm. problem. This "surface" is in fact a
The difference between the random
error 'surface' by gradient descent, and
high -dimensional space, with each the network can sometimes get stuck in
output and the desired output is used to dimension representing the weights for an error pit that is not a sufficiently low
derive an adjustment factor which is a particular node. Networks are trained error to give a useful solution. One
then propagated hack through the net-
approach is to add noise to the weights
work, changing the weights. The net- Nets in hardware can perform image at each learning cycle, to jolt the
work error gradually converges on a compression and reconstruction with a network out of false minima when
solution - as a set of weights that useful degree of accuracy. necessary. Oscillating weights are com-
produce the desired output for all the
training data is found. The network
should then have generalised - and be
Input image Reconstructed image
able to classify patterns it has never
'seen' before.
A fast variant of hack -prop is the
functional -link network, where the
dimension of the pattern representa-
tion space is expanded. An example is
where additional inputs are provided to
the network, using trigonometric func-
tions applied to the raw imput data
multiplied by factors of IT.
For example, it the input pattern is
(x1, x2. x3), we may instead use (x,, x2,
1 !
x3, xix2, x2x3, xix3, xrx2x3) or some Input map laye Inverse map layer
pruned subset of these parameters. The
Encoding laye (for transmission)
obvious disadvantages of this approach
is that the scale of the input layer can

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD 1051


NEURAL COMPUTING

batted by adding an extra term - called other values can he displayed if of


momentum - to the error signal (see
"It is not always clear interest.
box on back prop) in the learning how a network has Data preprocessing will almost
algorithm, to keep the network moving always be required in neurocomputing
rapidly towards the required solution, solved a problem and applications. For example, when data
but slowing it down as it begins to items are absent some alternative value
converge and becomes more sensitive
so its conclusions must is needed, usually the mean for that
field. NeuralWorks minimises the
to weight changes. be checked trauma of I/O handling. Node transfer
Data representation empirically" functions expect input values between
0 and 1, and usually constrain the
With a singlee layer of input nodes,
should not he used in training the net, output to that range too. This can he an
data representation requires some
and should be retained for testing. added complication to the data pre-
thought. Is the representation to be
digital or analogue? The choice processing stage, but NeuralWorks
depends on the type of data involved,
Software: program or helps by scanning input files to find the
and its suitability to a digital repre- purchase? minimum and maximum 'real world'
A frequent question when about to values to produce a 'MinMax' chart.
sentation. In addition, an analogue
representation makes less sense if the embark on any project is 'package or The user can then specify the range of
values to he presented at each input
output nodes use a clipped (threshold) bespoke'? Should you buy off -the -shelf
transfer function. software, or code -up from scratch? field. Scales and offsets are calculated
The next choice is between local and There are no simple answers. If the automatically. To make life even
distributed representations. Represent- goal is to produce working nets quickly easier, NeuralWorks accepts data in
ing the 26 letters of the alphabet with a and with the minimum of fuss, then it numerous formats, including ".PRN"
as used by Lotus 123 and Excel, binary,
local representation would require 26 makes sense to use one of the commer-
digital nodes, each one representing a cial packages. An examination of com- and its own ASCII -based format. Users
different letter. A distributed repre- mercial software provides insight into can write their own I/O functions, to be
sentation could represent the numbers the development process. called by NeuralWorks.
0 to 8 with three nodes using binary
A recent addition to the program is
coding. There are variants on these NeuralWorks. NeuralWorks Profes- the User -refined Neurodynamics add-
themes, such as using a 'histogram' sional -II is an advanced network on, which allows advanced users to
representation along the input layer. A development environment, available develop their own summation, trans-
local representation requires less learn- for PCs, Mac, Sun workstations or fer, output, error and learning func-
ing by the network. N -Cubes. It is mouse -and -menu tions in C, and to link them to Neural -
It is not always clear how a network driven, enabling a wide variety of Works. Samples are provided to sug-
has solved a problem, and so its conclu- customisable networks to be selected gest methods of implementing novel
sions must he checked empirically. At and configured to any particular functions.
least a third of the available data application. An outstanding feature of NeuralWorks is a serious package,
the software is the documentation, for real applications. It would as well
Back propagation which contains a text -book -quality serve a neurocomputing lab as it would
introduction to neurocomputing as well an industrial computer consultant oper-
Back prop is one of the most widely used
methods of training neural nets. This was as a detailed description of how to use ating in this field (and there are an
developed independently by several peo- the software. increasing number of them!). Neural -
ple, but was made widely known after The networks 'provided' within Works can he also used in conjunction
cognitive scientists Rumelhart, Hinton NeuralWorks include: Adaline, ART1 with the Designer Pack, which takes
and Williams described it in Nature in networks that were trained and tested
1986. It had the immediate effect of
(adaptive resonance theory), BAM
(bidirectional associative memory), in the NeuralWorks development
answering Minsky and Papert's criticisms
of perceptrons that had stifled neural numerous back -prop variants, counter environment, and turns them into C
network research. propagation nets, Hamming, Hopfield. source code. As the product prom-
In order to train a back -prop net, a Madaline and Perceptron networks, otional leaflet notes: 1 did it on my PC
series of patterns for which the correct and many others. but the boss wants it on the mainframe!
answer is known is presented to the input NeuralWorks is an extremely power-
layer of the network. This could be state
The opening menu includes help,
Instanet, and various network defini- ful package, offering a good combina-
of the stock market for which the next
days' prices are known. After each pat- tion options (layer, unit, connection, tion of flexibility and functionality. It
tern in the series, the actual output of the etc). lnstanet is a quick way to get places neurocomputing properly in the
network (which will usually initially be started. It provides ready-made con- world of real engineering.
random) is compared with the desired structions of most of the common
output. This difference is 'fed into' a
formula based on the first derivative of
neural net paradigms, which are readily
the network transfer function, to derive user -definable to fit particular applica-
an error signal - positive or negative - tions. Nick Beard trained in medicine and
that is then added to all the nodes in the The network is initialised with ran- psychiatry before joining the computer
industry. He also recently completed an MSc
network. dom or user -defined weights, and then
This method will gradually minimise in knowledge based systems at Imperial
needs to know the title of the training
the output error, though it is only guaran- College. Ile is an IT consultant with Price
teed to find the local minimum, not the
data files. A further menu option is Waterhouse.
global minimum. Repeated attempts at used to display an 'Instrument', which Antonia Jones is a Senior Lecuturer in
training the net may be necessary to is a graphical representation of any of Computing at Imperial College, London,
optimise its performance. the network parameters. Commonly working in the field of adaptive pattern
this will he the output layer error, but recognition and neural nets.

1052 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


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I)ecenlhei I9t)I1 ELECTRONICS \VOIZLI)r\VII2ELESS \VOIZLI)


REVIEW

The Fuzzy Set Comparator e"a-


Iuation kit is based on the
MD1210 chip from Micro
Devices, which allows the
comparison of an unknown
set of data against several known pat-
Neural nets
and fuzzy
terns to find the closest match even (or
especially!) when the data doesn't
match exactly.

MD1210
In the MDI210 chip, a serial input data

-
sets
stream is compared with patterns pre-
viously stored in memory ram, rom
or both. If the input stream is not too
different from one of the stored pat-
terns, a match is declared (see Fig. I).
Each chip compares its input with up
to eight patterns, and up to 32 chips can accumulators. An incoming pattern is
he interconnected to compare simul-
An evaluation kit converted to parallel words, and com-
pared, word by word, with the known
taneously 256 patterns with one
unknown. Each pattern may be up to
from Tubb Research patterns stored in memory.
64K bits long (longer with extra ha -d - demonstrates the A difference value is accumulated
for each of the known patterns, as the
ware), and can he formatted as words
from I to H hits wide; the chip takes application of a sum of the absolute difference between
care of mapping, say, an 8K by 8 -hit the known and input words. Thus, after
image into the 64Kbit memory.
MD1210 fuzzy set the unknown pattern has been input,
MD1210 performs many comparisons comparator, which each of the known patterns will have a
16 -hit value which indicates how close
in parallel and at high speed. the
unknown input pattern being accepted uses a neural it was to the input pattern. The "win-
at up to 2OMhit/s. ning" pattern is the one with the lowest
An unusual aspect of the 1210 is that
network to compare closeness value, provided that it is not
greater than a preset threshold value.
it uses a neural network internally to
identify the nearest matching pattern.
data with known The neural network, which is
Surprisingly, it doesn't use the network patterns. entirely pre-programmed to perform its
task, and cannot he altered, performs
in the matching process directly, but as
a replacement for conventional logic to Steven Franks this final comparison of eight 16 -bit
determine the least of eight 16 -hit values, together with the threshold

Threshold
Value

Magnitude
Compara tor Accumulator
Input dato 1 )
Neural
Network
) Winner
Dato 4 4
from 5 5
RAMs
7 7

1
Expansion
RAM bus to
Bus <
Control Address other chips
Interface Counter

Fig. 1. Simplified block diagram of the


MDI210 chip. The magnitude
comparators also perform the serial-to- Address
parallel conversion if the data has more select
than 1 bit per word. to RAMS

1054 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


REVIEW

value and those from any In the 1210, any one of the
other connected 1210 chips. Disable (Read/Write) 0

It is interesting to see the 7[ 61 5 1. 1


31 2 1' a
ready, overflow, learn or win
conditions triggers inter-
technology appearing in this Logic disables selected accunulator
1
rupts, which can he selec-
way, as a means to an end Field size / Learn (React/Write) tively disabled. Overflow
1

rather than the core around 7 6 3


occurs during the data entry
3 2 I 0
which the rest of the system NI/1.0
1 1

ENABLE
1

RAN SELECT
1

mode if any of the accumula-


FIELD LENGTH
is based. SELECT
LEARN tors cycles past FFFF(hex),
ID select (Read/Write) 2 although the chip will
Evaluation kit 7 6 5 A 3 2
automatically remove the
a

A PC card carrying one


1
1 1 1

accumulator from the com-


1

R SYNC RST k

MD1210 chip and software 0 0 0


DEVICE ID
parisons. A learn interrupt is
that runs under Windows Threshold control (Recd/Write) 3 caused by an incoming data
version 2 compose the kit. 7/ID 6/14 3/13 4/12 3/11 2/D 1/9 0/8 stream that has been written
1

Run-time Windows is sup-


1 1 1 1 1 1

TNRESHOLD (13-0) to ram not matching any


plied for those people that existing data (i.e. a new pic-
do not already have it. There Interrupt control (Redd/Write) 4 ture has arrived). Ready and
are 64Kbit of ram for each of 7 6 5 A 3 0 1 0 win interrupts are self-
the eight channels and a LRN ROY VIN OVE LRN ROY WIN OVE
explanatory.
STATUS CLEARS WITH READ
- ENABLE
video input that can supply One can open further win-
the "unknown" data, which RAM access (Read/Write) 5 dows to display the contents
can he stored for later recog- 6 7 1 5 1 1. 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0
of each of the pattern rams.
nition. RAN DATA READ AND VRITE PER PATTERN RAN, (1 BIT
If system memory allows, all
Documentation takes the Accumulator overflow (Read) eight can he on screen at
6
form of a data sheet for the
1210 and a manual for the kit
6 7 1 3 1 1. 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0
once, although this leaves
very little screen area for
CLEARS VITH READ
in the form of a spiral -hound anything else! This is only of
hook containing installation ' Win (Read) 7 real use when working with
instructions, an overview of 7 6 1 s 1
2 I I
3
I
1 1 0 the video input (or the sam-
the 1210, a section on Fuzzy WINNING RAN WINNING DEVICE ple images supplied), but
Logic theory, a full descrip- does give a distinctive pat-
tion of the hardware and a series of Fig. 2. MDI210 register set. The eight tern for other data. Video input is
experiments that demonstrate the accumulators can also be read, so that monochrome only, but the pictures can
1210. However, some of this is super- the chip needs a total of 16 addresses. Bit he displayed in mono or false colour, as
seded by a UK update, which some- 7 of register I controls access to the high in Fig. 4. The system maps each of the
times makes it hard to find information and low bytes of 16 -bit values. grey levels to a different colour, which
easily. Update UK1.00, which does not surprisingly results in a better display
correspond with the software, came than the straight monochrome image.
with the kit and caused some confu- would take the chip through at least To load the pattern rams, the chip
sion, but Tubb Research was prepared three of its four modes: reset, which has a "learn" variation of the data entry
both to post and to fax the correct does what its name suggests; data mode, which channels the input data
version (UK1.01). entry, which allows the input of into a selected ram; comparison with
unknown data; and report, which tells the other rams can he performed simul-
Software the chip to perform the comparison of taneously. In the development system,
Running under Windows allows the the accumulators. The fourth mode,
software to present a pleasant face to wait, is entered at any time
the world. It allows a wide range of between hits of input data -ato allow
including - the software allows many or all rams to
he loaded from different files in one
operation and gives the rams the name
control, from bit manipulation of the any synchronisation required. In the of the file from which they were
1210 registers through to demonstra- kit, data entry is from the video input, loaded.
tions of the chip's abilities, using pic- a disk file or one of the rams; in this last Video input provides an excellent
tures. The diversity of commands case that ram would normally he example of the capabilities of the chip.
would he confusing if it were not for excluded from the comparisons. It grabs 192 samples per line, every
the experiments described in the manu- Another scrollable window, attached other line, in the odd frames only, the
als, which give clear demonstrations at to the main window, shows a history of samples being in the form of 2 -bit grey
all levels. interrupts generated by the chip. scales. This sampling method reduces
A main screen always shows the Although the card can generate true the data to fit into 64Kbit, but still
current contents of all the 1210 regis- interrupts, under the Windows soft- leaves (just) recognisable pictures.
ters, which can be changed merely by ware these are disabled and the 1210 Having learned several pictures, the
overtyping with new values (Figs. 2 and registers polled to produce this chip will decide whether live input from
3). The system defaults to showing information. The number of interrupts the camera matches any of the known
control registers in binary, and address remembered was a little unpredictable scenes. Despite the fact that the kit
and counter registers in hexadecimal, (perhaps it is dependent on memory) runs the 1210 at nowhere near full
but allows hex. and decimal respec- and, when scrolling hack, the first few speed, matching is effectively instant;
tively as an option. lines of the list always contained rub- the only delays are caused by updating
Apart from setting the registers, the bish. However, it never failed to recall the on -screen display of the incoming
screen allows control of the mode of at least a dozen messages, which would image, if present. It is here that a fast
the 1210. In normal use, a comparison he enough for most purposes. processor and display card are highly

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD 1055


REVIEW

- ,Neural Network Evaluation - Neural Network Evaluation

EIlr Setup Source tear. Groh S I/ file Setup Source Iearn 5r7.0 Soon 1 tNelvp
t
D I SABI E I1111111NI1111 ACCU.0 7 1D 111x151101 D 0Ú1111 DI SAKE i 01111110111 ACCnrlll OliOs 10Rt5NnLD QI¢
I III 11/1 RN 11111111101111 ACCUIII 111:/7 EIELD/LAN 110111 UÚ111 ACCUItt aC76
ADDRESS 1111110
ID. 111111111111 I ACCUlt7
n00R1SS CO..
ID. 01101111111 ACC11117 71111 2110:1

I NI1 PIMP 1 1100111111 AILING 777, INILAAUPI 11110111 1 1 1 ACCIIIr.I 7737 -non ilndr
PAT -R.11 IIII011i1101 ACI:III14 u1 AA Iracr tur[74311]SlrpS
'Al1 Anil
O01 HILO)/ 0110111111111 ACCUIIS 31CC
11 1X1(0 Step
EXPANSION 10.1111111 nCC1111n 7053
IxPnNSI
PtGn
AP.CIII17 NBA/

1 Pao{x
xaJix-----¡I 1¡NJdI (11h11) (0a{t ) (xrSet Ilap
M)D(11ary 11IrfN lDec (nallallleN
Dinar I

1 l,

III) ISC Passed systrql tesl. .II address 0:11111


I1I Ready Inlrrrupl
Iinl.
e t ISC I'a'.srJ .`'1Irn 1r.i.
_ _.
.A Add e n1011 (71 Illn In11rru71 /6' SI5 Jrvlre 11

desirable, as they both significantly Fig. 3. Main screen. Register values can world application this would depend on
affect the screen update rate. he changed by overtyping, except the lop the images to he recognised being
Since there is rudimentary control of bytes of the accumulators. sufficiently dissimilar.
contrast and no brightness adjustment The development system concen-
at all, the interface supplied would not Fig. 4. Images displayed in mono and trates on the video images, because
he suitable for a final production sys- false colour. Default size is optimised for
these provide a good demonstration of
tem. However, as a demonstration of fast screen updates, but they can he sizedthe 1210. However, there is full sup-
the 1210, it is quite spectacular and I and stretched like any window. "Linda" port for those wishing to experiment
had no difficulty in connecting a is one of the sample images, which are all
with their own data. A separate
camera. Synchronisation was not per- of employees of Micro Devices. application note describes modifica-
fect with videotape output, but with the tions to the video interface to accept
adjustments provided (hardware con- technique to show the tour levels of other signals and full circuit diagrams
trast control and software for synchro- grey. (including listings of the pals) are
nisation), the camera performed per- While being transferred to and from included.
fectly. disk, any picture may have noise added Software drivers are provided in
Using the development kit, incoming to it in t).tlle/o, 0.1%, 1% or i0% source form and are very comprehen-
pictures can be learned into memory increments, as in Fig. 5. This is used to sive, including a number of routines
and subsequently stored on disk. demonstrate matching when no video which are not directly relevant to the
Stored pictures can be printed (using source is available and is a good 1210, but which might prove useful.
any printer supported by Window;.), demonstration of non -exact matching. The interface code used in the develop-
but the system does not appear to allow The chip was most impressive in its ment kit is also included, as a working
for the grey -scale information, with the ability to recognise correctly pictures example. All the code contains enough
result that printed output does not buried in noise, although in a real -comments to be readable to a compe-
exactly match the data the chip is tent C programmer and is in Microsoft
"seeing". Given that the pictures are Fig. 5. Testing pattern matching ability C 5.1 (apart from a minor excursion
small, it would he better to enlarge the with video picture material. The into 818ó assembler for the display
printed area by a factor of two in ea:h development board could happily sort out example), but should be transportable
dimension to allow a simple ditlieriig pictures with rap to 10% added noise to other systems with little effort. The
superimposed on the signal. manual is at pains to point out that the
code is non-proprietary. and may be
1W ral Network Evaluation modified and used as desired without
File Setup Source learn Fran Shod
incurring royalties.
D I 5.111 1 1111111111111111 ACt.1111A 77311 1IIN151101 a 11111111

I111 D/LAN 11001.11011 A0CUI11 nl 1 t.


011001 SS 11111111
ID.
I NI I 111111111
11011111011

II11111111' 1
A000IG 711x
nCIINJ 737,
Applications
PAl 11.11=
01i II SEW- Ij h1í)1211) is probably at its best in a
OW x11 OW
dedicated (or turnkey) system, rather
I xPANiI011
than being added to a general-purpose
11,410
computer such as a PC. Any system
. Ill n.ry that performs pattern matching could
x benefit, although the best gains would
j.01 I SC P4,....1P4,....1 len Il,lti al adltrr.. 113 on
be where the patterns to be matched
are at least several khit in size.
Used directly with raw data, the chip
has many applications based on picto-
rial input, either from a video camera
or a flat-bed scanner. Possibilities that
spring to mind include production -line

1056 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


REVIEW

quality -control systems, especially System requirements The NI D1210 chip itself is a capable
those where slight variation is accept- device, which can perform fuzzy com-
able, such as in food or confectionery The FSC evaluation kit requires at least a parisons which would he prohibitively
production, simple character - PC capable of running Windows, i.e. expensive to implement any other way.
recognition systems and paper currency 512K memory and a graphics screen. A I would prefer to have a parallel input

recognition. Systems could also find mouse is recommended. To make best function, although this would need
use in medical or biochemical labor- use of the kit, Tubb recommend a extra pins. They could he found by
atories to automate routine tests. Non - minimum of an EGA screen and a
12MHz i286 processor and they claim changing the memory interface to a
pictorial uses might include noise multiplexed form suitable for dynamic
excellent results from a 16 -bit VGA
analysis of machinery to detect faults
before complete breakdown
application that is currently very
- an
screen with a 25MHz 1386. memories and the chip could then also
provide the refresh function. However,
this would make interface to roms
expensive to implement. relative positions of ridges, and match more difficult. so there are arguments
One problem with all the compari- the resulting data. for both sides.
sons is that the chip cannot cope with I would recommend anyone who
"offset" data when the object in a Conclusion thinks they may have an application for
picture is slightly to the left or right of This kit is one of the best I have this chip to get the evaluation kit. Even
the learned pictures. I lowever, in encountered; it has been well thought if you don't use the chip after all. you
many cases it may be possible to through to provide an excellent intro- can have fun learning about it!
eliminate this by pre-processing the duction to the 1210 chip. Documenta-
data; for example, rather than attempt tion would he improved by incorporat-
to match speech input directly with ing the addenda into the main hook,
"known" words, the speech could be but the existing organisation is not a
analysed into sound type and length, major drawback. The kit makes it very ttpplier
and this data compared with known easy to learn the capabilities of the The FSC evaluation kit costs £499 + vat
values. Similarly, rather than compar- 1210, and it can answer most, if not all, and is available from Tubb Research
ing pictures of fingerprints directly, of the small but important detailed Ltd., 7a Levant Street, Petersfield,
which would not allow for stretching or questions that always crop up during Hampshire GU32 3EL Telephone: (0730)
other distortions, one could analyse the design and testing of a product. 60256 Fax: (0730) 60466

PC WAVEFORM GENERATOR
INTELLIGENT MEASUREMENT
AND CONTROL
j ' lj o
FEATURES ---
*
*
Powerful complex
waveform generator
Four analogue outputs
*
APPLICATIONS
Arbitrary waveform
simulator
I ;. :
wr....1,.ss`9.
-. Ca ..

* Five TTL outputs * Low cost ATE


*
*
External trigger input * Process control MM C400 SERIES
Up to 6MHz clock rate * Robotics
* Comprehensive FREE DEMO DISK * MCS-52 basic with full floating point and trig functions
software included ON REQUEST * Four 12 bit A to D converter, 25p secs conversion
* Standard waveform * One 12 bit D to A converter
library * Battery backed real time clock
* User definable * 32K Battery backed RAM
waveform library We also supply a full range * 16K Eprom and on board Eprom programmer
* Full graphical editor of DIY parts for PCs and * Six by eight bit digital ports
* Time delay, continuous clones. Call us for more * RS232 and networked RS485 interface
& single shot information or a free * Serial printer port
* Example microcode catalogue. * Direct drive to a LCD/Vacuum fluorescent display and user
and assembler also defined keypad or VDU
included for OEM * Automatically calibrates to any dumb terminal
applications.
Unit 14A,
Sunrise Business Park,
WARWICK INDUSTRIAL
BLACKMORE
ELECTRONICS
Blandford Forum, ELECTRONICS LTD
LIMITED Dorset. DT11 8ST. UNIT 19, RIGBY CLOSE,
Telephone (0258) 451347 HEATHCOTE INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, WARWICK CV34 6TH
Fax (0258) 456046 -
NATIONAL (0926) 334311 NORTH WEST (056 587) 3540

CIRCLE NO. 104 ON REPLY CARD CIRCLE NO. 105 ON KEPI} CARD

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD+ WIRELESS WORLD 1057


POLITICS

The electronics industry is at


the heart of the struggle to
save the earth's ozone layer.
Companies that make semi-
conductors use ozone -
destroying chemicals that, under a UN
the CFCs;se
agreement, will he illegal in ten yeErs.
Some firms are panicking, some are
trying to ignore the inevitable End

tutes -
more are desperately awaiting substi-
which chemicals companies
;yep the profit
will he happy to supply, at a price.
Others have looked beyond the old
processes and discovered that wha- is The ozone layer) is under attack by
good for the ozone can also he good for
corporate profits.
chlorofluorocarbons used by the
electronics industry,iamong others. Debora
Ozone depletion MacKenzie points out that ozone -friendly
Ozone (03) is often portrayed as a
"bandwagon" issue promoted by a altérnatives could make financial sense
fashionable environmental movement.
It is not: it is the layer of gas in the

earth -
upper atmosphere that shields life on
all life, from people, to the

oxygen -
algae in the sea that produce our
against harmful rays from
the sun. Ozone is destroyed by chlor-
grease. and particularly of the residues
of solder flux. Such debris can cause
shorts and malfunction. Many firms use
ine. Several chemicals invented in the CFC-113 as a cleaning fluid, since it is a
I950s, notably chlorofluorocarbons Semiconductor makers: looking to water good solvent, easy to handle and chem-
(CFCs), have turned out to he remark- to save the ozone layer? ically inert. It is also responsible for
ably good transporters of chlorine to
the upper atmosphere. Scientists have
proved beyond any doubt that these
chemicals are destroying the ozone
layer.
Ozone has already diminished by an
average of 3% over the whole planet,
with heavier losses over the temperate
zones of the northern hemisphere and
so much damage over Antarctica that it
is called an "ozone hole". As a direct
A
-`
9

result. increased amounts of deadly - +

ultraviolet light are already hitting the


earth's surface. Ultraviolet that nor-
mally gets through is enough to cause
suntan and sunburn; increased
amounts will cause damage ranging
from cataracts and skin cancer to dead
. 1
6.

/
yi
` 7
'r
Iv
=yIti i

wildlife and damaged crops. . r

In 1987 scientists working for the UN


convinced many of the world's nations
to sign a treaty limiting the production
of chemicals that destroy ozone. Last
June, in the face of vet more worrying
scientific evidence, many more coun-
tries signed up. They strengthened the
treaty so that most of the worst chemic-
als will he banned by the year 2C00.

Printed -board cleaning


This leaves electronics firms in a hind.
After assembly. electronic circuit
hoards must he cleaned of dirt and

1058 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


POLITICS

16% of the ozone damage so far. It will 141b. a hydrochlorofluorocarbon pro- PI .. nFlthe leaks
he illegal in ten years. duced by the British firm ICI. The
Some companies, and surprisingly American company Du Pont makes
some of the most innovative when it HCFC-141b more stable by blending it
comes to products and marketing, have with methanol and another new rela-
reacted as though they had lost a tive of CFCs, HCFC123.
favourite toy. The Japanese electronics There are problems with both
industry officially "sees no effective approaches. beyond the investment
solution other than conservation of required for new equipment. One is
CFC-113 ... within ten years". This that the new relatives of CFCs are less
means using it, but keeping it from damaging to the ozone, but not wholly
evaporating readily. safe; HCFC-14ló can cause 10% as
That is probably the hest short-term much ozone depletion per molecule as
way to cut emissions of CFC-113. The CFC-113. Scientists are also finding
US Environmental Protection Agency that these chemicals share another
says taking more care with CFC-113 unhappy property with CFCs: they are
can "cut the cost of operating the powerful greenhouse gases, and add to
solvent machines in half". Margaret the global warming now worrying sci-
Kerr, head of safety at Northern Tele- entists.
com, Canada's largest electronics Hence, the new CFC substitutes
manufacturer, says replacing manual themselves could well he banned under
cleaning procedures with closed, auto- impending versions of the ozone treaty',
The chemical industry takes the view that
mated cleaning machines cut consump- or under treaties now in the works that
water -based cleaning processes cause
tion of CFC-113 from the usual two will limit greenhouse gases. This may pollution problems of their own. Aqueous
kilograms per square metre of circuit turn out to he no had thing for electro- cleaning creates effluent comprising a
hoard to half a kilogram. nics firms, since the substitute chemic- mixture of water, cleaning chemicals and
This might cut emissions in the short als and blends are all patented. Chem- oily residues. While there is more
term, hut CFC-113 is long-lived and icals firms are being discreet about contamination in the cleaning fluid than
the rinse water, the latter is discharged in
hard to destroy, and eventually must prices, but admit they will cost some
large volumes. Chlorine -contaminated
end up in the ozone. Recognising this. three times as much as the old CFCs. dirty water in bulk is expensive to purify
the ozone treaty bans both its manufac- This stands in stark contrast to esti- before discharge.
ture and trade. Not even products mates compiled this year for the UN on ICI advocates the use of sealed,
made with CFC-113 will he legally the costs of adhering to the ozone volatile solvent cleansing chambers
exportable to countries that have treaty. The US Environmental Protec- (shown in the photo) to remove
signed the treaty, which include all of tion Agency estimates that replacing manufacturing residues. These
chambers release only small volumes of
Europe and North America, Japan, the CFC-113 with water-based cleansers, solvent to the outside world through the
Soviet Union, Australia, India, China instead of chemicals similar to CFCs, use of solvent recovery systems. This,
and others. This provision, and the could require an investment. for each claims ICI, could allow the use of CFCs
looming export problem it entails, cleaning machine, of $10-13,000. But and related compounds with minimal
seems to have gone unnoticed in then, the annual operating costs of the damage to the environment.
Taiwan, which has held out against machinery fall by $180(1 to $25,000,
signing the treaty and recently invested which means that even the most expen- none is a universal substitute for CFC-
in production facilities for CFC-113. sive new equipment will have paid for 113. Some are better suited to some
Instead of such stonewalling, other itself in five or six years, something that applications. They include simple de -
electronics firms are hoping to he res- would not he true of the new equip- ionised water, squirted at high press-
cued by the companies that brought ment required to handle HCFC-141h. ure, or mixed with alcohols or deter-
them CFC-113 in the first place. "As an Introducing water -based cleansers gent -like solvents called saponifiers.
industry, we are leaning on our chemic- does require some thinking, because Such mixtures can he cleaned and
als suppliers, hoping they will come up
with substitutes," says the environmen- Ozone -friendly profit
tal manager of one American semicon-
ductor company. Environmental groups declared last year decisions about what technology is
Chemicals suppliers. despite feverish that creative, money -saving options to adopted to replace CFCs. In the end it
research over the past few years, have ozone -damaging chemicals are being may depend on how much access they
not yet produced an alternative. CFC- neglected, because "private investment have to information about alternatives to
into alternatives (to CFCs) is dispro- CFCs that are cheaper, safer, and more
113 is used because it is stable, hut it is
portionately controlled by the CFC- profitable, if not for the chemicals
this very property that allows it to producing companies who are industry, then for the users. Alternatives
persist in the atmosphere long enough overemphasising the development of will, by law, have to be found. In
to reach the ozone. Substitutes in the close variants of the current chemicals". electronics, it is already clear that
same family of chemicals that do not One can hardly blame the chemical alternatives to CFC-113 are available
harm ozone must therefore he less companies for this. Du Pont and ICI can that will cost less, protect ozone better,
make no profit selling small volumes of pay for themselves faster, and perhaps
stable. propane to refrigerator manufacturers, or even work better than the replacements
This means that they are not the deionised water or propanol as a on offer from your usual chemical
simple "drop -in- substitutes companies cleaning solvents to electronics firms. supplier.
want, but require investment in differ- Those consumers will make the final
ent handling facilities, notably to pre-
vent combustion. This is true of HCFC-

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD 1059


PoLmcs

preventing evaporation or switching to banned CFCs. even if they do little to


HCFC-141b, companies could find it deplete ozone. he avoided, or they will
more profitable to switch straight to contribute heavily to global warming.
aqueous cleaning and use a cheaper This dims the long-term prospects for
solvent. HFC-I34a.
Such lateral thinking, away from The same story of neglect is true of
dependence on the same chemicals another technology. absorption refri-
companies that sell CFCs, has been geration. in which common chemicals
rare in the response of industry to the such as water and ammonia can trans-

A
;1, . ;-=
.s
ozone treaty. One reason for that could
be an innate reluctance to abandon
port heat. Such refrigerators make no
noise. because they do not use mecha-
lísi '.

long-established buying practices or to nical compressors to re -condense the


invest in new technology. It could also coolant and release its heat. Instead, it

r?
... be that the researchers working on
innovative solutions to the replacement
is absorbed by another chemical. such
as lithium bromide. Georg Alefeld, of
of CFCs are not in big, well -funded. the Technical University of Munich,
well -publicised chemicals companies. says absorption refrigerators can even
IL whose interests lie with a new genera- run on less energy than standard
The semiconductor industry uses tion of patented chemicals. models.
significant quantities of hazardous
chemicals and has long been aware of Refrigerators Insulating materials
environmental safety issues. Replacement of CFCs as coolants in Half the CFCs in a refrigerator, and
refrigerators, for example. is widely 21% of all CFCs. are in plastic foam,
recirculated to avoid problems with assumed. even by advisors to the UN. used as insulation, packaging and
disposal of waste water. to depend on the next generation of upholstery. The chemicals industry has
Sweden has pledged to rid itself of chemicals similar to CFCs. Like the proposed CFC- 123 and HCFC-1-í1h
CFC- 113 b\ next Year. Husamuddin proposed substitutes for CFC-113 as a to replace the banned CFC-11 now
Ahmadzai. of Sweden's National solvent, the substitutes for banned used to puff up foams. Both can
Environmental Protection Board, says CFC-I? or CFC-l1 as refrigerants are deplete ozone and are greenhouse
the best results in Swedish factories themselves damaging to ozone or they gases. HCFC-14 lb is flammable.
have been obtained with alcohols, such are greenhouse gases. At the very The European Isocyanate Producers
as ethanol and isopropanol, which are least. they are going to be three times Association, which groups the major
cheap and plentiful. They are also as expensive as the chemicals they are foam producers in Europe. says it has
flammable, hut using enclosed cleaning meant to replace. cut its use of CFCI by 71)%. partly by
1

machines tilled with nitrogen defeats This is not true of propane. a simple using water as Well as CFC to blow the
this problem. The solvents are so hydrocarbon that is a more efficient foam. It says HCFC-I'_3 and HCFC-
cheap, he says, that equipment pays for transporter of heat in cooling equip- l-flb will allow the foam industry to
itself by saving what would have been ment than CFCs. The refrigeration reduce the damage it does to the ozone
spent on CFC-113. industry used to use propane. hut by 95%. The West German parliament
Swedish companies are also trying to abandoned it when CFCs were has already called for such chemicals to
avoid the cleaning process altogether, invented: the ten or more litres of he regarded as interim measures. for
says Ahmadzai, by using laser welding propane coolant that an average home use only until the year 2000, however,
or conducting glue instead of solder. refrigerator then contained was a fire because they do hurt ozone.
Low -solid soldering fluxes that leave hazard. Modern refrigerators contain Simple carbon dioxide can he used to
less residue can be used without clean- only about l01)ml of coolant, however, blow flexible and rigid foams. It
ing. for any circuit board that can making propane once again a cheap. increases the width of rigid foams
tolerate contamination of up to the attractive option. needed for insulation by about 5%.
equivalent of one microgram of salt per It has not been considered by major This is not a serious penalty in home
square centimetre of board. Aqueous companies. says John Missenden, head refrigerators. though it would slightly
cleaning leaves one -fifth of that, while of the Institute of Environmental reduce the capacity of an insulated
alcohols exceed the exacting US milit- Engineering at South Bank Polytechnic truck or freight car. Kahelwerk Eupen.
ary standard, says Ahmadzai. Kerr, of in London, because of "entrenched a West German firm, has developed a
Northern Telecom. says some circuits attitudes- in the refrigeration industry. process in which a chemical reaction
need not he cleaned to as high a He thinks propane can be used as the generates carbon dioxide and monox-
standard as they often are. coolant in an average refrigerator with- ide to puff up flexible foam.
Northern Telecom is one of several out hazard. pointing out that there is Most promising for insulation is the
companies experimenting with Bioact often more propane in a table -top development, in California and else-
EC -7. owned by AT&T and developed cigarette lighter. And propane, Mis- where, of vacuum panels that are more
by PetroFerm, a company based in senden notes, costs a mere 50p per efficient than foam in insulating
Florida. It is a water solution of ter - kilogram, while HFC-134a. the refrigerators and can pay for them-
penes, which are oily chemicals replacement for CFCs proposed by the selves in energy savings. This also
extracted from orange peel: Kerr says chemicals industry, will cost £30 per means more fuel efficiency, in turn
it can work better than CFC-113. It is kilogram. reducing the pollution from coal and
flammable, but enclosed cleaning HFC-l3-la is also a greenhouse gas. oil; the US government estimates that
machines solve the problem. Since such This September, an international panel it could save billions of barrels of oil a
machines are also necessary for other of scientists advising the UN strongly year if people just used more efficient
means of cutting CFC-1 13, such as recommended that such substitutes for refrigerators.

I061) ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


APPLICATIONS

Current -feedback op -amp


0PA603 from 13urr-I3rown is a high- R

speed current -feedback operational


amplifier which can deliver ±I(IV sig- 159003

nals into i50il loads at up to I(I(ülViµs


and at an output current of ±I50mA.
The current -feedback technique yields
constant bandwidth and settling tinte
over a large range of gain settings. 2 -pole Butterworth LP 2 -pole Butterwonh HP
In general, the OI'A603 behaves as a L.. 10MHz f -be - 1MHz
conventional op -amp: a feedback net- Imo.
1 1

1-34e
work on the inverting input controls 203 RC 2% RC

closed -loop gain. The difference is that Fig. 3. OPAó03 in a 121111: low-pass Fig. 4. Two-pole Butterworth high-pass
the impedance of the network also Butterworth filler. ,filler, will?-3dB point at 1.11Hz.
controls open -loop gain and frequency
response. Figures I and 2 show the
feedback resistor values against closed -
loop gain for maximum bandwidth and
gives an overdantpcd response with
very little peaking and overshoot
useful for driving capacitive loads. A
- R C
R

11003
V.<
minimum peaking. As can he seen capacitor in parallel with R1. reduces 0 -W,--,0-1
from the left vertical axes. bandwidth frequency -response peaking and takes 11003 100pF
varies only between about 35\11-Iz and a value of 2 to 10pF. depending on C
100pF=
- 22003
55M1-Iz with gain from to 1(111. I closed -loop gain and load characteris- -r2R
tics: too large a value may cause
instabilit. 51103
60 3k
Figures 3,4 and 5 show examples of 26112
_
! I
1 Ti;'I low-pass and high-pass 2 -pole Butter-
52 5
1
worth filters and a I(INillz hand -pass
45
I

filter using the OPA6(13. Burr -Brown G-70


2
points out that power supplies must be
37.5 750 decoupled by a parallel combination of
G
0.01µF ceramic and 2.21/F solid tanta-
s
U
30-1 I II Il
-0
I i!-loo
o
lum capacitors close to the IC pins or.
Voltage Gan (VN) in high -current use, 10µF instead of the
2.2µF may improve matters.
Fig. I. Bandwidth and feedback resistor Burr -Brown International Ltd, I

against inverting gain. N'infield House, \Woodshots Meadow, Fig. 5. Combination of low-pass and
Watford, Hertfordshire \VI) 81'X.I high-pass.fillers produces hand-pass type
Telephone (1923 33837. Wilk cal -offal 121111z.
60

2 r.
r 52.5 2 25k

á
45 1.5k S PCB tracks as transmission lines
c
8
37.5 750 Motorola has published a note times of the device.
$ G.1. LL
(ANi051) on the design of printed - The note provides a detailed
U
30 l i

10 100
circuit hoards for high-speed digital examination of the forms of track
Voltage Gain (VN) circuitry. taking into account the trans- found on hoards; methods of calculat-
mission line effects produced by the ing their characteristic impedances and
Fig. 2. Closed -loop bandwidth and tracks, depending on their length and propagation delays and both lattice
the rise or fall times of the devices. diagram and Bergeron plot procedures
feedback for a non -inverting amplifier.
Delays or ringing caused by these for analysing the transmission line. It
effects sometimes result in unpredict- also includes a description of methods
Since open -loop gain is controlled by able behaviour, causing designs that of terminating the line to minimise the
feedback impedance, the dynamic work well in simulation to perform at ringing and delays.
characteristics can he tailored to fit less than their hest in practice. Finally, nearly halt the 70 -page pub-
given requirements. For example, A track should he treated as a lication presents a large number of
lower feedback resistance gives wider transmission line if the smaller of the worked examples.
bandwidth. a peakier response and a rise or fall titres of a device is less than Motorola Ltd, European Literature
greater pulse overshoot: the increased twice the propagation delay along the Centre, 88 Tanners Drive, Blakelands,
open -loop gain afforded by the lower track. If that is so. the effects of the line Milton Keynes. MK 14 51W. Tele-
feedback resistance also gives lower are not masked during the transition phone: (1908 614614.
distortion. Higher feedback resistance

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD+WIRELESS WORLD 11161


APPLICATIONS

Motor drive ICs


A range of single -chip drive circuits and remains correct regardless of the being either P\VM or an analogue
from Philips. described in Technical type of motor or load. No rotor posi- voltage or current.
Publication IC 008, provides full -wave tion sensing is needed, since timing is The diagram shows an evaluation
drive for permanent -magnet motors in determined by sensing zero crossings of board using the TDA5142T, which
hard -disk drives and video recorders. the back E11F generated by the three provides three-phase. full -wave drive
This type of motor is attractive for stator windings during their non - for three pairs of external push-pull
computer. entertainment and car energised periods. In addition, all these driver transistors. It is meant for use
application, since there are no brushes ICs have an accurate digital tachometer with continuously running, uni-
to wear or arc. They are efficient. output and some can provide position directional, high -current motors such
accelerate rapidly and run at high information from an external pickup as those inmainframe hard -disk drives.
speed. Their chief drawback is the need coil for monitoring tape position in a The OTA speed -control amplifier is
for electronic commutation and rotor VCR scanner head. Each IC also has current fed.
position detection using IIall sensors. an uncommitted amplifier (OTA) for Philips Components Ltd, Niullard
In the Philips devices. the commuta- motor speed control by regulating the House. Torrington Place. London
tion timing is determined by the ICs supply to the output drivers. input \VCIE 7111). Telephone 071 58(1 6633.

BDT64 39 Alt 10 sll

I4 v -r---6!0 tI I
2011 47 ni
470
47 ITT
NOT ON THE
EVALUATION
VMOT BOARD
from
DAG1.
47
All
T

STARTI UP OUT PA
OSCII ATOR
220 ni MOTT

2
OUT NA

ADAPTIVE
COMMUTATION
,2
DELAY
iI
18 /IF ^---"Or OUT PB

MOT2
COMMUTATION
LOGIC

THERMAL OUT NB
TEST TIMING
PROTECTION

10 nF

II
OUT PC
FG
ROTATION
to MOTO
SPEED
mlcroProeessor z
47
stl DETECTOR BRAKE
OUTPUT OUT NC
T LOGIC
STAGE
S V

2
TDA5142T
a
sv 22 0
PUF COMPARATORS

GNO

BRAKE

OND 2

106.2
l(1.2 ELECTRONICS WORLD + IRELESS WORLD December 1990
SPECTRUM ANALYSERS

\14ffily
HP182C 855880.1-1500MHz
HP141 S'8552A 8554L 1250MHz system
HP141 T 8552A 85548 1250MHz
HPI41 T 85528 85546 1250MHz system
HP141 1 8552A 8555A 18GHz system
MARCONI 2370110MHz
V:h

£2500
£1750
£2500
£2750
£3750
£2950
RALFE ELECTRONICS
36 EASTCOTE LANE, S. HARROW. MIDDLESEX HA2 8DB

EST
35
YEARS
TEL: 081-422 3593. FAX: 0E1-423 4009

Aí1
.

_-
!

.,. .,I
I HEWLETT PACKARD

r
A»m
:m:
avri-r- : g

116028 transistor Nature for S -parameter test set £395


11710 frequency down -convener for 86408 sig

3400A milli -voltmeter 10Hz-10MHz true RMS


3581A audio wave analyser 15Hz-50kHz
£750
£250
£1000
TAKEDA RIKEN TR9305 FFT 100 kHz GPIB £2950 382A1P) P -band attenuator 12.4.18GHz 0-50db £250
IWATSO SM2100 dual -channel 100kHz Disc drive option fitted £2000
TEKTRONIX 1503C 400F1 mV -Meter 100uV-300V Is 20Hz-4Mhz £325
TEKTRONIX 2710 (opt 210/14/15 33) 10kHz-1 8GHz £5900 Metallic Cable Testers 4204A decade oscillator t OHz.I MHz £125
4328A milliohmmeter 0 001.100 ohms Isd £750
'SCOOP PURCHASE! 4329A high-resistance meter £750
MARCONI INSTRUMENTS 4342A 0-meter 22kHz-70MHz. 0 -range 5-1000. £1000
4948A in-orourt transmission impairment (TIMS) tester £3000
50058 signature multi -meter, programmable £1750
5300A/5302A 50MHz counter -timer £150
53636 time-interval probes £ 1250
ADHET 71000 300kHz-1300MHz signal generator £2000
2091C 2092C white noise receiver/transminer, pair 5384.4225MHz system frequency counter GPIB £500
£1750 62668 power supply 0-40V 0-5A £250
2356 2357 level oscillator/level meter £1000 £250
2370 spectrum analyser 110MHz 65169 power supply 0-3KV (g 6mA
£2750 74400 (0021 HPIB A4 colorero plotter £450
2380/82 400MHz spectrum analyser £11000
2431 A 200MHz frequency counter
80138 pulse generator 50MHz dual output £750
£110 81659 function generator ImHz-50MHz GPIB £1500
2438 (303J) 520MHz universal counter timer £450 £500
2501 RF power meter 0 3W DC I GHz £150 8327A test set selector
2503 RF power meter to 100W DC-IGHz
Limned quantity available of these much so,ght-aver current 8405A vector voltmeter Voltage 8 to 1000 MHz £1250
2828A'2829 digital simulator/analyser
£200
£1500
model cape testers with fined options 03 and 04 Banery - 866 computer £200
pack and Chan recorder. 8600A digital marker generator for 8631A £325
2833 digital in -line monitor £250 £1250
2870 data communications tester The 1503C has 2, 10, 100 and 1000 nanosecond pulse 8614A signal generator 000MHz-2.4GHz
£1000 86204 sweeper main frame 8 86218 plug-in units £1500
6460 microwave power meter with head 6421 £300 widths, front panel selectable cable impedances and a
6460.1 microwave power meter with head 6423 measurement range to 50,000 feet. 86222A sweep generator plug-in 10MHz-2 4GHz £1750
£350 86408 signal generator £1200
605602-4GHz signal source £850 These units are FACTORY-NEW and PERFECT in their £2000
OA2805A PCM regenerator test set 8656A signal generator 0.1-990MHz
£750 original canons at a price that will never be repeated. The 86738 signal generator 2-36.5GHz £13500
TF 1245 1246 0 -Meter and oscillator £350 List with options is over £5400 - £750
TF 2002B'21701388M Hz signal generator
8954A transceiver interface
£300
TF2011 FM signal generator 130-180MHz £150 - OUR PRICE £3250 each -
TF2013 FM signal generator 800-960MHz Don't delay limited quantity only available.
£350
TF2120 variable phase waveform generator (Also 1502C.3 4 £4750. 150303 4,6 options £3750.)
£250
TF2162 audio attenuator £100 STOCK EXAMPLES T8M EQUIPMENT
TF2163S UHF attenuator DC-1GHz 0-142dB £325
TF2175 RF power amplifier 2-500MHz 27dB gain £250
TF2300 modulation meter £200 NOTE: ALL OJR EQUIPMENT NOW CHECKED TO BS5750 RACAL 9081 synthesized signal generator 5-520MHz AM FM £850
TF2300A modulation meter £300 TRACEABILITY RACAL 9009 automatic modulation meter £375
TF23006 modulation meter RACAL 9301 A RF milli -voltmeter £350
£400 WANTED. Top quality 'high-end' test equipment for stock or
TF2304 modulation meter. automatic £400 RACAL 9082 synthesized signal gen t 5-520MHz AM FM £1000
TF2331 distortion meter £150 will sell on commission, Please call, post or Fax list, any RACAL 9105 RF micro-wanmeter 0.028 W -200m W £250
TF2500 audio frequency power meter quantity. Signal generators, spectrum analysers etc urgently SHIBASOKU 217A 33 SECAM colour bar generator £325
£100 £500
TF26000 video voltmeter 1mV-300V Isd £150 required for waiting customers. SOUND TECHNOLOGY 1000A FM stereo sig gen Band II
TF2807A PCM multiplex fester £400 TAKEDA RIKEN TR9305 audio spectrum analyser FFT 0.0025Hz-
I F2905/8 sine squared pulse 8 bar generator 10014Mz. GPIB option £2950
£275 £2500
TF2908 blanking & sync mise, £150 ALL OUR EQUIPMENT IS SOLD IN EXCELLENT, FULLY FUNC- TEKTRONIX 576 transistor curve tracer
TF2910.4 video non-linear distortion analyser £750 TIONAL CONDITION AND GUARANTEED FOE 90 DAYS. MAIL TEKTRONIX TDR 15020 options 3 and 4 New £4750
TF2950 mobile radio test set TEKTRONIX SG502 oscillator. FG501RM501 £395
£600 ORDERS AND EXPORT ENQUIRIES WELCOMED. PLEASE £500
TF893A audio power meter £50 TEKTRONIX AM503 current probe amplifier
TELEPHONE FOR CARRIAGE QUOTE. ALL INSTRUMENTS ARE TEKTRONIX 7633/7A26/7853A/ storage oscilloscope £1250
T M4520 inductor set £250 AVAILABLE EX -STOCK AS AT COPY DATE. GOOD QUALITY TEKt-RONIX P6019 & 134 current probe & amplifier £195
TEST EQUIPMENT ALWAYS WANTED FOR STOCK PRICES TIME ELECTRONICS 404S miurvolt source £100
OUOTED ARE SUBJECT TO ADDITIONAL VAT. TOA PM 308 RF von -meter I mV-l0V tsd £250

CIRCLE NO. 106 ON REPLY CARD

IPR Technology FULL SPE RUM


INVENTIONS FOR SALE ONITORI NG
r ., r,r.,w.. -z `
r!
i
VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER or CONVERTER _. - 44,..r..,..
1.
ii,Gt,i 1.77.-
The circuit described promises significant cost,
1=1 19B9 .B00.00 ºº jei '

.
complexity and efficiency advantages over currently
available designs. -

¡L¡i
_

__ - !
r
nar
1.T _--
4 "_ _
i
KEY FEATURES: J

t,>.r _
*Runs from an input of less than 1V. t

*Any multiplication factor.

CHARGES: The world is at your fingertips with ICOM's new IC -R9000 radio
Circuit Diagrams (Ref: 1C) £10.00 (Available 1/1/91) communications receiver with continuous all mode, super wideband range
of 100KHz to 1999.8MHz and a unique CRT display that shows frequencies,
Full Report (Ref: F) 1 £25.00 (Available 1/1/91) modes, memory contents, operator -entered notes and function menus. The
revolutionary IC -R9000 features IF Shift, IF Notch, a fully adjustable noise
blanker and more. The Direct Digital Synthesiser assures the widest range,
2. FREQUENCY SYNTHESISER lowest noise and rapid scanning. 1000 multi -function memories store
This frequency synthesiser has all the usual features, as frequencies, modes, tuning steps and operator notes. Eight scanning modes
well as the following: include programmable limits, automatic frequency and time -mark storage
of scanned signals, full, restricted or mode -selected memory
Oscanning priority channel watch, voice -sense scanning and a
KEY FEATURES:
selectable width around your tuned frequency.
*The frequency may be tuned continuously.
*The synthesiser may be turned off and on without Icon (UK) Ltd. Tel: 0227 363859. Telex: 965179 ICOM G
N.E. For Wales and the West contact:
affecting the VCO output frequency. M.8.5. Communications Ltd. Cardiff. Tel: 0222 224167.

CHARGES: Please send information on Icom products 8 my nearest 'cam dealer. 7


Block Diagram (Ref: 2B) £10.00 (Available 1/2/91) Name/oddress/postcode:
Circuit Diagrams (Ref: 2C) £20.00 (Available 1/4/91)
Full Report (Ref: 2F) £50.00 (Available 1/4/91)

Job Title: Tel:


PO Box 148, Basingstoke, Hants, RG22 4YA, 025E-26182 Post to Icons (UK) lid Dept. W W, FREEPOST, Herne Bay, Kent CT6 8BR

CIRCLE NO. 1117 ON REPL 1 CARL) CIRCI E NO. 108 ON REPLY CARD

I)ta;t:nlhl:r 199 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIItELESS WORLD 1063


APPLICATIONS

Current sources and sinks


Application guide AN -165 from Burr -
Brown is a compendium of preferred
circuits for sources and receivers, float-
ing sources. transconductance ampli-
fiers, mirrors and transimpedance 100µA
amplifiers, using the REF2O0 dual cur-
rent source and current mirror IC and
one or more op-amps.
REF200
Each current -source cell in the Mirror
REF200 supplies 100µA on the applica-
tion of 2.5V or more, with a drift of less
than 25ppm and at an output impe- 0.01µF

dance of more than 500MQ. Tempera-


ture coefficient is zero. An internal l.(N+1)100µA
block diagram is shown in Fig I.
Using the basic I(IOµA current
source, one can make a source or sink Fig. 4
of any value. For example, the 50µA
sink in Fig. 2 uses the mirror and one of
the sources, the input current dividing
equally between input and output, sources in the IC. or drive the mirror
while in Fig. 3 a current sink subtracts with this source to get a 1001.1A sink.
50µA from a second 1001.1A source to The circuit of Fig. 4 supplies a source
give a 5011A source. To obtain a float- of any value more than 100µA; the
ing 200µA source, parallel the two reference current forces a voltage of
RI x 1ri1 at the non -inverting op -amp I .N 1001.LA

IA High Is High Substrate Mirror In


input, the same voltage appearing
across R2. If R is N x R2 output current
i

is (N+ 1) 10(1µA. If the voltage drop


across R1 is large enough, the current
source will swing to the negative rail.
I Source A l l Source B
Turn the circuit upside down to get a
current sink.
For currents of virtually any value
use the circuit in Fig. 5 which will give a Fig. 5
current of Nx IOOµA, when RI is
NxR2. For example, if R1 is MOO and
R2 is lOM12, the current is 1nA: for
P n 1 Y.
IA Low IA Low Mirror Corn Mirror Out
1 OkS2 and 11:12 the output is
Again, inverting the circuit gives a
1mA. High
lI .(N+1)100µA
Fig. I current sink.
To obtain a floating current source of
greater than 100µA, use the circuit of
Fig. 6, which is almost the same as that
of Fig. 4, except that R2 is driven by a
mosfet. Since no current flows in either 100µA
the gate of the mosfet or the op -amp +Vs

inputs, all the current entering the


5 4 resistors leaves them and the source is
In Out
completely floating.
(1) 2N4340
REF200 The application guide goes on to
Mirror describe a large variety of sources and
pF
Corn sinks, with many applications in preci- 0.01µF = T
3 sion comparators, instrumentation R,
100µA amplifiers and current -to -voltage con- -Vs
verters.
Burr -Brown International Ltd, 1

Millfield House, Woodshots Meadow, I Low


Fig. 2 Watford, Hertfordshire WDl BYX. Fig. 6
Telephone (1923 33837.

1064 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


South Midlands
SMC Communications
Quality Toroidal
H F SYSTEMS
CHANNELISED SYSTEMS
TM180 Pioneer 100W HI= SSB
Transformers
transceiver, 6 channel, USB,
base or mobile applications and A large, standard range of (15-
a full range of accessories-
2000VA) high quality products
BASE are available conforming to
ANTENNAS BS415 (EC65) class 2
SMC TDA Series
trapped dipoles factory
pre-tuned, easily
requirements.
installed, up to 6 Custom design options
channels Rx to 1KW.

HF MOBILE ANTENNAS
j
include -
PRO SERIES Multi channel
j
HW41.5-30MHz single
frequency tuned mobile tapped whip antennas up to Audio grade- low noise
, whip complete with 4 frequencies 1.5-30MHz
installation accessories, complete with base mount a
base mount and spring, and spring.
spare channel coils
-
Autotransformers
available for multi frequency
operation.

.L.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, OR JUST ADVICE, CALL: Inverter transformers
S.M. HOUSE, SCHOOL CLOSE, CHANDLERS FORD INDUSTRIAL ESTATE.

`- EASTLEIGH, HAMPSHIRE SO5 3BY.


FAX: ¡-44J ((0]703¡263507 SMC FX
TELEPHONE: ¡-44) «01703)255111
TELEX: 477351 SMCOMM G
Current transformers
CIRCLE NO. 109 ON REPLY CARD

WE HAVE THE WIDEST CHOICE OF USED VII


OSCILLOSCOPES IN THE COUNTRY
TEL [EXAMINE Curve tracer
MARCDNI 112700 Un verse LCR 4.2ge Battery
MARCDNI 1123374 Automat,, Dnronion Meter 400X74847
[750
from [125
[100
Metal bandiing
MARCDNI 40O WÚ5 792300 1823004.82303 Iran [100
IE940NI12415 Four nace 150997 Dual 18 (tool
1[11140011122154Four trace 100942 Dual TB [1000
MARCONI 87603 RI Mrllrvdmeter 504111.1 Sall [15
980102I R2430 Digital het Counter 1041 BOM41 060
TEKTRONIX 2235 Dual trace 101,111 Delay Sweep [650
MARCDNI 111152 I RI Power Meter 5ooM41104258 50uOm [25
7En1901IX 2215 Dian,.
SOME! Dear Sweep 450
MARCON 118974 01 Power Mete 1001.35411 70m3.104

Potted centres
070
IEKTROAm 475 Dual grace 2004111 Delay Sweep [550
RACAL 9915 Foe. Couple 105208402 Crystal Own [150
TEKTRONIX 465 Dual grace 100..47 Dear Sweep [450
9808E11 P50 430 100 0309 0100A [750
SCNUMBERGER1NER7EC 5218 Three Trace 200941 pelar Sweep (650
SCHLUMBERGER ENERIEC 5220 Dua Trace I00MH10rlay Sweep [500
UNINTERRUPTED Power Sootily hn 085ÁC 5009* [ISO
R P 17404 Dua Trace 100907 Delay Sweep Trig [350
PKIPS PM 3217 Dual Trace 50947 0.94 5weep [400 AVO 8 MULTIMETERS
8lEOUIPMENI D83 Dual Trace 50981 Dee, Sweep [300 6000 WORKING ORDER _ PHYSICALLY NOT BRILLIANT
TELEOU NMI 0755 Due lease 5043811 Dear 5weeo
GOULD 053000 Dual Trace 300847 De ay 5weeD 1V In1
GOULD 051100 Dual Tract 303441 N in(
[750
LOSO
(110
SUPPLIED WEN BATTERIES & LEADS MU [30
ALL OTHER MODELS AVAILABLE Tape screens
609012 05300 Dua bare 20901 (150 LEADER 199386A Two Gn Renee, 5N15.IWN/ 104.3005 [100
GOULD 0S2508 Dual Trace 35902 191ng [ 160 KIMU5UI AVM73 AC Voltmeter Dual CO 1041-500841
COSSOR CD11150 Dual trace 353307 Dear Sweep from [100[150 300uV -10022 (15
5 E L835 518131 Dual Trace 18NR1 [130 5014791RON 1045 Mortimer, 411 2,107 30 ranges Au:n M:o [95
TEKTRONIX 7210 Diehl Storage Dual Trace 50/4111 (2095 s Semplml Nagel IARNELL Pulse Gen Sr.,. 1381-10881 Single Double 110
As** [1150 LOG( PROBE type 330004 TIMC,NOS (PAP [31 [10
0000 0 4035 014 34 Storage Dual true 200800 [750 large range of BENCH POMP SUPPLIES ava,MBle t,om [40

We also manufacture other


GOULD 004020 Dieter SI041e Ow Trace 100801 [458 1Y PLOTTERS Vacoas models room [754400
GOULD 054000 0MIa1 Storage Dual hace 17941

MIS IS 1051 A SAMPLE - MANY BMEIS AVAILABLE


0300
SOME BRUEL i IUAER EQUIPMENT
ALWAYS AVAILABLE. PLEASE ENQUIRE
M P 8112A Programmable Pulse Generator 5034112
BRADLEY 0101losco88 Canbraro 192 rota
DA18p1 1061 Auto Cal OHM True RMS.
GI Cen
[1500
[300
[650
LEVER 13438 IC Minovoltmeter 141OAHE. 5.4.5009
LEVER 1M3Á AC Mthvotmele, 1H13MN15,65000
11 YELLOuUlaror 10152 3382 300881Sine-Sp
[60
080
from [55
standards including:
50644100r 7073 DVM u0 to 14129 0 ACGRMS DC OHM 0700
LEVELL Oscillator 10150M 4. 150e41 sine Ware
1 070
8 6 S SW08* (Sweep Gen rota 0n5Iar10 1.1000981 [150
LEVELL Deade DU 11661 0 182 22 NI Lew 2isl from [75
MARCDNI 117008 ÁM,18 [450
1

10412.510M415g Gen
MARCDNI IF2015 AM IM 10.520901 S.4 Gen wan 192171
M*RCO41132035 wllaoul SMc0romser 82111
MAR000..1 TF2016 AWM 10842.1201442 Sig Gen wan 1(2173
[400
[750
050
NEW EQUIPMENT
MIMED OSCILLOSCOPE NM 3005 Inple Trace 100810
EC742, EC601 (BS5724), UL506,
CO wnnoul Syncmenry, 1(2113
201
M4RCON 1(2156,2357 Leve 0u /Meter 209222
H P 86200 Sweeper Ma n Frame API 1 -ins avallabrel
tae oat
[175
0950
[1000
Delay hmebafe
228MFG OSCILLOSCOPE HM604 Duel Trace
Delay Sweep
60841
[117

[610
UL544, CSA222
LEADER L1558514 Yectorsmpe [600 NAMED OSCILLOSCOPE 48203 2 Duel Iran 20940
Component inter (331

Agents wanted worldwide


1E01RONR 491 Spec Analyser 1 5.12 0042 Dom [I000-[1400 41914 05613300008E 89105 3 Doe Trace 70940
H P 1:17 Spec Analyser System rntO 15554611 Plug+n 10"441. D.1nal Storage [610
184X1 (3.750 Mr MIMe modes available - nil o,o,00Scopes suppled ml3 2 probe,
H P 1411 Spec Analyser system with 8554 31914+n 500911.
1250MH1 [2.500 BLACK STAR (00134081 (P&P 11 units £5)
HP loll Sue 80113x, 5,18f11.0 8553 119 Rug -In IKNI-
AP0ll0 Ratio Pend rime interval etc
30 10034114 [777
110101 (7.000
APIOLO 100 100M80IAs a5me rata more luncrionsl [795

Contact 08494 28734


MARCONI 191370 Spetlrvn Analyse, 1109111 [7.000
SYS1R13N DOWNER
H P1116A
HP 8614A
SI
S [
1702 Sag Gin 10041.1GH1
Gen 1 8 2 1600
Gen ea9M01 7 0041
0850
0600
[500
METEOR 100 40(50ENC0 COUNTER
METEOR 600 FREQUENCY COURIER
METEOR 1000 FRE00ENCY COUNTER
10091-10
600M:
ICII
[101
[175
(Ill
or tel
RACAL 9081
RACAL
5r-". rid
90,9 Mad Mere 10241.1 5642
5.3 Gen 5 520941

ACM 9301 RM$ 4,120ee, 10381.1 5441


(65
[75
[750
4PI10R 500 (UNCTION GEN 0 390-500410 5.ne Sp In
ORION CO OUR BAR GENERATOR Pal N w0eo

Ml new Blac a Star Equipment evadable


[110
[209 fax 08494 68745
TIME 2004 DC9. rage Standard 0 00'%
OLAIRON 7150 0,tal Mu bmeler 61/1 digit
90 Valw Characteristic Mete, 4034163
ERROGRAP0R1S7 Recorder felt Se from
loom (250 [350
[450
3300

Irom [700
HUNG CHANG DRY 7030 3
unclad ng 10 amp AC000
As *row 09460100 25%
Carrying eases Tor above
diet Nand
11 ACC (P&P
held 28 ranges
[41 [31 50
[33 50
[300ea
Antrim Transformers Ltd
HURL 890(32080 twice 30V 24 Quad Moe. 011121
FERR00RAP0 RIS2 Reorder test Sep with 41U
[700
[600 OSCILLOSCOPE PROBES

This is a very small sample of stock. SAE or telephone for LIST of OVER 700 ITEMS. Please chest availability
5.0m.á X1330 (PIP [31 (I
25 Randalstown Road,
before ordering. CARRIAGE all units C16. VAT to be added 1010181 of goods and carriage.

STEWART OF READING Antrim, Co. Antrim,


110 WYKEHAM ROAD, READING, BERKS RG6 1PL
Tel: 0734 68041 Fax: 0734 351696
Callers welcome gam to 5 30o MON FRI [UNTIL Born TMURS)
VISA
N. Ireland BT41 4LD
CIRCLE NO. 110 ON REPLY CARD CIRCLE NO. 111 ON REPLY CARD

December 19911 ELECTRONICS 'n\ ORLI)+WIRELESS WORLD 11165


PROGRAMMING

-1I"a,
INTERFACING
- WITH C
PART 8
Transferring between time and frequency
domains can help to clarify the characteristics
of a signal. Howard Hutchings demonstrates
Fourier analysis, using the discrete transform
1

as an introduction to the FFT, to be described


-Z_5- later.
-- -{!-i_I Horner'a five Muni!) postulate: Experi- interesting characteristics when investi-
ence varies directly with equipment gated in terms of frequency. The usual
ruined. concern in electronic signal analysis is
. with time- to frequency -domain trans-
Fourier transforms using a PC formations, although numerous other
The impressive computational power applications exist. These include calcu-
of 16-bit machines, together with the lating heat distribution in the core of a
increased efficiency of the fast Fourier nuclear reactor, testing for bias in the
transform, makes spectral analysis a generation of random numbers, music
challenging proposition using a PC. waveform analysis, mechanical vibra-
The data capture with graphics routine tion/signature analysis, avionics,
outlined in Chapter 2 provided a useful oceanography, and many others.
Interfacing with C time -domain chronicle of the signal. In No matter how unusual or audacious
certain circumstances, however, it may the application, it is really the
he advantageous to preserve this behaviour of a linear system in the
An accompanying set of 57 source
information in a complementary form frequency domain that is being
code C listings presented with this and present it as a frequency -domain examined. Analogue systems are pre -
series is now available on disk, record.
price £25.50+ VAT. We will shortly Electronics engineers routinely use
be publishing a book "Interfacing Fourier transforms to examine the ef-
with C" written by Howard fects of noise or bandwidth on the Fig. 6.1. Using the Fourier transform, a
Hutchings and based on the series, signals being processed through a par- continuous signal x(t) expressed as a
but containing additional
ticular system. The central idea is quite function of time may also be described as
simple. Spectral analysis decomposes a a function offrequency X(w). Spectral
information on advanced
signal into its constituent frequencies analysis decomposes a signal into its
processing techniques. We are now and records the amplitude of each constituent frequencies and records the
accepting advance orders, price component in the frequency -domain. amplitude of each in the frequency
£14.95. Most periodic phenomena exhibit domain.
Prices include post and packaging.
Please make cheque or company
order payable to Reed Business Time domain Frequency domain
Publishing Group and send to
Lindsey, Gardner, room L301,
Quadrant House, The Quadrant,
Sutton, Surrey SM2 5AS. Credit
x
card orders can be phoned through
on 081-661 3614 (mornings only).

low, ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


PROGRAMMING

(a) (b)
dominantly linear; if the amplitude of
the input signal is halved, then so is the Spectral
output, with no change in signal shape.
Analogue non -linearity is associated
with additional, unwanted harmonics -
-01 l T(sampling time)
E
resolution

-1.1
I
áf
New frequency
spectrum begins
I I

New sampling
hence the interest in Fourier methods. x period
A

Digital systems work well, despite i

being highly non-linear; indeed the


non -linearity adds to the robustness of 0
ik N-1 0
1 1I
N/2
,
,

N-1 m
the design. Investigating the character- Time integer (sample number) Frequency integer(harmonic number)
istics of a signal, or the behaviour of a
system. from a different perspective is
analogous to looking at a problem with
a fresh pair of eyes. Facts which are Fig. 6.2. Diagram at (a) is sampled data As, no doubt, you have observed, it
unclear or hard to grasp in one domain signal represented by N snapshots, each is easy to let the mathematics get in the
are often clarified in another. This is a separated by sampling interval T. way of the physics. I find the expression
familiar theme pursued throughout this Discrete Fourier spectrum is at (h), iu for mean -square power is a refreshing
hook. This chapter aims to demons- which spectral resolution Sf is interval reminder of what the Fourier transform
trate Fourier analysis using a PC. between ordinates, I /NT, where N is is really doing. If the interval between
number of samples and T sampling samples in the time domain is T
Discrete Fourier transform interval. For example, using Microsoft C seconds, and N samples are captured
DFT and the Al)7820 halfflash converter, for subsequent frequency-domain pro-
The relatively straightforward discrete sampling frequency was 40kHz. 11128 cessing, then the spectral resolution
Fourier transform has been chosen as samples are captured, spectral resolution (Sf) is simply the number of Hertz
an initial example because it may be is 312.5Hz, so a digitised 625Hz sine between ordinates in the frequency
programmed directly and because, con- wave would he seen as a single ordinate domain. Spectral resolution is an
ceptually, it underpins the fast Fourier at third harmonic number. important parameter given by of =
transform FFT which will he presented I/NT. For a fixed sampling rate (T),
later. The object in each case is to Make sure you understand the real- good resolution requires the capture of
evaluate how the energy of the time - ity behind the abstraction of this many samples, usually N > I2K. The
domain signal x(t) is distributed in the expression. The discrete Fourier trans- discrete Fourier transform calculates
frequency domain. form is an approximation to the con- the magnitude (mean -square power) of
Commuting between domains tinuous Fourier transform, made up of each frequency component from ni = l)
requires the mathematical scaffolding N samples of the signal x(n). The (d.c.) to = Of times N (the sampling
provided almost 2(X) years ago by Jean integers n and m are analogous to the frequency). When running listing 6. to I

Baptiste Joseph Fourier. For con- spatial and frequency variables (t and w test the algorithm, notice that frequen-
tinuous signals: respectively). cies from d.c. to half the sampling
00 A compelling method of addressing froc(uency are unique. Frequencies
the core of the algorithm lies in writing greater than half the sampling fre-
X(w) = .r(t) e-/"dt effective software to describe the trans- quency are images folded about the
form. The frequency transform X(m) is line f,/2.
-co a complex number made up of the real Listing 6.1
where X(w) = the frequency transform and imaginary coefficients: / /
/* ELEMENTARY 8 POINT */
IN -1 /* DFT TRANSFORM */
x(t) = the signal to he transformed
ur(m) = -E v(n) cos (2nnut) / /

-
#include<stdio.h>
w = the frequency variable N #include<math.h>
n=U
#define PI 3.14159
t = the spatial variable N-1 main()
(2r<a
ai(in) _ v(n) sin
= V -i N,I
=0
N int m, n;
double real sum, imag_sum, mean_sq_
power;
To realise the Fourier transform on a where X(m) = ar(m)-jai(m) float x[8];
digital computer, the continuous signal In many applications, the mean - /*
x(t) needs to be replaced by the snap- DECLARE SIZE OF ARRAY AND DATA
square power is the quantity of most TYPE
shots x(n) taken by the a -to -d conver- significance. Visualise this as the mod- */
ter. Under the discrete Fourier trans- ulus of the frequency transform for(n = 0;n<= 7; n++)
form, integration is replaced by the squared or, alternatively, as X(m) mul- {
finite weighted summation: tiplied by its complex conjugate x[n] = sin(2 * PI * n / 8);
N- I
X*(m). Hence the mean -square power
X(in) = - r(n) exp ( I2- ) may he written as:
j*..
SYNTHETIC DATA
DFT ALGORITHM STARTS HERE
Nn=l) */
m = l),1,2, ... N -i IX(m)I2 = I«r(nl)12 + la!(nl)IZ for(m = O;m <= 7;m++)

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD + \VIREI.ESS \\ORLD 1067


PROGRAMMING

{ 130 OUT BASE + 2, 0 REM START


:

real_sum = 0; CONVERSION
imag_sum = 0; 140 X(N) = INP(BASE + 2) REM READ I/P
:

mean_sq_power = 0; 150 NEXT N


for(n = O;n <= 7;n++)
{ (b) Comparable construction using C
real_sum += x[nJ * cos(2 * PI * m * n / 8) / 8;
imag_sum += x[n] * sin(2 * PI * m * n / 8) / 8; #define BASE 768
} int x[2561;
mean_sq_power = pow(real_sum, 2) + /*
pow(imag_sum, 2); DECLARE SIZE OF ARRAY AND DATA
/* TYPE
COMPUTE MEAN SQ. POWER BY SELECTING THE PRIMITIVE "INT"
SQUARING AND SUMMATING REAL AND ENSURES FASTER THROUGHPUT
IMAGINARY COEFFICIENTS */
*/ for(n = O;n <= 255;n++)
printf("%dtt%ftt%ftt%ftn", m, real_sum, {
imag_sum, mean_sq_power); outp(BASE + 2, 0);
/* /*
PRINT: m ar(m) ai(m) mean sq. power START CONVERSION
*/ */
} x[n] = inp(BASE + 2);
} /*
READ ADC AND STORE SEQUENTIALLY
*/ Evaluate
Developing and explaining }
ar(m) ai(m)
mean sq. power
the program
Listing 6.1 demonstrates principles. Returning to listing 6.1, the exponen-
The complications of truncated data tial term in the discrete Fourier trans-
form is expanded to express X(m) as
synthetic waveform -
capture are avoided by generating a
in this case, one
complete cycle of a sinewave. This is
the sum of the real and imaginary
coefficients: ar(m) and ai(m) called -
stored as eight samples in the array x[n] real_sum and imag_sum respectively
and identified by the square brackets. in the program.
The size of the array and the data type To compute the mean -squared
of the stored members must be power, square the real and imaginary
declared in advance. In this program, coefficients before evaluating the sum.
the construction float x[8] reserves Surprisingly, this can he a problem
space for 8 decimals. Each floating using C. A belt and braces approach
point element occupies 4 bytes. might lead to the equation mean_sq_
Data capture, followed by sequential power = real_sum * real_sum + imag_
storage, figures prominently in many sum * imag_sum. This is correct hut
signal -processing applications. Subse- laborious.
quent programs will compute the Fortunately, Microsoft C includes
Fourier transform using data captured the function pow( ), which is a contrac-
via an A -to -D converter. Conse- tion of power. An inspection of the
quently, the size of the declared array program should make it clear that the
must be modified to accommodate the construction pow(real_sum,2) squares
increased number of samples, typically the variable real_sum. Notice that both
mean_sq_power and real_sum are de- Fig. 6.3. Flowchart describing
256 or more. Real-time data logging
clared as doubles. The effects of run- elementary 8 -point DFT transform.
frequently requires high sampling
ning the program are shown in Table
rates, so the structure of the software
will he improved by storing the output
of the A -to -D in an array of the
6.1.
Table 6.1 The results of a Fourier
following example --
ification to listing 6.1
a simple mod-
is designed to
declared type int. This more primitive transform using an 8 point DFT com- he run through an EGA card and
construction represents each stored putation colour monitor. Regard the program as
element using only two bytes, thus a testhed, an opportunity to consoli-
ensuring faster throughput. sample no. ar(m) ai(m) mean sq.power date facts and to watch the Fourier
For the purpose of comparison, a 0 0 0 0 transform in action. As usual, program
Basic data logging program is included, 0 0.5 0.25 development is simplified with bottom
together with an equivalent C construc- 2 0 0 0 up design as the intention is to add
3 0 0 0
tion. Both are littered with comments 4 0 0 0
colour graphics to the tried and tested
as an aid to comprehension. 5 0 0 0
DFT algorithm.
6 0 0 0 However, at this stage, the complica-
Data logging software structures 7 0 -0.5 0.25 tion of real -data capture is avoided.
Instead, the sampled data is generated
(a) Anatomy of a Basic program Graphical spectral analysis synthetically inside the I'C. The
100 BASE = 768 REM BASE ADDRESS OF
:

I/O CARD Looking at columns of figures soon reasons for this are really quite prac-
110 DIM X(256) REM DECLARE SIZE OF
:
becomes tedious, and commercial spec- tical. It is easy to simulate the output
DATA STRUCTURE tral analysers usually display the com- from the a -to-d without the contusion
120 FOR N = 0 TO 255 puted frequency spectrum visually. The of external hardware and still he con -

11168 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


PROGRAMMING

of external hardware and still be con- _setcolor(14);


fident of the characteristics of the _moveto(320 * m / N, 0);
_lineto(320 * m / N, -100 rms); 0,0 639,0
sampled signal. Furthermore, Micro-
la
soft C's rich set of mathematical func-
PLOT AND SCALE FREQUENCY
tions will he exploited to generate a SPECTRUM
wide variety of input signals. al
}

gofo start;
la INTRODUCTORY DFT WITH
/* COLOUR GRAPHICS
}

#include<stdio.h> Understanding the logical Logical origin (0,0) physical


#include<math.h> system of coordinates coordinates (160,100)
#include<graph.h>
#define PI 3.14159 The Microsoft C graphics library is
main() contained in the header file graph.h. It
{ supports two coordinate systems to
struct videoconfig screen_size; identify a particular pixel location. 0 199 639,199
int N, n;
Previous use of the physical system of
double m;
double real_sum, imag_sum, mean_sq_ coordinates in the graphics programs Fig. 6.4. Selecting the video mode
power, rms; described in an earlier section res- JIRESI6COLOR provides 640X200
float x[128]; tricted attention to positive values of x pixels. Function _retlogor(screen_
start: _settextposition(20, 20); and y. This program extends our com- size.numxpixels/a, screen_
printf("Select No. of samples (128max)"); mand of Microsoft C graphics and size.numvpixels/2) moves the logical
scanf("%d", &N); manipulates the logical system of coor-
la
origin (0,0) to pixel coordinates
ENTER NUMBER OF SAMPLES dinates. Inspect listing 6.2 carefully, (16C',100).
al and notice that a little more video
_setvideomode(_DEFAULTMODE); housekeeping is required to get started.
_setvideomode(_HRES16COLOR); The function _getvideoconfig( ) is used characterized by a discontinuous fre-
/* to obtain information about the current quency spectrum, the spectral energy
EGA MODE being concentrated at a single -spot
graphics environment. In this case, the
*/ frequency. Conversely, discontinuous
_clearscreen(_GCLEARSCREEN); configuration information (the number
_setbkcolor(_GRAY); of pixels along the x and y axes) is functions such as squarewaves, which
_getvideoconfig(&screen_size); contained in the variable screen_size. change abruptly with time, have a
_setlogorg(screen_size.numxpixels/4, To set the logical origin (the point 0,0) continuous spectral envelope. Use soft-
screen_size.numypixels/2); at a specific pixel location on the ware to generate isolated pulses and
_moveto(0, 0); screen, use the function _setlogorg( ). examine the spectrum. Reduce the
_lineto(320, 0);
Fig. 6.4 contains the details relevant to pulse width and observe how the spec-
_moveto(0, 0);
_lineto(0, -90); the video mode _HRES16COLOR tral energy becomes extended in the
la made up of 640x200 pixels, with six- frequency domain.
DRAW X & Y AXES teen colours. Once the origin is estab- It is really quite remarkable just
al lished, increasing x moves the pixel what can he achieved using a few lines
_settextcolor(3); horizontally from left to right across of imaginative software. The following
_settextposition(4, 8);
the monitor. But increasing y moves examples are intended to develop an
_outtext("r.m.s. power");
_settextposition(14, 50); the pixel vertically downwards, which instinct for spectral analysis. They will
_outtext("Frequency (Hz)"); is mathematically unconventional. This encourage you to experiment and
/* should explain why the y coordinate is acquire a feel for what a transform
COLOUR AND POSITION TEXT preceded by a negative sign in the looks like and how it behaves. Each of
al the following functions is software -
function _lineto( ).
for(n = 0;n <= (N - 1);n++) generated and the pseudo -sampled
{
la
Applying the DFT program data is stored in the array xlnl prior to
LOCATE SYNTHETIC DATA HERE SEE Digital -signal processing can still pro- processing using listing 6.2.
TEXT FOR SUGGESTIONS vide one or two surprises for the
*/ unwary. Use this simple DFT with
}
graphics program as a controlled Streamlining the arithmetic
for(m = 0;m <= (N - 1);m++)
environment with which to understand using the fast Fourier
{
real_sum = 0; a few of the limitations of your compu- transform
imag_sum = 0;
for(n = 0;n <= (N
{
- 1);n++)
ter and a -to-d converter.
In the real world, we are unlikely to
capture a whole number of input sig-
does have its limitations -
Running listing 6.2 is fun, but the DET
you prob-
ably noticed that processing time
real_sum += x[n] * cos(2 * PI * m * n / N) / N; nals, deliberately truncate the input
imag_sum += x[n] * sin(2 * PI * m * n / N) /
increased as the number of samples was
data and observe the effect on the increased. The complexity of the cal-
N;
}
computed spectrum. Be inquisitive. culation is proportional to N2 where N
mean_sq_power = pow(real_sum, 2) + Increase the number of samples and is the number of samples. hope you
I

pow(imag_sum, 2); see if this results in any improvement. were critical and examined the com-
rms = sgrt(mean_sq_power); Look closely at the characteristics and puted spectral display carefully, parti-
/a spectra of sinusoids and repetitive -
TAKE SQUARE ROOT OF MEAN SQUARE
cularly when processing a non -integer
pulse waveforms. Recognise that con- number of cycles (listing 6.4). Spectral
POWER TO IMPROVE GRAPHIC DISPLAY
*/ tinuous signals such as sinewaves are spreading was evidently a problem

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLI)+WIRELESS WORLD luh9


PROGRAMMING

Listing 6.3 Listing 6.5 Listing 6.7

/* /a /*
USING THIS GENERATING FUNCTION THE NOTICE HOW A DISCONTINUOUS TIME THIS GENERATING FUNCTION HAS
GRAPHICS AGREE WITH THE THEORY DOMAIN SIGNAL IS TRANSLATED INTO A APPLICATIONS WHEN PROCESSING
*/ CONTINUOUS FOURIER TRANSFORM RANDOM NOISE
for(n = 0; n <= (N-1); n++) */ */
{ for(n = 0; n <= (N-1)/8; n++) for(n = 0; n <= (N-1)/64; n++)
x[n] = sin(20*PI*n/N); { {
} x[n] = 5; x[n] = 5;
} }

for(n = (N-1)/8; n <= (N-1); n++) for(n = (N-1)/64; n <=.(N -1); n++)
{ {
x[n] = 0; x[n] = 0;
} }

16
ó Samples E

128 Samples
¢ z 128 Samples

Frequent (Hz)
DC Is
is
2

Fig. 6.5. Using software to generate ten a

complete cycles of a sampled sine wave


Constant spectral density
produces a single weighted impulse of Frequency(Hz)
energy where m=/0, with an image Frequency(Hz)

folded at half sampling frequency. This Fig. 6.7. Synthetically generating sample
component can be interpreted as negative square wave, pulse width 1/8 total period. Fig. 6.9. Progressively reducing pulse
frequency usually associated with Spectral envelope is continuous and rich width by modifying FOR loop ultimately
classical analysis. in low frequency components. Signal is gives good approximation to impulse
characterised by infinite number of function. Processing through DFT
harmonics, but certain spot frequencies demonstrates that spectral energy is
contain no spectral energy. constant in frequency domain.
Listing 6.4
Listing 6.6
/* which could he reduced simply by
THIS GENERATING FUNCTION /*
increasing the number of samples.
DEMONSTRATES THE EFFECTS OF NARROW PULSES OCCUPY LARGE
BANDWIDTHS The fast Fourier transform is not a
SPECTRAL SPREADING
*/ */ new transform. It is an algorithm
for(n = 0; n <= (N-1); n++) for(n = 0; n <_ (N-1)/16; n++) which, when applied to a data set of 2N
{
{ samples, reduces the number of multi-
x[n] = sin(19.9*PI*n/N); x[n] = 5; plications from N2 to N log2 N. This is a
}
} huge saving of computation time. Its
for(n = (N-1)/16; n <= (N-1); n++)
{
existence generally became known in
x[n] = 0; the mid 1960's. It followed the matrix
} theory of J. W. Cooley and J. W.
Tukey, who returned to the computa-
tion of "schedules" originally under-
taken at Los Alamos as part of the
Manhattan Project. Retrospectively, it
is acknowledged that a few clever
128 Samples people had been using the FFT as early
as 1942 (refer to Brigham for details).

SDectrol spreading How many multiplications?


lhf 2
a Examination of the DFT algorithm,
Frequency(Hz)
together with the relevant C program,
indicates that approximately N com-
Fig. 6.6. Fourier transform treats each plex multiplications and about the
Frequency(Hz)
data set as periodic, hence discontinuity same number of additions are required
due to processing non -integer number of Fig. 6.8. Decreasing pulse width reduces to calculate the frequency coefficient
cycles results in spectral spreading. amplitude of spectral energy and extends for a particular value of m. Since there
Known more evocatively as "picket fence frequency response, demonstrating need are N/2 unique spectral components,
effect" or "leakage". for large bandwidth in high frequency the total number of multiplications
pulse circuits.

1070 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


PROGRAMMING

Listing 6.8 Listing 6.9 Listing 6.10

/* /* /*
DECAYING EXPONENTIAL SIGNAL ANALOGOUS TO THE STEP RESPONSE THESE WAVEFORMS LOOK DIFFERENT
*/ OF A SERIES R -L -C CIRCUIT BUT SOUND IDENTICAL, OUR EARS
for(n = 0; n <= (N-1); n++) a/ THROW AWAY THE PHASE INFORMATION
{ for(n = 0; n <= (N-1); n++)
a = 0.0392156; { for(n = 0; n <= (N-1); n++)
/* a = 0.0392156; {
DECAY FACTOR a IS RECIPROCAL OF /* w = 2*PI*n/N;
TIME CONSTANT 1/a IS THE TIME CONSTANT x[n] = sin(w) + sin(3aw)/3 + sin(5*w)/5 +
a/ */ sin(7*w)/7 + sin(9*w)/9;
x[n] = 2*exp(-a*n); x[n] = 2*exp(-a*n)*sin(20*PI*n/N); }
} }

128 Samples

128 Samples
huu..aa....... ..._ ...., ,11117I
Frequency(Hz)
)1.... .....11]I

Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 6.10. Processing pulse through


limited -bandwidth system introduces Fig. 6.11. Program of listing 6.9
exponential rounding of leading and generates sine wave modulated by
trailing edges. Listing 6.8 generates exponentially decaying envelope,
decaying exponential function, decay generating frequency -domain model of
factor chosen to allow pulse tofall to zero damped second-order system. Examine
for N=128. Try decreasing time effects of varying time constant. 1111
Frequency l Hz)
constant, observing wider spectrum.
Table 6.2 Comparing the number of Contrary to appearances, this does Fig. 6.12. Spectral analysis contains no
computations required for DFT and FFT. improve comprehension and demons- information on phase of time -domain
Number of samples DFT FFT trates coefficient redundancy. To signal. Listings 6.10 and 6.11 generate
N N2 N Iog2 N understand the mathematics, consider two apparently different waveforms, (a)
the behaviour of the complex coef- and (h) respectively, which have identical
8 64 24
16 256 64 ficient WN for eight sampled values ie. spectral characteristics, as seen at (c).
32 1024 160 N = 8. W8 is raised to the power mn, Listing 6. //
64 4096 384 where m and n are integers in the range
128 16384 896 (1 to 7. The repetitive nature of the forpin = 0; n <= (N-1); n++)
256 65536 2048 algorithm results in the calculation of {
512 262144 4608 w = 2*PI*n/N;
W""' being carried out 64 times.
1024 1048576 10240
However, examination of the tabulated x[nl = sin(w) + sin(3*w)/3 - sin(5*w)/5 +
required to compute the complete coefficients reveals only eight unique
sin(7*w)/7 - sin(9*w)/9;
}
spectrum is approximately N2. This is a terms, the result of the integer product
considerable calculation for a large mn over the range 0 to 7. Restricting
number of samples, even on a PC. Now
for the good news many of the - the number of samples to eight makes
pencil and paper confirmation relative-
6
W8-I
calculated coefficients are redundant
and can he factored out. Evaluating the
ly painless. This can he shown using an
Argand diagram (Fig. 6.13) where the
We
s
°-
-1+j
f2
7
We=
1+'
12
1

DFT by hand is an exercise in tedious calculated coefficients are represented


calculation. Nevertheless, insight into as rotating phasors. The 8-point DFT
the inner workings of the FFT only multiplication table 6.3 should help
We 1 Wé=1

comes with real understanding of the with the calculation. If you have time,
more straightforward DFT. Modern use the DFT algorithm in conjunction -1-j 1-j
wen-
notation tends to present the DFT in with Table 6.3 to confirm the results of W8=
f2
the form: listing 6 1.
Wé=-j
1N-1 The fast Fourier transform recog-
X(m)=- x(n)W'"' nizes that many of the calculations are
redundant and uses a decimation pro- Fig. 6.13. Geometrical interpretation of
n=(1
in = 0,1,2, ... (N- I) cess to bisect the data array until only complex coefficient Ws"'" as a rotating
two -point transforms remain. Look at phasor.
WN = ex p ( Ñ7C)

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD 1071


PROGRAMMING

Table 6.3. Evaluating complex coefficient, or "How to learn


X(0) k- X (0)
your eight- times 1)FT table".
X(1 )41 X (4)

X(2111k-
\
\
-- \
X (2)
0 1 2
Values of m
3 4 5 6 7

X(3)1 -- X(6) 0 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1

X(4) X(1)
1 1 lJ) 12
-J -(1)
!2
-1 -() J2 )
(+1)
12
X(51 X (5)
2 1 -1 -1 i 1 -i -1 1

X(6) X(3)

X(7) X(7) 3 1 l
1 ) l
1 ) -1 ( J2 ) -1 -(1.--:1)

2frf
4 -1 -1 -1 -1
Fig. 6.14. Butterfly diagram for fast Fourier tran.sfornz of an 1 1 1 1

8 -element data array. Two paths entering a node are combined


by forming sum: dotted line + (node coefficient) multiplied by 5 1 -l1-1i1
12
-i (1+i)
12
-1 l-) I2 i
-(1)
J2
solid line. For example, output of second row, second column is
X(1)+WO.X(5). Repeal procedure until processed output 6 1 j -1 -i 1 i -1 -I
appears in final columns.
7 1 (Iii- ) -( ) -1 -(-1-1)) -I ( )

the signal slow diagram Fig. 6.14, and


notice that the effect of the algorithm)
has been to scramble the order of the
output data. Write both the input and
output data in binary foram, and it will Having covered the discrete Fourier transf orn in this part, Howard Hutchings
he apparent that the scrambling is not goes on next month to deal with the fast Fourier transform, including the use of a

-
random but a mirror image of the input
where the results are placed in hit
reversed order.
PC as a real-time spectrun7 analyser

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BRUSHLESS D.C. 12V FAN tiny, only 60mm square, good air mover but causes no interference £8.00.
SOIL HEATING germinates and brings on the young plants without having to heat the whole greenhouse. Now is
2MW LASER Helium Neon by PHILIPS. full spec. £30. power supply for this in kit form with case is £15.00. or in the time to instal it, the main items. a 750 watt transformer and 100 metres of heating cable will cost you only
larger case to house tube as well £17.00. £29 including carriage.

MAINS 230V FAN best make "PAPST" O" square, metal blades £8.00 CEILINGS COULD COME DOWN if the water pipes above freeze and burst, you can guard against this by winding
our waterproof heating cable around them. Costs only about the same as a 40 watt lamp to run. Cable resistance
BATTERY MOTORS 12 models in stock in large quantities ranging from tiny model aircraft one at 25p each to Ihhp is approx. 90 ohms per metre. 15 metre length suits the average house price is £5 or cut to your specification 40p
made to drive the famous Sinclair C5 car, you can have this at £17.50. metre
SOLAR MOTORS 11/2-9V precision made to operate from low current off solar cells £1.50, solar generator to drive INSTANT HEAT is what you want for your workshop etc. and you will get it with one of our tangential blow heaters.
this £7.00. has provision for battery backup when sun es not shining! can be mounted under the bench or in a simple enclosure, three models available all have full or hall heat plus
COPPER BOARD for making you pcb 174x I00mmx2mm thick double sided and brand new. 50p each, £40 per cold blow. 3Kw has 12" element £8. 21hKw 8 2Kw both have 8" elements and are £6 each.
hundred. £350 per thousand. POWER CUTS OR FAILURES cause inconvenience or worse, our emergency fluorescent lighting unit keeps itself
charged. comes on automatically and stays on for at least 3 hours, is neatly cased and ready to instal price £25
AIR SPACED TRIMMER CAPS 2-20 pf ideal for precision tuning uhf circuits 25p each. 10 for £2. 100 for £15.
includes its ni -cad batteries.
I Khz. TONE GENERATOR this is PP3 battery operated and has a IKhz output that can be continuous or interrupted
500V BRIDGE MEGGER developed for G.P.O. technicians the Ohmeter 18B is the modern equivalent of the bridge
at a rate variable by a panel mounted control Also on the front panel are separate output sockets for monitor or
meggar. 9V battery operated it incorporates a 500V generation for insulation testing and a null balance bridge for
headphones, and a battery condition indicator. Constructed on a pcb and front panel size approx 105x50mm ex
very accurate resistance measurement. On the front panel there is a 3"x 3" panel meter calibrated in megohms to
equipment but in as new condition £2 each. inf. and a small scale to indicate balance showing the exact setting of the four controls in the variable arm of the
OSCILLOSCOPE 3018 developed for testing transmission lines. it makes and displays pulse echoes to find shorts resistance bridge. Ex B.T. in quite good condition with data8tested. Yours for a fraction of original cost £45-05
and breaks in cable networks, this uses a 3" CRT to display the type of fault and a LCD to read out the distance ensured delivery
from the fault. The instrument is powered by 12V of rechargeable meads located in base, and it generates 1.5kv TRAVEL MECHANISM goes backwards and forwards, could be used to animate a display or position a device,
internally. It is housed in a high impact plastic case size approx 91/2" x 91/2" x 5". Ex British Telecom in very battery or p.s.0 operated, distance of travel 4" and speed of travel depends on applied voltage 11/2V very slow 120
good condition and working order. £49.50 plus £5 insured delivery max is quite fast. £5.00.

FIELD TELEPHONES lust right for building sites, rallies. horse shows etc, lust join two by twin wire and you have SOUND SWITCH has countless uses, one could be to control the above travel mech. Signals of 10 Hz to 20khz
two way calling and talking. and you can loin into regular phone lines if you want to. Ex British Telecom in very picked up.by-tts etectrel mike aiiaTETXXr tptttl¢ramt tortheramptifigliTligiiiconfrol Tema motor etc up to Ili

--
good condition, powered by batteries (not included) complete in shoulder slung carrying case. £12.50 each. IMO. supplied ready to work from 6V. Price only £2.
EXPERIMENTING WITH VALVES don't spe fortune on mains transformer we can supply one with standard
a
MAINS ISOLATION TRANSFORMER stops you getting "to earth" shocks. 230V in and 2300 out. 150 watt upright
mounting £7.50
input and secs. of 250-0-250V 75 ñA and 6.3V at 3 0. price £5.
I 5Watt Bohm 8 SPEAKER 8 3" TWEET i music centre, give real hi.h. and
HANG UP PHONE won't clutter up your desk or workbench. current model, has push button dialling. last number
for only £4 pair
recall internal alarm etc., Ex B.T. in good condition and fully working ready to plug in. £5
WANT TO EXPERIMENT WITH DISC DRIVE You can have a double sided LAP made model. brand new for only £10!
HIGH VOLTAGE CAPS if you use these ask for our 1-10 Kv Capacitor list, we have over Ili million in stock and Why, because it was made fora very compact unit and consequently uses a small non standard disc. (We stock
might save you a lot of money. these at £2 each) it requires 5V 330mA power supply (we can supply). The drive is nicely cased and has output
Prices include V.A.T. Send cheque, postal order or ring and quote credit card number. Add £3 post and packing. and input leads, originally listed at over £100, so it's a real bargain.
Orders over £25 post tree, unless postage quoted separately. TIMES TEN IONISER using transformers and novel circuitry, our ioniser emits at least ten times as many ions as
does any other kit on offer, nor do vie know of a ready built model that is as good, you don't need a tester to see if

M&B ELECTRICAL (WW Circle No. 119) it is working lust bring your hand close to it and feel the stream of neg ions. It's a kit complete with case. nothing
else to buy yours for £14 50.
12 Boundary Road, Hove, Sussex BN3 4EH ULTRASONIC TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER with Piero alarm, built into preformed case, is triggered by movement
disturbing reflected signal, intended for burglar alarm. car alarm etc. has many extras. time delay, auto reset,
Telephone (0273) 430380 Fax (0273) 410142 secret off device etc. A £40 instrument yours for £10.

CIRCLE NO. 112 ON REPLY CARD

1072 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 199(1


SMALL SELECTION ONLY LISTED- EXPORT TRADE AND QUANTITY DISCOUNTS
RING US FOR YOUR REQUIREMENTS WHICH MAY BE IN STOCK

Test Equipment. We hold a large stock of modern and old equipment- RF and AF signal generators -
Spectrum analysers - counters - power supplies chart recorders, all speeds single to muhipen - XY
-
Radar &
plotters A4 -A3- oscilloscopes - normal 8 storage.
- -
Tektronix 475 200MC S oscilloscopes tested from £400 less attachments to £700
G/W manual probes etc. Tektronix 475A - 250MCS - complete kit with probes £750.
-
Telequipment 0755 50MC S oscilloscopes tested CW 2 probes manual £250. -
Marconi TF2002AS.-AM-FM signal generator -10KCS to 72MG/S - £85 tested + probe kit 8 manual.
-
- Fibre -Optics
Marconi TF2002B AM-FM signal generator - 10KC/S-88MC S -£ 100 tested to El 50 as new - probes.
-
Marconi TF2008 - AM -FM signal generator - Also sweeper -10KC/S - 510MCS - from f350 tested to
£500 as new with manual- probe kit in wooden carrying box - £50.
HP Signature analyser type 5006A - £300.
HP DC Current source type 6177C - £300.
Training Equipment
HP Frequency counter type 5384A-225MC/S-£350.
HP Frequency comb generator type 8406A £400. -
HP Amplifier type 8447A -.1 to 400 MHzs -£300.
-
A full range of professional training
HP Sampling voltmeter (Broadband) type 34064 £200.
HP Vector voltmeter type 8405A £400 to £600.
HP Oscilloscope mainframe type 182C £300.
-
-
equipment now available from a leading
HP Oscilloscope mainframe type 181TR-£400
HP Signal generator type 8614A -8616A £400 to £800. - manufacturer including:
HP Frequency counter type 5340A-18GHZS -£1000.
HP Frequency counter type 53526-40GHZS- fí5500.
HP Synthesiserlsignal generator type 8672A-2 to 18GHZS £7500. -
HP Vector Impedance meter and probe type 4193A-£1500. Radar
HP Network analyser type 8754A - HP8502A test set £5000. -
HP Function generator type 3312A-£500.
HP Spectrum analyser plug-in - .01 to 350MC/S - option .001 - mainframe - £1000.
HP Mainframe type 8620A or C- £600 - £1200.
HP 3575A gain phase meter - P.O.R.
HP 8660B signal generator - mainframe -£1000.
HP B660C signal generator -1300MCS or 2600 MC/S - P.O.R.
HP 8505A network analyser -500KC/S-1.3GHz HP 8502A test set P.C.R. - -
HP 8640A signal generator -OPT 001 -002 .5MC/S-1024MCS -£1000. - Fibre optic
HP8558B- 1MCS-1500MCIS+ mainframe -P.O.R.
Racal Dana digital multimeter type 5001- £250.
Racal/Dana interface type 9932 -£ 150
Racal/Dana GPIB Interface type 9934A-£100.
Racal/Dana RMS meter type 9301A í300. -
Racal/Dana RMS voltmeter type 9303 £600. -
Raw /Dana trmerlcounter type 9500 (9515 OPT 42)- 1250MC/S - £750.
Racal Thermionic store 4 recorder £300. -
Racal frequency standard generators type MA259 - 600KC/S -1 MC 8 5MC/S - £200.
Marconi AF power meter type 8936- £300. Analog & Digital Comms
Marconi bridge type 2700 - £250.
Marconi attenuatortype TF2163S -1 GHZ £250. -
-
Maroon' Saunders signal sources types 6058B -6070A -6055B- 6059A -400 to t OGHZS.
Marconi/Saunders microwave sweep oscillator type 6600A 18 to 40GHZ plug -ins - P.O.R.
Thurlby convertor 19 -GP-IEEE -488 £150. -
Philips logic multimeter type PM2544 £200. -
Gould J36 audio signaVgenerator £250. -
Microwave systems MOS/3600 microwave frequency stabilizer - to 18GhZS 8 18 to 40GHZ -£1500. 1

Microwave systems MOS5 microwave frequency stabilizer -1 to 18GHZs 8 18 to 40GHZS -£


EIP Microwave counter type 371- source locking 18GHZS -£1400. -
300.
Microwave
R 8 S Vector analyser ZPV with 100MC/S or 2000MCS plug -in -£1200. XTRA PI - £500.
Scientific Atlanta LF realtime analyser type SD330A £750. -
Bradley oscilloscope calibrator type 156- £150.
Bradley oscilloscope calibrator type 192 - £600
Tektronix curve tracer type 576 -£1400.
Tektronix curve tracer type 577 -£1000.
Tektronix mainframes 7403N 7603 7623 -7633- 7704A 7834 7844 - 7904 TM501 TM503
- - - - - - - -
TM506 P O R.
Textronix plug -ins -7A13 -7A14 -7A18 -7A24 -7A26 -7A11 -7M11 -7S11 -7010-7512-S1 -S2
-
-S6 - S52 - PG506 SC504 - SG502 SG503 SG504 DC503- DC508 DD501 -W R501-
- - - -
Telephony
-
DM501 A - FG501 A TG501 - TR502. P.O.R.
Textronix spectrum analyser type 491 -1.5 to 40GHZS (as new( £1200.
Racal HF drive unit 1.6 to 25MCS type 1724 brand new £350. - -
Racal HF drive unit type 1720 -1 MC to 29MCS -£150-£250.
Ailtech Stoddart receiver type 17/27A -.01 32MC/S - £5000. -
Ailtech Stoddart receiver type 37,57-30 to 1000 MC S -L5000.
Alhech Stoddart receiver type NM65T-1 to 1 OGIGS- £3000.
Simulators
HP Oscillographic recorder type 7404A -4 track £350. -
HP Plotter type 9872B-4 pen - £300.
HP Plotter type 74704 - £200.
Marconi TF2015. SIG/GEN - 10MHZ 520MC/S AM -FM £250. - - -
HP power meter type 431C to 18GHZ with C type head 8 waveguide head -£150 to £200.
HP sweep oscillators type 8690 A8B = plug -ins from 10MG S to 18GHZ also 18-40GHZ P.O.R.
-
HP 3325A synthesiser function generator -£1500 - manual. Several of these high quality products have
Marconi TF1245A circuit magnification meter - 1246 8 1247 oscillators -£10010 £300
-
HP signal generators. Type 612 -614 -618 620 -626 628 - frequency from 450MC/S to 21 GHZs. - been winners of the prestigious Worlddidac
-
HP 8614A -HP8616A signal generators 900-2400MGS -1800-4500MCS - f800 -£600.
Gould J3B test oscillator £250 - manual. awards, Genea, Switzerland, with our
Ferrograph recorder test sets - RST2 - £200.
Raw Dana 93014-9303 RF millivolt meters. 1.5-2GHZ - £350 - £750. Radar Trainer taking this years Gold medal.
Raw Dana counters 9915M -9916-9917 -9921 -£150 to £450. Fitted FOstandards.
HP 84074.8412A - 86016 network analyser 100KCS -110MC/S - £1000. -
B network analysers - 110MG'S to 12.4GHZ or 18GHZ plus most other units and displays used in
HP
this set up 84134- 8414A -8418A -8740A-8743A- 8750A. P.O.R. Contact:
HP 141T mainframe plus 8556A - 85538 85546 -P.O.R. 8555A - 85524 -85526 plug-in units
- - -
HP 181TR mainframe -íd00 -HP 182T mainframe -£500. HP 141T mainframe -£500-£1000.
HP 432A=4356 -436A power meters
HP 478A- p486A- K486 -8481A-84818. P.O.R.
Powerheads -10MCS 40GHZ. - Lab -Volt (UK) Ltd
HP oscilloscope type 1740A -100MC S £300 G/W manual. -
Image Intensifiers - ex MoD tripod htting for long range night viewing - as new £3000EA
- - 2 Stephenson Road Industrial Estate
-
Intensifier tybes £50 to £250 tested - depending on grade - first gen XX1060.
-
-
Thermal Imaging Equipment - high definition from £2500 complete in transit case. - St. Ives, Cambridgeshire PE17 4WJ
-
Clark air operated heavy duty masts with legs and kit with pump. £200-£500.
Don 10 telephone cable- r 5 mile canvas containers or wooden drum- new Mk2-3 or 4 P.O.R. - Tel: (0480) 300695 Fax: (0480) 61654
Infra-red binoculars in fibre-glass carrying case tested - -f
100EA also Infra -red AFV sights -£100EA
SA E. for details -Infra -red spotlights and Infra-red filters P.O.R.
-

a6- olt®
Tracor 599K VLF-LF receiver FX standard -£1000. -
Tracor 527A or E difference meter - £400-4500.
B 8 K 2019 analyser - 2305 level recorder- 2425 meter- 4220 piston phones etc. P.O.R.

hems bought from HM Government being surplus. Price is ex -works. S.A.E. For enquiries phone for
appointment or for demonstration of any items, availability or price change. VAT and Carr- extra.

Johns Radio, Whitehall Works, 84 Whitehall Road East, Birkenshaw,


Bradford BD112ER. Tel. No. (0274) 684007. Fax: 651160
Wanted: Redundant test equipment - valves - plugs - sockets - synchro's etc.,
Receiving 8 transmitting equipment -general electronic equipment

CIRCLE NO. 113 ON REPLY CARD CIRCLE NO. 114 ON REPLY CARD

December 1990 ELECTRONICS \\ORLD+\I IRELESS \1ORLD 1073


CIRCUIT IDEAS

Thermistor temperature gradiometer


Negative temperature -coefficient beau
thermistors, such as the GL23 from RS
Components. have a thermal time con- R5

stant of between 19 and 20 seconds.


Response time of such thermistors can Circuit diagram of the gra-
be reduced considerably by using them diometer.
in conjunction with operational ampli- OUT
fiers in a closed feedback loop. A Rtt=R2t=1K52; R12=R13
bridge configuration is, perhaps, the =R22=R23=56052; TH1,
simplest one to implement; for exam- TH2 are GL23 thermistors
ple, in the diagram Thl, with negligible (RS stock no. 151-029),
self-heating when kept at 20°C, has a R3=R4=R5=R6=47K52, I.0
resistance of 1.5k52. With a current of (la), I.0 (Ib), I.C(Ic) is a
5mA, self -heating will reduce its resist- single chip operational
ance to 2509. amplifier LM324 (National
Hence, if the bridge is roughly Semiconductors). Trimmers
balanced and the feedback loop of IC1a across R13 and R23 consist of
is closed, the inputs will detect the 5600 fixed resistor in series
error signal' and force the output to with a 5K52 variable.
reduce it to zero, via the change of Power supply ±15V,
resistance of Th, due to self-heating. 10OmA.
Any further changes in the tempera-
ture of Tht will result in corresponding
changes in the output as the feedback Battery-status indicator
loop tracks the error signal. The
mechanism is linear to ±1% in the "Ile circuit shown indicates the low - When, therefore, the battery voltage falls
temperature range 0-30°C and gives an voltage condition of a battery by flicker- to a point set by the potentiometer, the
output of 2(I(ImV/°C. For a wider ing the led I). led flickers at 1011z.
temperature range, non -linearity must Normally, the supply voltage is high Power consumed by the XR-L555 is
be expected. A slew rate of tV/s is enough to maintain the transistor in its only about ImW (1/15 of that for the
obtained without the use of stabilising ON state and the micropower timer does normal 555), so that it does not seriously
networks. not receive enough voltage to operate, affect battery life. The circuit is designed
A useful application is in the the led being OFF. As the supply voltage for operation at 4.5V. but is easily
measurement of temperature gra- falls to about 3V, the transistor base modified for other supplies.
dients. A single -chip quad op -amp such current becomes too small for conduc- V. Lakshminarayanan
as the LM324 with a high gain and tion, its collector voltage now being high Centre for Development of Telematics
internal frequency compensation may enough to operate the timer, which will Bangalore
be used. IC1. and IC11, drive the ther- work with a 2.7V supply and which is India
mistors, IC,, being a difference ampli- arranged as a 1011z astable multivibrator.
fier. Magnitude and sign of the output
define the gradient between the therm-
istors. 100
Initially, both thermistors are kept in
100k
ice and the trimmers are adjusted to 10k
Switch
obtain zero output when both tempera- 47k
ture and gradient are zero. When in
use, the thermistors must be protected
against draughts, since stray variations
in temperature appear as noise'.
A. de Sa
To
10k

equipment
Circuits
2N2222

0.01pF
XR-L555
120k

D= i 4.5V

University of Newcastle upon Tyne J47F

Reference
I. Principles of Electronic Instrumentation
(2nd edn) 1990. Edward Arnold.

1074 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


.THE ORIGINAL SURPLUS WONDERLAND!
MONITORS IBM KEYBOARD DEALS
MONOCHROME MONITORS A replacement or backup keyboard, switchable for IBM PC,
PC -XT or PC -AT. LED's for Caps,Scroll & Num Locks. Standard
Fantastic PC -XT
THIS MONTH'S SPECIAL!
There has never been a deal like this onel 84 keyboard layout. Made by NCR for the English & US markets.
Brand spanking new & boxed monitors Absolutely standard. Brand new 8 boxed with manual and key
template for user slogans on the function keys. Attractive
(M°,.41111\ C0I(Mono Colnpat
from NEC, normally selling al about £1401 Fantastic deal for an entry machine or cheap enough to buy as
beige ,grey and cream finish, with the usual retractable legs
These are over -engineered for ultra underneath. A generous length of curly cord, terminating in the a backup. Brand new and boxed colour (CGA) or mono (MGA)
reliability. 9' green screen composite input standard 5 pin DIN plug. A beautiful clean piece of manufac- switchable PC -XT compatible, complete with MS-DOS 3.3 and
with etched non-glare screen plus switch - turers surplus. What a deal' £39 (B) 5/£175 (D) GN Basic 8 manuals. 8088-2 16 bit CPU with socket for 8087
able highiow impedance Input and output co -processor. 512K of RAM. Clock with battery backup. Serial
for daisy -chaining. 3 front controls and 6 at rear. Standard BNC Brand new and boxed 84 key PC/XT type keyboards In standard
& parallel ports 8 one 5.25 DS 360K floppy disk. Two half height
sockets. beautiful high contrast screen and attractive case with IBM grey with very attractive mottled finish and 'dicky' solid feel
bays on the front plus one Inside. Disk controller, power lead
carrying ledge. Perfect as a main or backup monitor and for keys. 10 function keys on side. English layout and £ sign. Gmen
and ribbon cable are ready Installed waiting for a second floppy.
LEDs for Caps, Scroll 8 Num locks. £29.95 (B) 5£135 (D)
quantity users' £39.95 each (D) or 5 for £185(G) Power lead for a hard disk Is also Installed. Room available for
CALL FOR DISCOUNTS ON HIGHER QUANTITIES! CALL FOR DISCOUNTS ON HIGHER QUANTITIES! a lard disk controller card in addition to the four slots. CG/VMGA
card, switchable at rear. Small footprint, dims, only 13.5'W x
Zenith ZVM-1240-EA brand new & boxed 12' amber flat screen
with optional swivel and tilt base. Sunfiex filter with dark tint.
FLOPPY DISK DRIVES 15"D x 4.25'H. Three convenient ways to SAVE!
Standard I I I PC compatible. 18 mhz bandwidth. Very attractive BARGAINS GALORE ! FC/XT-1 Base system as above £269 (E)
-state of the art' tapered grey case. Standard 9 pin D plug
(supplied) on metre cord and mains cord terminated with IEC
NEW 514 Inch from £29.951 PC/XT-M As above PLUS Zenith ZVM 1240
1
Massive purchases of standard 51/4' drives enables us to
connector. 240 volts complete with operations manual. An ab- present prime product at industry beating low prices' All units amber monitor described opposite £319 (F)
solute gin at: £59 (D) 10/£50 (G). Swivel/tilt base £4.95. (unless stated) are removed from often brand new equipment
Wang green screen 12 chassis monitor with composite video FC/XT-C As above PLUS Centronic colour
and are fully tested,aligned and shipped to you with a 90 day
input. Adjustable for tilt. Requires 12 vdc. Brand new and boxed
Only £39 each or 2 for £75 (F)
guarantee and operate from +5 & +12vdc, are of standard size monitor described opposite £399 (F)
in perfect condition.
Motorola M1000-100 5' black & white compact chassis measur-
and the 34 connector.£29.95(C)
ing only 11.611 x 12W x 22D. Ideal for CCTV or computer
SHUGART SAt 405.BRAND Nd EW POWER SUPPLIES
TANDON TM100-2A IBM compatible DS All PSUs 220 24Ovec input and are BRAND NEW unless
applications. Accepts standard composite or individual H 8 V TANDON 1T 1101 80 Track DS £49.95(£ )
syncs. Needs 12vdc at only 0.8a. Some units may have minor stated. Many types ranging from 3v to 10kv always In stock.
CANON,TEC etc.DS half helght.State 40 or BOT £79.00(C)
Power One SPL130. 130 watts. Link selectable for 12v (4A) or
screen blemishes. Fully tested with 30 day guarantee and full TEAC FD -55-F.40-80 DS hall height. BRAND NEW 179.00(C)
data. £29.0(C) 24 v (2A). 5v @ 20A.1. 12v @ 1.5A. Switch mode. £59.95(B)
Fully cased as above in attractive moulded desk standing 3t, INCH BRAND NEW AT £19.9511 Astee AC-8151 40 watts. Switch mode. +5v @ 2.5a. +12v @
swivel. Dim 12 x 14.5 x 26cm. £39.0(C) Never before seen price for a 312 -drive. Standard size believed 2a. rsd2v le 0.1a. 6-1/4' x 4' x 1-3 4'. £19.95(B)
JVC 751 ultra compact chassis monitor for 12vdc 0.7a. Dim 11 to be by Canon. Brand new and packaged - mint condition' 40
Greendaie 19ABOE 60 watts switch mode.+5v @ 6a.112v @
x 14 x 18cm. Simple DIY data included to convert to composite track SS, run from +5 & +12vdc with standard power conrec-
for Only £19.95 or 2 for £34.50(B) 1a.L15v@ la. RFE and fully tested.11x20x5.5cros. £24.95(C)
video input .Full data. BRAND NEW £65.0(B) Convey AC130. 130 watt hi -grade VDE spec.Switch mode.45v
20" Black & white monitors by Aztek, Cotron 8 National. All CHOOSE YOUR 8 INCH!
solid state, fully cased monitors ideal for all types of AV or CCTV Shugart 800/801 SS refurbished 8 tested £150.00(E) Ca 15a, -5v @ a.112v @ 6a.27 x 12.5 x 6.5cros
1 £49.95(C)
applications. Standard composite video inputs with Integral Shugart 851 double sided refurbished 8 tested I'295.00(E) Boshert 13090. Switch mode.ldeal for drives & system. +5v@
audio amp and speaker. Sold in good used condition - fully tested Mitsubishi M2894-63 double sided switchable 6a, +12v @ 2.5a, -12v @ 0.5a. -5v @ 0.5a. £29.95(13)
with 90 day guarantee. £85.0(F) hard or soft sectors- BRAND NEW £250.00(E) Femell G6/40Á Switch mode. 5v @ 40a.Encased £95.00(C)
COLOUR MONITORS SPECIAL OFFERS!! Femell G24/5S. As above but 24v @ 5a. £65.00(C)
Decca 16' 80 budget range colour monitor. Features a P1L tube, Dual 8- drives with 2 megabyte capadty housed in a smart case
beautiful teak style case and guaranteed 80 column resolution, with built in power supplyl Only £499.00 (F)
COOLING FANS -

features usually seen only on colour monitors costing 3 times Ideal as exterior drives' Please specify 110 or 240 volts for AC tans.
our price' Ready to connect to most computers or video outputs. End of line purchase scoop! Brand new NEC D2246 8' 85 3 inch AC. 112' thick £ 8.50(B)
75Q composite Input with Integral audio amp 8 speaker. Fully megabyte of hard disk storagel Full CPU control and Industry 312 inch AC ETRI slimline.Oniy 1' thick. £ 9.95(B)
tested surplus. sold In little or hardly used condition with 90 day standard SMDInterface. Ultra hi speed transfer and access time 4 inch AC 110/240v 112' thick. £10.95(B)
full RIB guarantee. deal for use with video recorder or our leaves the good old ST506 Interface standing. In mint condition 4inch AC 112' thick £ 9.95(B)
Telebox SI . and other audio visual uses. £99(E) 3/£775(G) and comes complete with manual. Only £399(E) 10 inch AC round. 312 thick. Rotron 110v £10.95(B)
HI-DEF1NIT1ON COLOUR MONITORS 10 inch As above but 230 volts £24.95(8)
MAINS SUPPRESSORS & FILTERS 62 mm DC 1' thidk.No.812 for 6/12v.814 24v. £15.95(A)
Brand new Centronic 14' monitor for IBM PC and compatibles
at a lower than ever pricel Completely CGA equivalent. Hi -res
Roxburgh SDC 021 2 amp mains RFI liter. Has an extrawide 80 mm DC 5 v. Papst 8105G 4w. 38mm. RFE. £19.95(A)
Mitsubushi 0.42 dot pitch giving 669 x 507 pixels. Big 28 Mhz frequency range of 150 khz to 30 mhz. Can type, solder lug 92 mm DC 12v. 18 mm thick. £14.95(A)
connection. Duality manufactured to RS 613 standards. Dims 4 inch DC 12v. 12w 112' thick £12.50(B)
bandwidth. A super monitor in attractive style moulded case.Futt 4 inch DC 24v 8w. 1' thick. £14.50(81
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i

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and at this price!' ONLY £69 (D)

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CIRCLE NO. I I.5 ON REPL1 CARD
CIRCUIT IDEAS

2 3 6 5 6 7 8
Busy
Clock Clock

Start

Comparator
SAR DAC Analogue o/p
Start J
Analogue Busy \f
i /p

DO -D7
Result 580 Result

Sample -and -infinite -hold


I needed a sample -and -hold circuit to "Logic Equation Section"
capture an analogue value and hold it DEFINE
without drifting for some hours. No sb6 = /d6'/d5'/d4'/d3'/d2'/d1'/d0,
sb5 = /d5'/d4'/d3'/d2'/d1'/d0,
charge -storage method can do this and sb4 = /d4'/d3'/d2'/d1'/d0,
an ADC driving a DAC with an input sb3 = /d3'/d2'/d1 'id0,
latch is expensive for more than eight sb2 = /d2 ' /d1 ' /d0,
sb1 = /d1 ' /d0,
hits. The successive -approximation sb0 = /d0;
type of ADC is constructed from a BEGIN
digital register and a DAC in a feed - ENABLE (d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, d6, d7, busy);
d7 = /start + ( ( d7 * cmp) ` (busy * Isb6) + d7' /(busy Isb6) );
hack loop: if the output of this DAC d6 = /start' S(d7' /d6 + d6 * cmp) ' (busy' IsbS + d6' /(busy Isb5) )
were available, then a separate DAC d5 = /start' l (d6'/d5 + d5 ' cmp) ' (busy' Isb4; + d5' /(busy Isb4)
would not he needed, thus reducing the d4 = /start * ( (d5'/d4 + d4' cmp) ' (busy' Isb3) + d4* /(busy ' Isb3)
d3 = /start ' ( (d4 ' /d3 + d3 ' cmp) ' (busy * Isb2) + d3' /(busy ' Isb2)
cost. Unfortunately. no ADC could he d2 = /start' ( (d3 `/d2 + d2' cmp) ' (busy' Isb1) + d2' /(busy' Isb1)
found with this feature, so I decided to dl = /start' ( (d2' /d1 + dl ' cmp) ' (busy * IsbO) + d1' /(busy' IsbO)
build an ADC using a successive dO = /start * ( (d1 * /d0 + dO ' cmp) ' (busy ) + d0' /(busy )

approximation register (SAR) and a busy = start + busy ' /d0;


END.
DAC formed from a simple R/2R
network. The resulting device is shown
in the block diagram.
2R 2R
Referring to the timing diagram, the
SAR is first synchronously reset to
1000,0000 by holding the START input Vc, 2R

high, whilst applying a positive clock


edge, which also sets the BUSY output
high. A -to -D conversion process begins
Clock

Start - - Do
2R

when START returns low. The PAL


2R
R SIL
1000,(000 output is converted to ana- Analogue 22V 10 network
i/p
logue and compared with the input CMP 2R R

signal in the comparator, the result of


the comparison being fed to the CMP 2R

input of the SAR. On the next clock


D7
edge, the SAR outputs a one in hit 6, 2R

and the result of the comparison in hit


7. The new output is therefore 2R

1100,00(1 or 0100,000(1, which is con-


Busy
verted to analogue, and the process Analogue o/p
continues. With each clock pulse, the
SAR 'homes in' on the result; after the
8th clock pulse the BUSY output goes from the analogue output to the input test hit is shifted up the register using
low and the conversion is complete. effectively removes these. Long-term the rule that 'if this bit and all the lower
The SAR now holds the converted drift of the PAL output voltages limits bits are zero, and the next higher hit is
value, and the output of the DAC is the number of hits that can usefully he one, then make this hit a one'. Results
equal to the analogue input voltage. used for very long holding periods. are latched using the rule that 'if this hit
The practical circuit uses a 22V10 R/2R networks are available in SIL is a one. and all the lower hits are zero.
PAL device for the SAR and an R/2R packages, but if you build your own, then latch the result into this bit'. The
SIL network for the DAC. The R/2R note the value of the grounded resistor tricky part is to define what happens to
network does not have to he particu- - it is 2R, not R. the registers when no change is
larly accurate, since the digital output The table shows a listing of the logic required. This is the function of the last
is not used externally; the digital code equations used to program the PAL. `feedback' clause on each line.
will suffer from errors due to resistor This has been simplified from the David Gibson
tolerances and saturation voltages at original, which included pins to enable Leeds
the PAL outputs, but the feedback devices to he cascaded to 16 bits. The Yorkshire

1076 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


EPROM PROGRAMMERS Many Radio -Amateurs and SWLS are puzzled.
MODEL 200 - £295 (other models from £195) Just what are all those strange signals you can
Includes MSDOS driver software, serial
(277(17/,9
hear but not identify on the I.f. and h.f.
cable, comprehensive manual, 32 pin
frequencies? A few of them,. such as c:w.,
RTTY, and Packet you'll know - but what
ZIF socket and universal object file
editor/converter.
Programs virtually all EPROM devices
currently available including micro - . ' aboút the many other signals?
a

controllers (nearly 600!(.


Emulation capability with our E512 or
the Greenwich Instrument emulators. Hoka Electronics have the answer! There are some well
Easy to set up- not a plug in board. known CW/RTTY decoders with limited facilities and high
12 Month Guarantee. Money back if
not completely satisfied.
prices, complete with expensive PROMS for upgrading, etc.,
Designed, manufactured and supported but then there is Code 3 from Hoka Electronic!
in the UK. It's up to you to make your choice- but it will be easy once
you know more about Code 3.
Z8 ADAPTER PIC 16C5x ADAPTER
FOR MODEL 200
Programs Zllog and SGS parts
FOR MODEL 200
Available for DIL or SOIL parts ICode 3 works on any IEM-compatible computer with MS-
All Security Functions Programmable Manufacturer approved algorithms
DOS having at least 640kB of RAM.
£75 From £75 Code 3 hardware includes a complete digital FSK Converter
Increasingly popular 8 bit microcomputer avail. The 16C54/7 is a range of low cost, low power,
able in CMOS versions. high speed microcontrollers ideally suited to with built-in 230b ac power supply and RS232 cable, ready to
low or high volume developments
use. You'll also get the best software ever made to decode all
kinds of data transmissions. Code 3 is the most sophisticated
8 PIN SERIAL EEPROM ADAPTER Adapters available also include
FOR MODEL 200 8748/41 family
decoder available, and the best news of all is that it only costs
£75
Reads & programs over 50 devices 8751 family E75 £249 plus VAT!
12C (M8571, X2402(, 9306, 2506 etc. 40 pin EPROMs up to 4 Mbit £75
£75 63701/5 from £75 IThe following modes are included in the base -program (with
As used for security devices in many car radios, 32 pin PLCC EPROMs £85 the exact protocols).
mobile radios, cellular phones & security 647180 £125
systems. Other families in development - please enquire. Packet Radio AX 25, 50 to 1200 Bd ARO: CCIR 476. CCIR 625 mode A

Hell: Synchronous asynchronous, all speeds ARO -6. spec. ARO -version
Fax: Weather charts, photographs wi:h 16 grey ARO -S ARO 10005
We also sell Bipolar and Gang Programmers, EPROM Emulators and
Erasers and a universal cross -assembler for IBM PCs and compatibles. scales at 60.90. 120. 180.240 rpm ARO-Swe: CCIR 518 variant
Morse. Automatic and Manual with speed ARO -E. ARO 1000, ITA 2-p Duplex
indication ARO -N: ITA 2 Duplex
Write or phone today for Free Information Pack Press OPA Fib spec.. 300 Bd ASCII ARO -E3. CCIR 519 ITA 3

Tel: (0666) 825146 Fax: (0666) 825141 Wirtschaftdienst: F7b spec.. 300 Bd ASCII AR0-6: 5 6 character 90 and 98
Sport Information: F7b spec., 300 Bd ASCII POl-ARO spec. ARO -variant
Ír,~) MQP ELECTRONICS, PARK ROAD CENTRE
llll, Autospec Bauer: ITA 2 including 3 modes TDM 242: CCIR 242 2,4 channels

m MALMESBURY, WILTSHIRE, SN16 OBX UK


Norwegian customers please contact:
Digitron A/S,
Norway
Phone number: 071-45 890
Fax number: 071-45 453
SPREAD 11, 21 and SPREAD 51
Duple: ARO
TWINFLEX F7b1
ASCII ITA 5
Artac
...
1TA 2
F7b6 Duplex ARO
all speeds, parity
TOM 342: CCIR

FEC Sel-FEC CCIR


Amtor
342 2 4 channels
FEC-A FEC 100141 ITA2-P FEC Broadcast
625 476-4 mode B Sitor

Baudat. ITA 2 plus all types of Bit inversion, at FEC-S FEC 1000S ITA 3
any speed
CIRCLE NO. 116 ON REPLY CARD
SITOR Automatic Mode A and B ARO and FEC

All modes in preset and variable user -defined speedrates


and shifts.
IN VIEW OF THE EXTREMELY IThree options are available to use with the Code 3 and
RAPID CHANGE TAKING PLACE consist of:
1: OSCILLOSCOPE, this facility displays the measured
IN THE ELECTRONICS frequency versus time, including split-screen, storage and
INDUSTRY, LARGE QUANTITIES non -storage modes at £25.
2: PICCOLO MK VI (Everybody wants this facility, but it's only
OF COMPONENTS BECOME on offer from Hoka), the well-known multitone-mode at £60.
REDUNDANT. WE ARE CASH 3: LONG-TIME AUTO -STORAGE in ASCII (up to several days)
£25.
PURCHASERS OF SUCH
I Plus many other special codes. Send for details, price on
MATERIALS AND WOULD I application.
APPRECIATE A TELEPHONE Along with the many facilities listed, the analysis section of
the Code 3 offers you a wide choice of unique facilities such
CALL OR A LIST IF AVAILABLE. as: a built-in low frequency spectrum -analyser for shift
measurement and tuning, plus precision speed
WE PAY TOP PRICES AND measurement up to 0.001 Baud resolution. Other tool -
facilities include Speed Bit analysis, Speed Measurement,
COLLECT. I Character Analysis, Auto -correlation of MOD and RAW
signal, Bit Analysis. Al. these state-of-the-art features are

R. Henson Ltd included in Code 3 to assist the experienced user.


All options are available from the main menu, saving or
loading to or from hard or floppy disk in Bit form (no loss of
unknown signals), hard copy with printer, on -screen tuning
21 Lodge Lane, N. Finchley, indicator and very easy to use Help -files.
London, N12 8JG. To order, phone us for more details or send cheque,
payable to:
5 mins from Tally Ho Corner HOKA Electronics- HOKA UK
Feiko Clockstr. 31 84 Churchstreet
NL-9665 BB Oude Pekela Langford, Biggleswade,
Telephone: The Netherlands
Tel: 010-31-5978-12327
SG18 9QA, Beds
Tel: 0462-700644
081-445 2713/0749 Fax: 01011-5978-12645
Please specify disk size 31 or 51/4" when ordering!
All prices ex. VAT and shipping, but including 6 month software
updating free of charge!

CIRCLE NO. I I/ ON REPLY CARD CIRCI F NO. I I8 ON REPLY CARD

December 1990 ELECTRONICS ``WORLD+WIRELESS WORLD 1(177


CIRCUIT IDEAS

Digital milliohmeter
Ordinary 3.5 -digit ntultimeters do not sured voltage drop is 36mv then Rs V
have the resolution needed to measure would equal 3(mi12
very low resistance values; conse- The LM350K is an adjustable posi-
quently, a DMM will not measure tive voltage regulator capable of sup-
anything under lit with any degree of plying 3A over a 1.2 to 33V output
accuracy. range. Its output is the voltage of the 555 with less than
When an unknown value resistor Rs adjustment terminal plus I.2V; if the
is connected between the output of the adjustment terminal is grounded the 1:1 M/S ratio
op -amp and the inverting input, the device will act as a 1.2V regulator. In the arrangement shown, a 555 will
negative feedback holds the inverting A current of IA is pumped through operate as an astable multivibrator
input at 0V or virtual ground. Since Rr Rs by the LM35OK and is sensed by Rs, with less than 50% duty cycle.
has a fixed voltage of 2V across it, the a 2.499 resistor. With IA flowing
current through Rr is constant and through Rs, a voltage drop of 2.49V
tlows through Rs to give an output will appear at the inverting input of an
voltage which is sent to the succeeding LM30IA op -amp, which is configured
A -to -I) converter. Obviously, this cur- as a I)C error amplifier, the 2.5V
rent is too small to produce an apreci- reference voltage at pin 3 being pro-
able voltage drop across an Rs of less vided by an LM385Z-2.5 precision
than 19. reference. Since the op -amp, regulator
A solution to this problem is to pump and Rs comprise a negative -feedback
a relatively large current through Rs control system, the voltage at the
and to use a I)VM to measure the inverting input of the LM30I A is equal
voltage drop across it. In this design, to Vrcr. Therefore, 2.5 volts will be
current of IA was chosen to avoid maintained across Rs, forcing IA of The high -output state is timed by
conversion factor; readings are in current to flow through RN. The max- R1C1, while R,C2 time the low state.
direct units. For example, if the mea - imum size of Rs is limited by the To gate the output, return Rr to a
LM350K's output voltage minus 2.5V. gating signal instead of the supply line.
A IN4148 diode is used to clip any It pin 4 is connected to the supply, pin 3
negative voltage from the op -amp. The remains high when the gating signal is
LM35OK is required only to provide A I low, first going low at the end of the
and the power dissipated by Rs is only first RIC, period. If it is connected to
FI To scaling
-2V and/or A -to -D 2.49 watts. yet I used a 20 watt resistor. the gating signal, pin 3 stays low when
converter These components were deliberately the gate is low.
200k
oversized so that very little thermal D. 13 ridge n
drift would occur. Santiago
200k FET input
OP amp
Mike McGlinchy Chile
Los Altos
California
USA

F 2A V,,,
LM350K
1
+J
FWBR
LM7815T ADJ
130n
t/4 W 5%
DVM
-._ 470171
NF
35V 33pF 470k
1/4 W 5%
25.2VCT 2
2A
R.S. 273-1512 4700NF LM301A
4 amp '35V IN4148=
\4 + 2.49_n_ 1%
100P.I.V. 20 W
LM3852
0 -2.5
LM7915T

1078 ELECTRONICS \\ORl t) +'4IRELESS \1ORLD December 1990


top quality
A 20MHz
oscilloscope forá27C?
This specia offer, only available through Electronics World +
Wireless World, represents unbelievable value.
We have assured ourelves that tie Model To place you- order please send in a Oscillcscope offer, Room L333,
1021 oscilloEcppe from Japanese cheque or £310.50 (which includes VAT) to Electron es World + Wireless Worlc,
instrarneit rranufacturer, Leader the adcness shown. Alternatively complete Quadrant House,
Electroni_s,rnore than meets its published the capon with your credit card details or The Quadrant,
c
specificaionand is an exceptionally high phone r you' credit card order on 081-661 Suttor SM2 5AS
build guilty. a-
judgement is tacked oy 3614 (mornings only).
an unegLivoca guarantee.
A: £2:0 ii iclusive of test propes,
packagrr and celivey but excluding v.4T) LEADER OSCILLOSCOPE 1021 ORDER FORM
the iistrunent is an absolute bargain. P33se send me the special offer instrumer t

enclose a cheque for £310.50 (inc VAT)


20 MHz cual charnel operat on payable tc Reed Business Publishing Group

Variable trigger hcld-off


5m\'/jiv "11Y2 sensitivity at 20M1-z El 'lease debit my credit card .-
1 mV/div "1/Y2 x 3ma 7M-Iz E (pin, data I

200-1s/div b 0.2s/div sweep rate >c:es5 Visa American Express D ners Club
DC to 5001c1-1z X tandvvicRh
T3 :he sum of £310.50
X/Y ooeratiPn using Y channel6
X/Y piase shft <3° at 20k1-té Na nc. Mi. Ms (with Initials)
á cn x 1G cn display area Adiress.
.^,alibratio-) accuracy better Can 3%
1kFtziintefra. calibrator Scta:ure
Epecibl video sigral trigger msdes
Rise-tme <17.5rs

.
Graticule :Ilamination
111,11.-
Two r 10p-cbe kts indudec
Uneqivocal guarntee
o
- nruolv

.,yt
, i,+,t

,o

;-t

,
jIRTRiA-
a+r
t vaTLDIV ,

e
v't w
a.or ,

'd. a °

J1 tiw

r7.N 11
ilk!"
/ Yjw
iiff illy

J
P`' -*--
111711'7 /
/ -"""***1:-

; l'I, ¿i.117»1 .1' iiil ü


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Digital signal processor one wait state operation at 12.5MHz.

ACTIVE Pythagoras processor. PDSP16330


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Landmark speeds are 15.9MHz at
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Magnitude output may be scaled by 2, Delay timer. The 74HC/HCT5555 Twist -to -flat cable. Colour -coded
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recently launched CLA 70000 family of 4 or 8 and phase output represents a cmos timer and oscillator provides
full 2 x n field. Three state output and stable, programmable, delay periods standard 0.050 -in insulation
0.8µ channel -less cmos gate arrays displacement connectors (IDCs). 28
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offer 4900 to 256 000 total gates in AWG gauge wire with 7/36 stranded
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nine different array sizes. 70%
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retriggerable monostable, a power -on insulation. 0.007in laminated film
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increases this to 90%. Up to 256 000 stability. Twisted lengths of 18in
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Signetics Company, (408) 991 2000.
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5V array with less than 5µW per Linear integrated circuits
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1 Mbit eprom 7Ons. The CAT27HC010
delays around 420ps (NAND2 Fanout- is a dual 12 -bit, four -quadrant, IC sockets. AMP DIP socket
2). GEC Plessey Semiconductors, multiplying unit with output settling to access times are 70/90120ns.
Operating from a single 5V supply connectors, in either standard or low
0793 518000. 0.01% of full scale within 0.4µs typical, force options, are available in 6-40
0.8µs maximum. High speed digital (read mode), it consunes 80mA active
positions. All standard insertion
Discrete active devices latches. Burr -Brown International Ltd, and 1 mA on standby. High speed
sockets have dual wipe selectively
0252 510054. programming is 100µs/byte using
Mobile corns transistors. Siemens plated contacts in UL 94 V-0 rated
12.5V and the quick pulse algorithm.
BFP180 series silicon RF transistors polyester housings. Suitable for high
Power packed butter amp. The MMD Ltd, 0734 313232.
are suitable for DECT and PCN board densities. Gothic Crellon Ltd,
applications, and are available in both Elantec EL2009 provides continuous 0734 788878.
output currents of over 1.0A into a 1011 Sram. The CXK7701 J Mbit cmos
1
SOT23 and SOT143 configurations.
load, at 90MHz. The 3dB bandwidth high-speed latched cache sram, is
BFP181 has a transition frequency of
optimised for use with Intel's 82385 Displays
7GHz, and a noise figure of 1.2dB associated with a 5012 load is 125MHz.
Applications include video distribution cache controller for 20, 25 and 33MHz DPM module. The MDM350 with
measured at 800MHz. Maximum
amplifier, fast op -amp booster, flash 80386 devices. Access times are 30 ±199.9mV full scale and optional
collector current is 20mA. Figures for scaling has auto -zero, auto-polarity
A -to -D converter buffer or motor driver. (J-30), 35 (J-35) and 45ns (J-45) and
BFP183 are 8GHz, 1.2dB and 65mA.
Microelectronics Technology, 0844 output enable times 10, 13 and 16ns. and over-range indication; single -
Siemens plc, 0932 752320.
278781. Housed in a 52 -pin plastic leaded chip ended, differential or floating
carrier (PLCC). 5V supply. Sony measurements; digital display hold and
High -current complementary a high stability bandgap reference. A
transistors. With a current rating of A 1 Logic building blocks Europe GmbH, 0784 466660.
multi -turn scale control provides for
continuous, the PNP FMMT551 and AT chip set. METL has released
NPN FMMT451 transistors can UMC's Mortar chip set for building a
Optical devices readouts in engineering units. Martel
Fixed optical attenuators. LCS- Instruments Ltd, 0207 290266.
dissipate 425mW at 25°C. Current gain PC AT from three VLSI devices, eight
for both devices is typically 50 at A logic components, memory and PATC series with m pigtails allows
1

collector current, rising to 100 at


1

processor. 4Mbyte of on -board connection of a variety of connectors. Hardware

:
150mA. Saturation voltages are 0.35V memory supported using standard The compact in -line single/multimode Four-module din controls. A
(PNP) and 0.25V (NPN) at 500mA 8Ons drams for zero wait state products are designed for use with D4; standard version three- or four-way
collector. Zetex plc, 061 627 4963. FC and FC/PC; ST and ST/PC; multisocket Dis-board with integral DIN
operation at 12MHz. 120ns drams for
SMA905 and SMA906 connectors. The 43 880 housing will accept any
LCS-BUD series are configured into a standard DIN rail mounting module up
Cartesian-to-magnitude/phase processor, the POSP16330 from Plessey. bulkhead adaptor design with either to four modules wide. Aphel Ltd, 0788
. _ FC, ST or d4 bulkhead adaptors. Fibre 832488.
or/ Optech Ltd, 0767 600800.
SM plastic chip carriers. The surface

I y h 1, 71.-1 1.
a a
J 1
i4 a 1
a a ii ! Passive components
mount chip carrier socket accepts post-
moulded plastic chip carriers

:`-
Ai. w
conforming to Jedec specification MO -

ylI
Resistor networks for dram
Is r ü damping. The 4800P range of 047. The sockets offer a protective
1
;!.`* ,.-i
package in both through -board and

t`L
=
'j Tf'1-F'i s
,,¡,
surface -mount resistor networks now
includes 20-pin and dual -terminator surface -mount configurations for

`
' vapour -phase soldering. High-
`r' 'z -
1 - versions available with gull -wing leads
'; R. for easy mounting on 8.9mm wide land pressure contact eliminates gold
plating. Methode Electronics,
patters. Tape -and -reel or tube
R packaging. Bourns Electronics Ltd,
- Backplanes for VME-bus and STE-
0276 692392.
bus. These backplanes are supported
Cermet trimmers. The 12 -turn by ancillary components including
Mepcopal 8026 series industrial-type termination networks and extender
0.25in square trimmers have cermet cards. Reliable maintenance even
resistance elements with infinite under full loading is claimed through
multilayer construction. Noise -critical

#
resolution. Sealed aga nst moisture in
a vibration proof housing. Meets AC
lines are fully surrounded by screening.
and HF requirements of MIL R-22097 Press-fit technology employed. Sub
and MIL-R-39035. Greenwood Rack System Products, 0279 418401.

r§tr#
k #i
'
Electronics, 0734 595843.

Ceramic capacitors. Class 1 JKE


capacitors, available from to 680pF,
1
Instrumentation
R9211 C FFT analyser. Servo -analysis
functions include curve fit and
promise accurate temperature frequency -response synthesis. The
compensation. Working voltages up to instrument uses swept sine sweep to
3kV in five steps. The disc -type achieve an inter -channel amplitude
capacitors' temperature coefficients difference of ±0.1 dB and a phase
range from 0±60ppmIC (NPO difference of ± 1.0°. Internal summing

11: 0>J
dielectric types) to -750±120 (N750).
Young Electronic Services, 06285
31417.
amplifier and a servo -measurement
function with frequency table included.
Advantest, 081 336 1606.

1080 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 19911


NEW PRODUCTS CLASSIFIED

Cigarette pack sized converter. The boards and assemblies. High point
PWR-82400 triple output DC/DC forces will penetrate any patina build-
converters (3.2 x 2.4 x 0.6in) operate up around the test pads during field
over -55°C to +125°C, supply 5W, use. 0.25 and 0.4 -in probe travel sizes:
and give a power density of 19.4W/in3. interchangeable in the same industry
The series has been expressly standard socket configuration. Teknis
omCio:7-1 designed not to derate to zero at Ltd, 0344 780022.

L_ azoco 1 maximum temperature. ILC Data


Device Corporation, 0635 40158. Radio communications
products
Lithium round cells. Varta's high
ATE for RF receivers. Carston
capacity manganese dioxide round
Electronics' HP 8642B, with
cells, of bobbin construction, are
highstability time base option, is
® t t t

ATT.
1 t
..,~No ..
k
1
designed for low rate discharge. Laser
welded sealing for a ten year seal life.
programmable via HP-IB (IEEE 488),

-1 G_
Operating range is -30 to +75°C with
short term excursions to -40 to
+85°C. Varta Ltd, 0460 72320.
and allows testing to be fully
automated. The 8642B ranges from
100kHz to 2.1 15GHz and provides
SSB phase noise at 20kHz offsets of
-13dBc/Hz at 1GHz. Carston
Advantest R9211C FFT servo analyser.
Production test Electronics, 081 943 4477.
equipment
Alternating voltage calibration. Interfaces Interceptor for board testing. Transducers and
Model 4920 alternating voltage Keyboard for medical system. A Interceptor runs on IBM compatibles to sensors
measurement standard can measure membrane keyboard has been troubleshoot on linear or digital ICs and Precision pressure transmitter. The
signals from 1Hz to 1.25MHz with total introduced, designed for advanced other types of components including BL flush diaphragm pressure
uncertainties to ±28ppm in stand- ultrasound medical systems. It capacitors and wound components. transmitter is a two -wire component
alone measurement mode, ±14ppm in combines both membrane and electro - DCA Technology, 0730 60699. receiving excitation voltage and
AC/DC transfer mode (one year ± 5°C). luminescent technology, w th transmitting current output over the
Datron Instruments Ltd, 0603 404824. embossed polyester overlays, Three point approach to testing. The same pair of cables. Signal output is
polyester tactile domes and RFI QA XX08 three needle point. spring the standard 4 to 20mA into 0 to 20001!
VME-bus analyser. Vbat board, shielding. Dart Electronic Controls, loaded test probes are designed for loop resistance. Control Transducers,
plugged into any VME system, can 0296 24478. diagnostics of returned printed circuit 0234 217704.
continuously monitor all bus traffic,
screening for protocol violations. It VME-bus and STE-bus backpaees from Sub Rack System Products.
allows designers of VME boards to Production equipment
check compliance and provides simple
Durable protective wrist strap. The
debugging.
Charge Guard 2240, a Speidel "Twist -
0 -Flex" metal expansion band, has an
Temperature and humidity insulating capped exterior to overcome
indicator. Operating from a standard fear of burn or shock associated with
9V battery, the Model 525 lightweight
non -insulated metal bands and
portable instrument provides
jewellery. Spring -loaded snap system
temperature and humidity readings via
holds the ground cord securely. 3M
a single LCD display. Detachable f

Static Control Systems, 0234 268868. -_-


sensor connected by 1m coiled cable.
Range +10 to +140°C. Relative
humidity from 2 to 98%. Hartley
Measurements,
Power supplies
Pluggable switched mode supply.
Multi -channel recorder. The M2000 The PK120 Trivolt supply offers 5V at
r --YI'-
`
_
records most engineering parameters 12A and ±12 to 15V at 2A. Packaging
in real time or individual signal storage. is either a 3U, 14HP cassette module
or a 6U, 8HP cassette for uses in (ir
The recorder uses digital print
techniques on to low cost thermal systems based around either single or
paper. Interfaces with analogue input double Eurocard sizes. cla med
signals through individual conditioning efficiencies >75%. BICC-Vero
channels which will operate with most Electronics Ltd, 0703 266300.
sensors. Sensor excitation supplies
are included. Micro Movements Ltd,
Tele -Products test-signal generator has two independent oscillators.
0734 730200.
Silicon pressure sensor. The
Time to voltage converter. The TVC MPX5100D is a 0-15psi, signal -
+Flr-rwnOucTs LTD
501 converter measures pulse width, conditioned output sensor integrating
I

pulse periods and signal -to -signal the sensing element, offset calibration,
delays. Time -interval measurement is 79-5 TEST STGNAL
GENERATOR I." 2_5_4 temperature compensation circuitry
instantaneously converted to voltage. and signal amplification on a monolithic
The resulting waveform can be viewed silicon chip. It is said to be the first
real-time on any oscilloscope. It will rail -to -rail integrated pressure sensor.
convert up to 2.5million consecutive Output scalef ácalibrated from 0.5V to
timing measurements per second. 4.5V. Motorola Inc, 0101 602 952
Tektronix UK Ltd, 06284 6000. 3856.
Test signal generator. The TSG has Miniature loadcell. Model 31
two independent oscillators, A,
miniature loadcell's tripled stack design
continuously variable via the front
panel. A frequency and level meter ` LE JP: eliminates off -axis loading and false
load measurements. Welded stainless
Gc
ensure these are set up accurately. steel construction. Typical diameter is
There is a pulse generator section, 19mm. Mechanical overload stops,
where the mark and space time can be precision calibration to 0.15%
set. Overall length of pulses is also stabilising diaphragms and pressure
selectable. Tele -Products Ltd, 0904 compensation included. RDP
659583. Electronics, 0902 57512.

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD+ WIRELESS WORLD 1081


NEW PRODUCTS CLASSIFIED

CX-1000 Rotary Engine Test Results.


COMPUTER GEAR
2'3
RATIO
1:1 3:2 f
2oo
9:1

1:3 1:2
Computer board level
Computer -aided design products
Microwave design system. 10000
Digital I/O card.CIO -DIO 48 low-cost 8000
Microwave Musician handles front -to -
high density board (for PC/XT/AT5) is
back design of monolithic microwave e. 00
an enhanced compatible equivalent of
circuits and hybrid devices. Schematic
the Metrabyte PIO 12/PIO 24. It is
óV41puT 00
capture, libraries, simulator interfaces lW attal 2p00
actually is one PIO 12 and one PIO 24
and microwave -specific layout and
together on one half length card.
physical verification tools included.
Amplicon Liveline Ltd, 0273 608331. 20pO
Libraries of theoretical or ideal
microwave components, and foundry 4c00
Fast series das boards. The Fast
components are available. Cadence
Design Systems, 0628 826821.
series high speed, precision, analogue `3pPENIa .soto
input boards for IBM PC/AT l e000
compatibles offers speeds from 14 -bit,
PCB design. A suite of cad/cam tools
1 and 2MHz, to 16 -bit 1MHz and Version 6.0 of D1.3000 graphic programming tool from Precision Visuals.
for electronics engineers from Excitech
complements the existing 12 -bit
is made up of four programs under the
name Satcam; schematic capture,
boards. Four differential input channels Multiplexer for Unix systems. Software
with software programmable ranges Designed to turn standard 386 or 486 Asic design goes Solo. ES2's PC
circuit board layout, post processing, AT compatibles into a high
and four -channel simultaneous sample version of its Solo 1400 v3.0 software
and a database containing symbols
and hold. Optional memory for on- performance multiuser Unix or Xenix has most of its capabilities but runs on
and packaging information. Autocad
board storage. Consort Electronics, system, the PC01 is the first 16 -line IBM -AT compatibles. It has a 32 -bit
drawing editor. Excitech Computers,
0252 871717. multiplexer board supporting speeds of Definicon coprocessor card. Chips can
0635 66767. 38.4kps on all lines with minimal host be designed for manufacture by ES2 in
Signal conditioning modules. The degradation. Emulex Ltd, 0734 either 1.7 or 1.11,m c-mos. The library
Circuit synthesis program. PCLD-770 links industrial sensors to 772929.
RFSynthesist from Ingsoft runs on the includes basic cells, macro cells, I/O
PC data acquisition cards. Carrier cells, 74 series equivalents, analogue
Macintosh. Calculations included are
board includes a cold junction sensor, cells, and compiled megacells of rom,
filter synthesis, transmission line
characteristics from physical
multiplexer and screw terminals. Eight Development and ram and PLA. ES2, 0344 525252.
dimensions, synthesis of microstrip
DIN sockets mate with separate signal evaluation
conditioning modules. Breadboard
lines, and coupled transmission line Z80 debugger. The SourceZ80
module available. Ten PCLD-770s can Fast file finder for PCs. Fleetfinder
characteristics in stripline and supports the IAR/Archimedes C
be linked to one PC card, providing 80 combines hardware and software to
microstrip configurations. Use alone or compiler and Ashling's CT series of
differential inputs from one PC slot. quickly locate a file. It uses direct
with RFDesigner. Ingsoft, 010 1 416 in -circuit emulators. It includes
Fairchild Ltd, 042121 6527. memory access to scan a hard disk
730 9611. automatic synchronisation of source
looking for selected words and is faster
code and disassembled code windows,
Layout software packages. Stand-
Data communications evaluation of the addresses and offsets
than a software only search. Fleetwood
alone layout packages provide the products of all system variables, and
Systems, 0829 40552.
interface between Pads -PCB and Vehicle identification system. The continuously updated variables
electronic and mechanical cad and cae two -digit encoder will send a 190ms display. Ashling Microsystems, 0628 Enhanced windows connection.
packages, available for five on -way DTMF burst at the end of each over 773070. Concurrent access to applications
Pads -PCB interfaces, three two-way with a unique identity. Operates on any residing on large computers and
interfaces and four general purpose two-way radio system. CDS Ltd, 0256 personal computers running in a
converters. Lloyd Doyle, 0932 245000. 83528. 8 -bitdevelopment system. The graphical operating system is possible
teletest 8 8 -bit system from Hitex is with Windows Connection Version 2.0.
Sensor conditioning modules in carrier from Fairchild. configurable for most major It integrates host sessions and
microprocessors (determined by a workstation applications running in the
replaceable personality card and Microsoft's Windows 3 environment,
outboard processor cable). Real-time giving users easy -to -use graphical
emulation with eight hardware triggers, interface. Supports IBM Application
on -the -fly retrieval of external program System/400 (AS/400). IBM UK Ltd,
variables and 8k cycles by 72 -bit 0705 321212.
tracing. Optional Mbyte of emulation
1

memory. Hitek (UK) Ltd, 0203 692066. Bus monitor. The GPIB-410 is the
enhanced IEEE488 GPIB bus monitor
and analyser package, main
16MHz in -circuit emulator. The improvement being that it can capture
EB78320 Mini IE, supports the data in background. In foreground
uPD78320/322 microcontroller family mode, it can dynamically update its
at 16MHz. Designed for use with a host capture butter display. Users can see
PC, the package includes a full -screen most recent bus transactions as they
debugger, 64kbytes of user ram and an occur. Analysis and editing features
optional real-time trace board. NEC include detailed device addressing
Electronics, 0908 691133. information, fixed cursor positioning,
and store data butter retrieval from
disc. National Instruments, 0635
Mass storage devices 523545.

. Rewritable optical drive. The


RS9200E/2 is a 650Mbyte optical disk
drive, using standard 5.25-in optical
cartridges, writes at 150kbyte/s and
reads at 450kbyte/s. It is aimed at
Graphics programming tools.
Versions 6.0 of the DI -3000 and DI -
3000 XPM graphics programming tools
for Unix promise increases in
memory -hungry applications. application development productivity
Magneto -optic media can handle over through more than 100 new customer -
10million write/erase cycles. 25 -year requested enhancements and
life. Data Peripherals (UK) Ltd, 0785 features. Precision Visuals, 0895
57050. 35131.

10/12 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD December 1990


HITACHI "Compact" series laboratory oscilloscopes

-
l- --r-- i
t
r
,
}----
l t

--i
-..
V

';.
C-5:5
law,ºt---5
MQó :
%_.

At..
This best-selling Hitachi lab. 'scope is exceptionally compact
and lightweight but is packed with features:

60MHz or 100MHz B/W


Dual Timebases
Two or four channels
Cursor readout models
DSO versions available
Prices from £855

There are seven models to choose from. Our sales engineers


y can provide on -site demonstration and immediate delivery.
11
Ask for more details:

t -~frer.tin4G.........tr
Thurlby
Thurlby-Thandar Ltd., Glebe Road, Huntingdon, Cambs. Tel: (0480) 412451

Serial Data Protocol Analysis from £79


The Thurlby DA100 is a very low cost protocol analyser for
solving problems with asynchronous serial data systems,
particularly RS -232.
provides baud rate analysis, data word format analysis, data
It
monitoring, triggered data capturing, and test data generation.
The DA100 uses a standard oscilloscope as its display device,
connecting to it via a single cable. Alternatively an optional LCD
display device can be fitted. An optional RS -232 breakout -box is
also available. Contact us now for full technical details:

Thurlby s._1,.3.

Thurlby-Thandar Ltd., Glebe Road, Huntingdon, Cambs. Tel: (0480) 412451

CIRCLE NO. 119 ON REPLY CARD

7-Full featurr ed
-°,5111111
°-'Quickroute Professional 1.2
II

P /Circuit CAD £4
-
Custom metalwork
good and quick!
(r-,_-771-j-J7A1
Improved simple but FAST built in auto -
9r-M1
router (rats -nest input)
Print/Plot/Display in ANY SCALE metric or
imperial. Now with even faster redraw.
' Powerful symbol manipulation (PCB and
circuit libraries supplied), block *4;+
commands, pull down menus, icons etc ++.
Dot matrix and HPGL plotter drivers give
very high quality professional output.
Plus wide range of off -the -shelf products
a
For all IBM PC/XT/AT Compatibles with including:
CGA/EGA/VGA/Hercu es graphics. Nine sizes of standard 19" rack cases
New "clam" case in any depth
Eight -card 1 J Eurocard case
Audio, video and data patch panels
Quickroute Professional £79, Quickroute Rack blanking and ventilation panels
Experimenter £59 (no auto -route), All use the unique IPK extrusion, giving strength
Quickroute Starter Pack £49 (dot matrix and rigidity with no fixing screws in the front
output only). All prices include P+P, etc.. panel; cases can be tailored to your requirements.
Rack mounting strips, cable trays etc. from stock.
Write now to POWERware, 14 Ley Lane,
Marple Bridge, Stockport SK6 5DD. P IPK Broadcast Systems
3 Da -win Close Reading Berks RG2 OTB
1 aoocsi s. S Tel: t0734) 311030 Fax: (0734) 313836

CIRCLE NO. 121 ON REPLY CARD CIRCLE NO. 120 ON REPLY CARD

December 1990 ELECTRONICS WORLD + WIRELESS WORLD 1083


AUDIO DESIGN

B. and to a lesser
lass
extent class A13, amplifiers
are notorious for the gen-
eration of switching or
crossover distortion at high
frequencies. related to the switching
Distorting
power
speed of their push-pull output stages.
These distortions are present as a spray
of high -frequency harmonics and much
effort has been expended by designers
in reducing or eliminating these audibly
objectionable distortions.

supplies
While some manufacturers espouse
the need for pure class A operation in
their promotional literature, others
have concentrated on reducing the
levels through the use of class AB,
higher speed devices such as mosfets
and innovative circuit techniques.
Here. I wish to draw attention to The first term constitutes a DC level
another, often overlooked, source of a
When is crossover shift due to the single -sided current
similar type of distortion which is distortion not being drawn from each power supply.
Remaining terms are harmonically
generated as a result of the class 13
amplifier's interaction with the power crossover distortion? related and compose the half -wave -
supply impedance and which could rectified supply -current waveforms, the
easily he mistaken for crossover distor-
When it comes from coefficients of each representing its
tion when observed in the residual
distortion waveform.
the power supply, level as part of the waveform makeup.

R. L. says Greg Ball Supply impedance


interaction
A typical capacitor -smoothed power
supply with wiring and fuses could have
;upply-current waveforms shown for a supply impedance as seen at the
3-Ií_ and -It.. These half -wave -rectified amplifier module of Z, which is fre-
current waveforms are shifted in phase quency-dependent, as shown in Fig. 2.